SOFTWARE TESTING AS A SERVICE

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1 SOFTWARE TESTING AS A SERVICE ASHFAQUE AHMED (g) CRC Press Taylor & Francis Croup Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business AN AUERBACH BOOK

2 Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Author xv xvii xix 1 Introduction to Software Testing Management Product Defect: A Case Study Case Analysis Return on Investment Causes of Defects in Software Factors Creating Problems in Software Development Process Solutions to Software Development Problems Definition of Software Quality Definition of Good Design Definition of Good Code Definition of Testing Case Study Inputs Outputs Analysis Conclusion Software Testing Evolution Software Engineering Software Testing Methodologies Tools Test Case Execution Automation Test Coverage Defect Tracking Test Management 16 v

3 vi Contents 1.15 Project Offshoring Testing Being Commoditized? Conclusion 17 2 Kinds of Software Testing Projects Software Testing Types What Needs to Be Tested? Enterprise System Testing Enterprise System Types Banking, Finance, Insurance, and Securities (BFSI) Systems Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems Desktop System Testing Device Driver System Testing Stage of Software Life Cycle Outsourced Software Testing Software Vendor Perspective Software Service Provider Perspective Performance Testing Security Testing 29 3 Software Testing Project Strategies Strategy versus Planning Complexity Management Case Study on Complexity Management Module Description Strategy Complexity Problems Solution Pseudo Logic Technology Management People Management Skills Required Risk Factors Technological Risks Scheduling Risk Human Risks Strategy for Automation Strategy for Manual Testing Automation Tool Selection Strategy for Creating Automation Framework Software Product Life Cycle and Automation 44

4 Contents vii 3.12 Test Case Prioritization Ad Hoc Testing Software Test Project Strategy Checklist Challenges Conclusion 47 4 Project Effort Estimation Estimation by Experience Estimation Using Test Point Analysis Basic Components of TPA Project Size Test Strategy Productivity TPA Calculation Details Dynamic Test Point Characteristics Dynamic Quality Characteristics Test Point Calculation Productivity Factor Primary Test Hours Total Number of Test Hours Phase Breakdown Application of TPA TPA at Bidding Stage TPA-Based Effort Estimation Implementation Identify Test Life Cycle Stages Identify Activities for Each Phase Size Estimation for Each Phase Test Requirement Phase Test Case Design Phase Test Script Development Phase Test Case Execution Phase Regression Phase Effort Estimation for Each Phase Synopsis Importance of Effort Estimation Practical Advice Schedule versus Effort Task Elasticity Effort Estimation Checklist Checklist for Software Test Schedule Estimation Checklist for Software Test Effort Estimation Challenges 67

5 viii Contents 5 Software Testing Project Plan Test Area Prioritization Skill Matching Resource Allocation Tools Selection Methodology Selection Sample Project Technology Infrastructure Testing Resources Testing Process Test Automation Steps for Test Case Automation Automation Framework Test Data Management Data Maintenance in Production Environment Testing without a Formal Test Plan The Drawbacks Software Test Plan Checklist Test Plan Checklist Analysis and Review Test Plan Checklist Testing Activities Test Plan Checklist Test Environment Test Plan Checklist Organization Test Plan Checklist Test Schedule Test Plan Checklist Test Tools Test Plan Checklist Configuration Management Test Plan Checklist Test Metrics Test Plan Checklist Project Tracking for Unit/Integration Testing Test Plan Checklist Project Tracking for Acceptance Testing Test Plan Checklist Project Tracking for System Testing 81 6 Software Testing Project Risk Management Risk Measurement Method Create a Scale and Assign a Score to Each Risk Count Number of Times the Risk Occurs in the Project Risk Analysis Case Study Risks Related to the Application Being Tested Kinds of Risks Communication Risks Effectiveness 87

6 Contents ix Cultural Risks Process Risks Size Challenges Checklist for Risk Management 89 7 Software Testing Project Execution Earned Value Management Need for EVM EVM Implementation for Software Projects Audit Trail Defect Tracking and Life Cycle Monitoring of Production Systems Test Case Execution Checklist for Test Execution 97 8 Software Testing Project Reporting Importance of Reporting What Should Go in a Report Case Study Test Report Test Report Components Acceptance Criteria Accessibility Testing Status Report Blocked Test Cases Boundary Value Coverage Test Charter Test Bed Test Basis Test Approach 104 '8.3 Test Metrics Metrics and Reports 105 Bibliography Automated Software Testing Benefits Considerations for Automation Analysis of Test Case Activities Financial and Execution Time Impacts Workload Factor Test Automation History Ill

7 Contents 9.3 Case Studies Business Case Wrong Customer Expectations Problem Statement Issues Faced Solution Lessons Learned Business Case Automation Strategy Issues Faced Solution Lessons Learned Business Case Tool Selection Solution ; Lessons Learned Business Case Problems Solution Lesson Learned Business Case Test Estimation Issues Faced Solution Lessons Learned Business Case Technical Issue Solution Lessons Learned Business Case New Technology Issues Faced Solution Keyword-Driven Automation Framework Steps for Creating Keyword Framework Data-Driven Automated Testing 120 Customer Expectation Management Difficult Proposition Service Level Agreement Product Development History Challenges 125

8 Contents xi 10.6 Requirement Analysis Project Process Information Case Study: Electronics Retailer Customer Expectation Management Strategies Customer Involvement Kickoff Meeting Get Approval for Delivery Methodology Communicate Risks Early Commit Less and Deliver More Be Cool and Share Lighter Moments Stick to SLAs 129 Bibliography Software Testing Practice and Offshoring Challenges Customer Concerns Commercial Concerns Technical and Process Concerns Legal Concerns Benefits of Offshoring Traditional Approach to Testing Cost of Late Detection of Defects Proposed Organization Structure Process Structure Project Components Infrastructure Tools Operating Model Organization Software Testing Consolidation Advantages of Offshoring Coupled with Centralized Quality Group Offshore Team Structure Case Study The Current State Scenario The Future State Scenario A 3-Year Labor Cost ROI Scenario Challenge Solution New Model Implementation Details Pilot Project Details Process Model Benefits of New Model 146

9 xii Contents Productivity Quality Cost Automation Benefits Key Highlights Sanity Testing Software Testing as a Commodity Software Offshoring The New Concept Old Organization Structure New Organization Structure Linking Test Project with Development Project Mass Manufacturing Setup Idle Time Sequencing Disassembling Aggregation Pegging Project versus Manufacturing Project Manufacturing Mass Servicing of Software Test Projects Rework Aspects Conclusion Quality, Standards, and Software Testing Quality Standards Benchmarking Six Sigma Software Development Process Quality Standards for Software Development Processes Requirements Software Project Planning Software Project Tracking and Oversight Software Subcontract Management Software Quality Assurance Software Testing and Quality Quality Standards Evolution 175 Bibliography 175

10 Contents xiii Appendix I IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation (ANSI/IEEE Standard ) 177 Appendix II Software Testing Glossary 181 Index 213

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