EN 1992 : 2003 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures


 Clarissa Warren
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Technical Chamber of Greece Structural Eurocodes meeting Development and basic aspects of EN 1992 and EN 1998 Prof. A.J. Kappos Dept. of Civil Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Athens, 11 October 26 EN 1992 : 23 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures 1
2 GENERAL STRUCTURE OF EUROCODE 2 EN EN EN EN GENERAL RULES AND RULES FOR BUILDINGS FIRE DESIGN DESIGN ON CONCRETE BRIDGES SILOS AND TANKS Content of EN General 2. Basis of design 2.1 Requirements 2.2 Principles of limit state design 2.3 Basic variables 2.4 Verification by the partial factor method 2.5 Design assisted by testing 2.6 Supplementary requirements for foundations 2.7 Requirements for fastenings 3. Materials 3.1 Concrete 3.2 Reinforcing steel 3.3 Prestressing steel 3.4 Prestressing devices 4. Durability and cover to reinforcement 4.1 General 4.2 Environmental conditions 4.3 Requirements for durability 4.4 Methods of verification 2
3 EN : Content (cont d) 5. Structural analysis 5.1 General 5.2 Geometric imperfections 5.3 Idealisation of the structure 5.4 Linear elastic analysis 5.5 Linear analysis with limited redistribution 5.6 Plastic analysis 5.7 Nonlinear analysis 5.8 Second order effects with axial load 5.9 Lateral instability of slender beams 5.1 Prestressed members and structures 5.11 Analysis for some particular structural members 6. Ultimate limit states (ULS) 6.1 Bending with or without axial force 6.2 Shear 6.3 Torsion 6.4 Punching 6.5 Design with strut and tie models EN : Content (cont d) 6.6 Anchorages and laps 6.7 Partially loaded areas 6.8 Fatigue 7. Serviceability limit states (SLS) 7.1 General 7.2 Stress limitation 7.3 Crack control 7.4 Deflection control 8 Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons  General 8.1 General 8.2 Spacing of bars 8.3 Permissible mandrel diameters for bent bars 8.4 Anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement 8.5 Anchorage of links and shear reinforcement 8.6 Anchorage by welded bars 8.7 Laps and mechanical couplers 8.8 Additional rules for large diameter bars 8.9 Bundled bars 8.1 Prestressing tendons 3
4 EN : Content (cont d) 9. Detailing of members and particular rules 9.1 General 9.2 Beams 9.3 Solid slabs 9.4 Flat slabs 9.5 Columns 9.6 Walls 9.7 Deep beams 9.8 Foundations 9.9 Regions with discontinuity in geometry or action 9.1 Tying systems 1. Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures 1.1 General 1.2 Basis of design, fundamental requirements 1.3 Materials 1.5 Structural analysis 1.9 Particular rules for design and detailing EN : Content (cont d) 11. Lightweight aggregated concrete structures 11.1 General 11.2 Basis of design 11.3 Materials 11.4 Durability and cover to reinforcement 11.5 Structural analysis 11.6 Ultimate limit states 11.7 Serviceability limit states 11.8 Detailing of reinforcement  General 11.9 Detailing of members and particular rules 11.1 Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures res Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures 12. Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures 12.1 General 12.2 Basis of design 12.3 Materials 12.5 Structural analysis: ultimate Limit states 12.6 Ultimate limit states 12.7 Serviceability limit states 12.9 Detailing of members and particular rules 4
