Requirements Engineering

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1 Murali Chemuturi Requirements Engineering and Management for Software Development Projects Foreword by Tom Gilb ^ Springer

2 Contents 1 Introduction to Requirements Engineering and Management What is a "Requirement" Requirements Management Requirements Management Scenarios Agencies Responsible for Managing Requirements Approaches to Requirements Management Requirements Engineering Topics Proposed to be Covered in this Book 10 2 Understanding Requirements Classification of Requirements Classification of Requirements Based on Functionality Considerations Classification of Requirements Based on Product Construction Considerations Classification of Requirements Based on Source of Requirements Levels of Requirements Definition of Requirements in the Context of Software Development Evolution of Requirements 25 3 Elicitation and Gathering of Requirements Introduction Elicitation of Requirements Personal Interviews Customer/Market Surveys Questionnaires Observation Demonstration of Product Prototypes 42 xi

3 xii Contents Product Demonstrations Brainstorming Gathering Requirements Elicitation and Gathering in Agile Projects Elicitation and Gathering in COTS Product Implementation Elicitation and Gathering in Testing Projects Elicitation and Gathering in Software Maintenance Projects Elicitation and Gathering in Real Time Software Development Projects Elicitation or Gathering? Deliverables of Elicitation and Gathering Pitfalls in Requirements Elicitation and Gathering Final Words 54 4 Requirements Analysis Introduction to Analysis Analysis of the Information Collected in the Elicitation and Gathering Resolving the Issues that Cropped up During the Analysis Deliverables of Requirements Analysis Phase Final Words 65 5 Establishment of Requirements Introduction to Establishment of Requirements Documentation User Requirements Specification Software Requirements Specification Quality Control of the Documents Obtaining Approvals Configuration Management Establishment of Requirements in COTS Product Implementation Projects Gaps Analysis Document SOW Document Establishment of Requirements in Software Maintenance Projects Establishment of Requirements in Migration, Porting and Conversion Projects Establishment of Requirements in Agile Development Projects 88

4 Contents xiii 6 Quality Assurance in Requirements Management Introduction to Quality Assurance Quality Assurance in the Context of Requirements Engineering and Management Process, Standards and Guidelines Right People with Right Training Quality Control Measurement and Analysis Project Postmortem Verification Peer Reviews Managerial Reviews Best Practices and Pitfalls in Verification Validation Brainstorming Storyboarding Prototyping Expert Review End User Review Feedback Mechanism from Validation Determination of Applicable Quality Control Activities Planning for Requirements Management Introduction to Planning Definition of Planning Planning for Requirements Management To Document or Not to Document? Different Project Plans Planning for Requirements Management in Projects Ill Requirements Elicitation and Gathering Ill Requirements Analysis Requirements Establishment Requirements Change Control and Management Requirements Tracing, Tracking and... Reporting Measurement and Metrics Formats and Templates for Planning Best Practices and Pitfalls in Planning Requirements Change Management Introduction Communication of Changes Origination of Changes Change Request Resolution CR Implementation 122

5 xiv Contents 8.6 CRR Progress/Status Reporting of CRs Handling the Impact of CRs Measurement and Metrics of Change Management Requirements Tracing, Tracking and Reporting Introduction Requirements Traceability Need for Requirements Traceability Mechanisms for Tracing Requirements When Should We Trace the Requirements? Tracking of Requirements Requirements Reporting Reconciliation of Requirements Measurement and Metrics Introduction Measurement and Metrics Metrics Relevant to Requirements Engineering and Management Productivity Metrics Change Request Metrics Quality Metrics Relative Effort Metrics Schedule Metrics Summary of Metrics Roles and Responsibilities in REM Introduction Role of the Organization Organization Staff Process Quality Assurance Training Recognition and Rewards Role of the Individuals Business/System Analysts Quality Control Project Manager Process Definition and Improvement Group Senior Management Final Words 167

6 Contents xv 12 Requirements Management Through SDLC Introduction Pre-Project Phase RM in Requirements Phase of SDLC Software Design Construction Testing Acceptance Testing Installation and Commissioning RM Through SDLC Tools and Techniques for Requirements Engineering and Management Introduction Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method Feasibility Study Requirements Analysis and Specification High Level Design Low Level Design Construction Testing Delivery and Implementation Software Maintenance Requirements Engineering and Management inssadm ER Diagrams Data Flow Diagrams Context Diagram Structure Chart IEEE Software Engineering Standards Object Oriented Methodology Unified Modeling Language Class Diagrams Use Cases Sequence Diagrams Statecharts Activity Diagrams Component Diagrams Deployment Diagrams Final Words on UML Agile Methods Planguage Final Words on Tools and Techniques in Requirements Engineering and Management 200

7 xvi Contents 14 Pitfalls and Best Practices in Requirements Engineering and Management Introduction Best Practices and Pitfalls at the Organizational Level Approach to Requirements Engineering and Management Provision of Resources Training and Updating of Skills Definition and Improvement of Process Motivation and Morale of the Resources Quality Assurance Knowledge Repository Project Level Pitfalls and Best Practices Planning Preparation for Elicitation and Gathering of Requirements Misunderstanding About Requirements Vague Requirements Modeling Issues Prioritization of Requirements Change Management Tracing and Tracking of Requirements Supervision Project Postmortem Final Words of Pitfalls and Best Practices REM in Agile Projects Introduction Extreme Programming Scrum Dynamic Systems Development Method Feature Driven Development Test Driven Development Adaptive Software Development RUP and AUP Kanban Crystal Clear Establishment of Requirements in Agile Projects Tracing and Progress Monitoring of Requirements Final Words on REM in Agile Projects 232

8 Contents xvii Appendix A: Documentation Guidelines 233 Appendix B: Planguage 249 About the Author 261 Index 263

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