5 EN : Content (cont d) Annexes A (Informative) Modification of partial factors for materials B (Informative) Creep and shrinkage strain C (Normative) Reinforcement properties D (Informative) Detailed calculation method for prestressing steel relaxation losses E (Informative) Indicative Strength Classes for durability F (Informative) Reinforcement expressions for inplane stress conditions G (Informative) Soil structure interaction H (Informative) Global second order effects in structures I (Informative) Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls J (Informative) Examples of regions with discontinuity in geometry or action EN : 1: General Overview Comparative studies show that the overall economy of construction of designs to EC2 are largely similar to those currently designed using actual national design standards There is little practical difference in results of design for bending The style of the Eurocodes and the way they are implemented are appreciably different, and there are some significant changes in aspects of the design process. There are associated changes arising through related Eurocodes and product standards. These make a suite of documents,, including: EN26 Concrete: Performance, Production, Placing and Compliance Criteria, and EN1367 Execution of Concrete Structures 5
6 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS SAFETY (STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE) SERVICEABILITY DURABILITY ECONOMY  Design working life  Inspection and maintenance levels AESTHETICS Verification of safety and serviceabilty by the partial factor method for : ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ULS SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES SLS Basis of design partial safety factors Action Comment Symbol Value Shrinkage Prestress Fatigue loads Materials Concrete Steel (reinforcement) Steel (prestressing) Favourable effect ULS with external prestressing Unfavourable local effects Comment Persistent and transient design situations Accidental design situation Persistent and transient design situations Accidental design situation Persistent and transient design situations Accidental design situation γ SH γ P,fav γ P,unfav γ P,unfav γ F,fat Symbol γ C γ S γ S 1. 1, 1,3 1,2 1, Value , , 6
7 Structural Analysis Linear elastic analysis (ULSSLS) SLS) Linear analysis with limited redistribution (ULS) Plastic analysis (ULS) Nonlinear analysis (ULSSLS) SLS) Design value of prestressing forces P m,t P d = γ P Pm P, t γ = 1 mean value at time t. Ultimate Limit States : bending with or without axial force Assumptions Plane sections remain plane Tensile strength of concrete ignored No relative slip between concrete and steel Possible strain distributions in crosssections sections 7
8 Possible strain distributions in the Ultimate Limit State A s2 (1 εc2/εcu2)h or (1 εc3/εcu3)h B h d Ap A Δεp εp() C As1 εs, ε p ε ud εy εc2 (ε c3 ) εcu2 (ε ) cu3 εc A  Reinforcing steel tension strain limit B  Concrete compression strain limit C  Concrete pure compression strain limit V Rd,c V Rd,s Ultimate limit state Shear,c Design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement V Rd,max Design value of the shear force which can be sustained by the yielding shear reinforcement Design value of the maximum shear force which can be sustained by the member limited by crushing of the compression struts General verification procedure : V Ed 1) V Ed V Rd,c V Rd 2) V Ed V Rd,s and V Ed V Rd Rd,max 8
9 Truss Model & Notation for Shear Reinforced Members Ultimate limit state Shear (contnd) V Rd,c = [(,18/γ c )k(1 ρ l f ck ) 1/3 +,15 σ cp ] b w d k = 1 + (2/d) 1/2 d effective depth of the crosssection section in mm ρ l = A sl / b d <,2 A w sl area of the tensile reinforcement, b w smallest width of the cross section in the tensile area σ cp = N Ed / A c (> compression) Min. value V Rd,c = (, 35k 3/2 3/2.f 1/2 ck 1/2 +,15σ cp ) b w d 9
10 Ultimate limit state Shear (contnd) Inf. of and V Rd,max V Rd,s = (A( sw /s) z f ywd cotθ ywd cot,max = b w z ν f cd /(cotθ + tanθ ) ν =,6 [ 11 f ck / 25 ] 1 < cot θ < 2,5 or 45 > θ > 22 In case of a compression axial force : α cw cw V Rd,max Increased resistance 1 1,25,25 > α c w > 1 where < σ cm <,6f cd Reduced resistance α cw < 1 where σ cm >,6 f cd Shear between web and flanges of TsectionsT 1, cotθ f 2, (compression flange) 1, cotθ f 1,25 (tension flange) Shear at the interface between concrete cast at different times C and µ are factors which depend on the roughness of the interface 1
11 Ultimate limit state verifications TORSION A  Centreline B  Outer edge of effective cross section, circumference u, C  Cover PUNCHING A  Basic control section B  Basic control area A cont C  Basic control perimeter u 1 D Loaded area A load C A tef zi TEd tef/2 B B D θ 2d θ A d h 2d θ = arctan (1/2) = 26,6 c r cont C Design with strut and tie models For zones where a nonlinear strain distribution exists Verification of struts (concrete) struts without transverse tension struts with transverse tension (compressed and cracked zones) bef a F bef a F Verification of ties : D B D b F h = b H b F z = h/2 h = H/2 B Continuity region D Discontinuity region bef = b bef =,5H +,65a; a h 11
12 Examples of strut and tie models: for half joints ( 1 precast concrete elements & structures) for a corbel (Annex J regions with discontinuities) Serviceability limit state Functioning of the structure in normal use Comfort of people Appearance The verification rules are deemed to ensure: the appropriate serviceability level the durability for the design working life 12
13 Serviceability criteria E d C d The verifications relate to: stress limitation limitation of crack width limitation of deformations limitation of vibrations Actions and material properties are taken into account with their representative values (partial factors equal to 1, unless otherwise specified) EN : 24 Eurocode 8 : Design of structures for earthquake resistance 13
14 Contents of EN : 24 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance FOREWORD 1 GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES 1.3 ASSUMPTIONS 1.4 DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION RULES 1.5 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 1.6 SYMBOLS 1.7 S.I. UNITS 2 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND COMPLIANCE CRITERIA 2.1 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 2.2 COMPLIANCE CRITERIA 3 GROUND CONDITIONS AND SEISMIC ACTION 3.1 GROUND CONDITIONS 3.2 SEISMIC ACTION 4 DESIGN OF BUILDINGS 4.1 GENERAL 4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS 4.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 4.4 SAFETY VERIFICATIONS 5 SPECIFIC RULES FOR CONCRETE BUILDINGS 5.1 GENERAL 5.2 DESIGN CONCEPTS 5.3 DESIGN TO EN DESIGN FOR DCM 5.5 DESIGN FOR DCH 5.6 PROVISIONS FOR ANCHORAGES AND SPLICES 5.7 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF SECONDARY SEISMIC ELEMENTS 5.8 CONCRETE FOUNDATION ELEMENTS 5.9 LOCAL EFFECTS DUE TO MASONRY OR CONCRETE INFILLS 5.1 PROVISIONS FOR CONCRETE DIAPHRAGMS 5.11 PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES 14
15 6 SPECIFIC RULES FOR STEEL BUILDINGS 6.1 GENERAL 6.2 MATERIALS 6.3 STRUCTURAL TYPES AND BEHAVIOUR FACTORS6.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 6.5 DESIGN CRITERIA AND DETAILING RULES FOR DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR COMMON TO ALL STRUCTURAL TYPES 6.6 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES 6.7 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR FRAMES WITH CONCENTRIC BRACINGS 6.8 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR FRAMES WITH ECCENTRIC BRACINGS 6.9 DESIGN RULES FOR INVERTED PENDULUM STRUCTURES 6.1 DESIGN RULES FOR STEEL STRUCTURES WITH CONCRETE CORES OR CONCRETE WALLS AND FOR MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES COMBINED WITH CONCENTRIC BRACINGS OR INFILLS 6.11 CONTROL OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7 SPECIFIC RULES FOR COMPOSITE STEEL CONCRETE BUILDINGS 7.1 GENERAL 7.2 MATERIALS 7.3 STRUCTURAL TYPES AND BEHAVIOUR FACTORS 7.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 7.5 DESIGN CRITERIA AND DETAILING RULES FOR DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR COMMON TO ALL STRUCTURAL TYPES 7.6 RULES FOR MEMBERS 7.7 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR MOMENT FRAMES 7.8 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR COMPOSITE CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES 7.9 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR COMPOSITE ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES 7.1 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS COMPOSITE WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS 7.11 DESIGN AND DETAILING RULES FOR COMPOSITE STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 7.12 CONTROL OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 15
16 8 SPECIFIC RULES FOR TIMBER BUILDINGS 8.1 GENERAL 8.2 MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF DISSIPATIVE ZONES 8.3 DUCTILITY CLASSES AND BEHAVIOUR FACTORS 8.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 8.5 DETAILING RULES 8.6 SAFETY VERIFICATIONS 8.7 CONTROL OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 9 SPECIFIC RULES FOR MASONRY BUILDINGS 9.1 SCOPE 9.2 MATERIALS AND BONDING PATTERNS 9.3 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND BEHAVIOUR FACTORS 9.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 9.5 DESIGN CRITERIA AND CONSTRUCTION RULES 9.6 SAFETY VERIFICATION 9.7 RULES FOR SIMPLE MASONRY BUILDINGS 1 BASE ISOLATION 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 DEFINITIONS 1.3 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 1.4 COMPLIANCE CRITERIA 1.5 GENERAL DESIGN PROVISIONS 1.6 SEISMIC ACTION 1.7 BEHAVIOUR FACTOR 1.8 PROPERTIES OF THE ISOLATION SYSTEM 1.9 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 1.1 SAFETY VERIFICATIONS AT ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) ELASTIC DISPLACEMENT RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE) DETERMINATION OF THE TARGET DISPLACEMENT FOR NONLINEAR STATIC (PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS ANNEX C (NORMATIVE) DESIGN OF THE SLAB OF STEELCONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAMS AT BEAMCOLUMN JOINTS IN MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES 16
17 EUROCODE 8 (SEISMIC DESIGN): SPECIFIC RULES FOR CONCRETE BUILDINGS Ductility classes New ductility classes (DC) (changes dictated by national comments supported by a number of background studies) DC H ( old Μ, increased q, CD for V Sd in beams,...) DC Μ ( old L, increasedq,cd forv Sd in beams,...) DC L (EC2, no brittle steel Α, q 1.5) Basic value of behaviour factor (q ) STRUCTURAL TYPE DCH DCM Frame system, dual system, coupled wall system 4,5α u /α 1 3,α u /α 1 Wall system 4,α u /α 1 3, Core system 3, 2, Inverted pendulum system 2, 1,5 17
18 Overstrength α 1 : seismic action at first yield (anywhere) α u : seismic action at development of overall structural instability (collapse mechanism) Obtained from pushover analysis (α u /α 1 1.5), or defaults: Frames (or frameequivalent dual): α u /α 1 =1.3 (1.1 for onestorey, 1.2 for onebay frames) Wall (or wallequivalent dual): Wall systems with only two uncoupled walls per horizontal direction: α u /α 1 =1. Other uncoupled wall systems: α u /α 1 =1.1 Wall equivalent dual, or coupled wall systems: α u /α 1 =1.2 Final behaviour factor q=q o. k w 1,5 New structural systems Large lightly reinforced wall system: comprises at least two walls with horizontal dimension not less than 4m and 2h w /3, which collectively support at least 2% of the total gravity load above in the seismic design situation has a fundamental period T 1, for assumed fixity at the base against rotation, less or equal to.5sec If a structural system does not qualify as a system of large lightly reinforced walls, then all its walls should be designed and detailed as ductile walls Frame, dual or wall systems without a minimum torsional rigidity (e o <.3r) should be classified as torsionally flexible (core) systems 18
19 Design criteria Local resistance condition: E d R d Capacity design rule: E d from equilibrium conditions, assuming plastic hinges with their possible overstrengths formed in adjacent areas to avoid brittle or undesirable failure mechanisms Local ductility condition: high plastic rotational capacities in potential plastic hinge regions sufficient curvature ductility (postfailure 85%moment resistance level) in all critical regions of primary elements μ φ =2q o 1 if T 1 T C μ φ =1+2(q o 1)T C /T 1 if T 1 <T C (based on μ φ =2μ δ 1 and μ δ =q if T 1 T C, μ δ =1+(q1)T C /T 1 if T 1 <T C ) Note that q<q o for irregular structures (no reduction in μ φ,req!) Structural redundancy: high degree of redundancy accompanied by redistribution capacity (otherwise lower qfactor) Secondary seismic members and resistances: resistances or stabilising effects not explicitly taken into account (e.g. membrane reactions of slabs mobilised by upwards deflections of structural walls) nonstructural elements (esp. masonry infills!) Specific additional measures (to reduce uncertainty): minimize geometric errors (min dimensions, max b/h etc.) minimize ductility uncertainties (min μ φ, minρ l, ν max ) 19
20 Safety verifications For ULS verifications, partial safety factors for materials γ c and γ s shall account for strength degradation due to the cyclic deformations γ c =1.5 and γ s =1.15 (as in EC2) can be taken (convenient for practice!) assuming that due to local ductility provisions the ratio between the residual strength after degradation and the initial one is roughly equal to the ratio between the γ M values for accidental and fundamental load combinations if strength degradation is appropriately accounted in the evaluation of the material properties, the γ M values adopted for the accidental design situation may be used Design to Eurocode 2 (EN19921) 1) Recommended only for low seismicity areas In primary elements, reinforcing steel of class B or C (table C.1 EN19921) shall be used Behaviour factor up to q=1.5 may be used in deriving the seismic actions, regardless of the structural system and of regularity in elevation 2
21 Properties of reinforcement (EC2 Annex C) Note: The values for the fatigue stress range with an upper limit of β f yk and for the minimum relative rib area for use in a Country may be found in its National Annex. The recommended values are given in Table C.2N. The value of β for use in a Country may be found in its National Annex. The recommended value is,6. Design for DC M: M Geometrical constraints and materials Material requirements use of concrete <C16 not allowed in primary elements use of concrete >C5 (HSC) for DC M is not covered only ribbed bars are allowed as longitudinal reinforcing steel in critical regions of primary elements in primary elements, reinforcing steel of class B or C (table C.1 EN19921) shall be used welded wire meshes of steel B or C are allowed (should be ribbed if used as longitudinal reinforcement) 21
22 Geometrical constraints BEAMS eccentricity of beam axis < b c /4 width b w min { b c + h w ; 2b c } COLUMNS unless θ.1, in primary columns b.1l o (l o : distance from end to point of contraflexure) DUCTILE WALLS web thickness b wo max{15mm, h s /2} (h s : clear storey height) additional requirements for confined boundary elements LARGE LIGHTLY REINFORCED WALLS web thickness b wo max{15mm, h s /2} Design for DC M: M Design action effects Moments and axial forces from analysis, except in primary ductile walls; redistribution of M permitted Shear forces from capacity design (shears V max,i,v min,i calculated for end moments M i,d ) Beams (γ Rd =1.) M i, d = γ Rd M Rb, i M min(1, M Rc Rb ) 22
23 Columns M i, d = γ Rd (γ Rd =1.1) M Rc, i M min(1, M to account for overstrength due to strainhardening and confinement Rb Rc ) Ductile walls: Redistribution between primary walls, up to 3% Redistribution between coupling beams, up to 2% Design bending moment diagram (slender walls): b a a M Ed M Ed M' Ed a l wall systems a l M' Ed dual systems a = from analysis b = design envelope a = tension shift l 23
24 Design shear force diagram (dual systems with slender walls): V wall,top>v wall,base/2 design envelope c a=from analysis b=magnified c=design envelope b a 2 3 h w (b) 1 3 h w V wall,base Special provisions for large lightly reinforced walls: to ensure that flexural yielding precedes attainment of ULS in shear, shear force V Ed from analysis is increased V Ed ' q +1 = VEd 2 additional dynamic axial forces developed due to uplifting shall be taken into account in the ULS verification (M, N) may be taken as 5% of the axial force in the wall due to the gravity loads (g+ψ 2 q) if q 2, these dynamic axial forces may be neglected 24
25 Beams Design for DC M: M ULS verifications and detailing bending and shear resistances are computed according to EN part of topreinforcement in T beams (& Γbeams) may be placed outside the web, within effective flange width b eff a 2h f 2h f h f 4h f 4h f b d 2h f 2h f h f h f c h f Detailing of DCM beams for local ductility critical regions: <5mm h w s l cr l cr within l cr, μ φ, req is provided through: additional ρ ½ρ at bottom of supports tension reinforcement within l cr, hoops with: d bw 6mm and spacing ρ ρ max ρ s = min{h w /4; 24d bw ; 225mm; 8d bl },18 f = ρ' + μ ε f ρ min φ sy, d f =,5 f ctm yk.18? cd yd 25
26 Columns bending and shear resistances are computed according to EN simplified biaxial bending check with.7m Rd,uniax in primary columns normalised axial force ν d.65 Detailing of DCM columns for local ductility long. reinforcement ratio 1% ρ l 4% at least one intermediate bar (between corner bars) critical (end) regions: l max{ h ; l / 6; 45mm} cr = if l cl /h c <3 (short column), the entire height l cl =l cr within l cr, μ φ, req (e.g. =2q o 1) is provided if μ φ, req involves ε cu.35 confinement required! c cl confinement reinforcement within l cr (DC M) α. ω wd 3. bc μ φ νd εsy, d, 35 b o b i ω wd volume of confining hoops = volume of concretecore f f yd cd s h o h c b o b c confinement effectiveness factor α=α n α s for rectangular cross sections: α n n 2 i = 1 b / 6b h o o α s = ( 1 s / 2bo )( 1 s / 2ho ) min ω wd =.8 for circular cross sections with spiral reinforcement: α n α = 1 = ( 1 s / 2 ) s D o b c 26
27 to prevent early local buckling of longitudinal bars within l cr : s = min{b o /2; 175mm; 8d bl } distance between supported bars s max 2 mm transverse reinforcement within l cr at the base of primary columns may be determined as specified in EN19921, provided that ν d.2 and q 2. Beamcolumn joints horizontal confinement reinforcement in joints of primary beams with columns shall not be less than that provided within l cr of columns if beams with b w b c frame into all four sides of the joint, spacing of horizontal confinement reinforcement in the joint may be increased to twice that required above, but s 15 mm at least one intermediate (between column corner bars) vertical bar shall be provided at each side of a joint of primary beams and columns 27
28 Ductile walls bending and shear resistances computed according to EN in primary walls, normalised axial force ν d.4 vertical web reinforcement shall be included in calculation of flexural resistance of wall sections flexural resistance of composite sections (L, T, U, I or similar) based on effective flange width, min of: actual flange width ½ distance to adjacent web of the wall 25% of total height of wall above the level considered Detailing of DCM walls for local ductility height of critical region h cr above the base h cr = max w, [ l H / 6] w but h 2 lw hs 2 h required μ φ as in columns, but using q o multiplied by M Ed /M Rd at base of wall (e.g. μ φ =2q o M Ed /M Rd 1), to be provided by confinement of boundary elements for walls with rectangular section wd cr for n 6 storeys for n 7 storeys f αω 3μ ρ ( ) b c yd v d sy d where, φ ν + ων ε,, 35 ω v = v bo f cd for barbelled walls, N and ω v refer to h c b c f cd if x u l c, otherwise analysis with confined concrete model needed s 28
29 confinement of boundary elements should extend vertically: over h cr horizontally: over l c (assuming ε cu2 =.35) not good practice minl c {,15 l w or 1,5.b w } no confined boundary element is required over wall flanges with thickness h f >h s /15 and width b f > h s /5 in boundary elements: minρ l =.5% (=½ minρ l,col ) thickness b w 2, also: above h cr EC2 applies, but if ε c >.2, minρ l =.5% ω w in boundary elements may conform to EC2 only, if: axial load ν d.15 axial load ν d.2 and q reduced by 15% 29
30 Large lightly reinforced walls bending resistances computed according to EN when V Ed V Rd,c =[C Rd,c k(1ρ l f ck ) 1/3 +.15σ cp ]b wd ρ w,min in the web is not required sliding shear check is done according to EN19921, but anchorage length of clamping bars increased by 5% hoop and crosstie vertical spacing min{1mm, 8d bl ) vertical bars engaged by hoop or crosstie with d 6mm, within boundary elements with l c min{b w 3b w σ cm /f cd }, (σ cm : mean value of concrete stress in compression zone) horiz. + vert. ties according to EN provided along all intersections of walls around openings in the wall at all floor levels Design for DC H generally similar to DCM, but more stringent detailing more detailed verification of beamcolumn joints if VEd > VE = ( 2 + ζ ) fctd bw d max, crossinclined reinforcement required to resist shear in beams explicit calculation of joint resistance V jhd ν d ηfcd 1 b η j h c 2 V jhd Ash f ywd b j h jc fctd b j h jw fctd + ν d fcd explicit calculation of sliding shear resistance of walls V = V + V + V V Rd, S dd dd 1,3 ΣA = min,25 f id sj fd fcd f ΣA yd sj yd V fd V id = ΣA f cosϕ si μ f = min,5ν f yd [( ΣA f + N ) ξ + M / z] cd sj ξ yd l w b wo Sd Ed 3
31 Provisions for anchorages and splices hoops should be closed stirrups with 135 hooks and 1d bw long extensions Anchorage of reinforcement Columns anchorage length l bd of column bars in critical regions based on A s,req /A s,prov = 1 first 5d bl of column bar within a joint not included in l bd if N Ed is tensile in a column, l bd increased by 5% Beams the part of beam bars bent in joints for anchorage should be placed inside the corresponding column hoops to prevent bond failure limit d bl passing through joints interior beamcolumn joints d h bl c 7,5 f γ f Rd ctm yd 1+,8 νd 1+.75k ρ' / ρ D max exterior beamcolumn joints DC H DC M k D 1 2/3 γ Rd d h bl c 7,5 fctm 8 γ f Rd yd ( 1+, ν ) d if limit on d bl difficult to satisfy, use special measures top or bottom bars passing through interior joints, shall terminate at distance l cr from the face of the joint 31
32 Additional measures for anchorage in exterior beamcolumn joints a) exterior stubs l b h c > 5d bl for DCH h c b) plates welded to end of bars anchor plate c) transverse bars inside the bend > 1 d bl d bw>.6dbl hoops around column bars d bl Splicing of reinforcement lapsplicing by welding not allowed within the l cr splicing by mechanical couplers allowed in columns and walls, if covered by appropriate (cyclic) testing spacing of transverse reinforcement in the lap zone: s = min{b/4; 1mm} required area of transverse reinforcement A st within the lap zone Ast = s ( dbl / 5)( f yl, d /f ywd ) area of one leg of transverse reinforcement 32
33 Design and detailing of secondary seismic elements designed/detailed to maintain bearing capacity, when subjected to max deformations under seismic actions does not apply to nonseismic members (e.g. slab ribs) max deformations calculated from analysis, in which the contribution of secondary elements to lateral stiffness is neglected and primary elements are modelled with their cracked flexural and shear stiffness verification: M d M Rd and V d V Rd where M d, V d calculated from above max deformations and cracked flexural and shear stiffness of secondary elements Local effects due to masonry or concrete infills the entire length of columns in infilled ground floors considered as critical length and confined accordingly if h inf <l cl,col, l cr =l cl plus special measures: design shear calculated from CD based on l cl and γ Rd M Rc corresponding ties placed within l cl +h c if free length < 1.5h c, diagonal reinforcement needed if masonry infill on one side of column only, l cr =l cl length l c of column over which the diagonal strut force of the infill is applied, should be verified in shear for min of horiz. component of strut force and CD shear 33
34 Seismic performance of multistorey R/C buildings designed to the pren EN : Trial application of the new provisions to four typical multistorey buildings, 6storey and 1storey with reinforced concrete (R/C) frame system with dual (frame+wall) system Similar buildings previously designed (Kappos / Athanassiadou, EEE, 1997) for old ductility classes H and M comparisons between the old and new designs in terms of cost of materials and of seismic performance Codes: EC2, EC8 (pren) Materials: C2/25 S4 Design PGA: α g =.25 Code spectrum Type 1(Μ s >5.5) Effective Stiffness: EI eff =.5EI g Design of 6storey 6 buildings 34
35 Behaviour factors q q=1.5, for DC L q= k w q o, for DC M and H  frame system / DC M : q=3.9  dual system / DC M : q=3.6  frame system / DC H : q= dual system / DC H : q=5.4 Very similar qfactors for both systems! detailing of frame system / DC L Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου2ου ορόφου Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου2ου ορόφου εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 1ου  2ου ορόφου 2Φ22 3Φ2 εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 1ου  2ου ορόφου 2Φ16 2Φ18 4Φ16 2Φ14 Φ6/17 4Φ14 Φ6/11 4Φ16 2Φ22 3Φ2 Φ8/155 2Φ18 2Φ16 Φ8/19 2Φ1 4Φ16 2Φ1 3Φ14 3Φ16 εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου ορόφου 4Φ2 2Φ18 Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου4ου ορόφου 4Φ16 Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου4ου ορόφου 4Φ16 4Φ2 2Φ18 Φ8/15 εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου  4ου ορόφου 3Φ18 2Φ14 Φ6/165 4Φ14 Φ6/115 2Φ14 εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 4ου ορόφου 4Φ2 2Φ18 3Φ18 Φ8/21 2Φ14 2Φ16 2Φ16 2Φ14 4Φ2 Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου6ου ορόφου Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου6ου ορόφου 2Φ18 Φ8/215 εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 5ου  6ου ορόφου 2Φ16 1Φ14 4Φ16 1Φ16 2Φ18 Φ6/21 Φ6/195 2Φ18 εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 1Φ16 5ου  6ου ορόφου Φ8/18 4Φ2 2Φ14 3Φ14 4Φ2 Φ8/215 35
36 detailing of frame system / DC M εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου  2ου ορόφου 3Φ16 εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου  2ου ορόφου 2Φ163Φ14 εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 1ου  2ου ορόφου 4Φ18 εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 1ου  2ου ορόφου 1Φ16 2Φ18 Φ6/11 Φ6/11 4Φ18 2Φ18 1Φ16 2Φ14 3Φ14 Φ8/12 Φ8/1 εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου  4ου ορόφου 3Φ16 εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου  4ου ορόφου 2Φ16 2Φ14 εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου  4ου ορόφου 4Φ18 εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου  4ου ορόφου 1Φ16 2Φ18 Φ6/11 2Φ14 Φ6/11 3Φ14 4Φ18 Φ6/12 2Φ18 1Φ16 Φ6/1 εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου  6ου ορόφου εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου  6ου ορόφου εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 5ου  6ου ορόφου εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 5ου  6ου ορόφου 3Φ14 2Φ16 2Φ14 1Φ18 2Φ2 3Φ14 Φ6/11 Φ6/11 2Φ2 1Φ18 Φ6/14 3Φ14 Φ6/11 2Φ14 3Φ14 detailing of frame system / DC H Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου2ου ορόφου Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 1ου2ου ορόφου Πόδας εσωτερικού υποστυλώματος 1ου ορόφου Πόδας εξωτερικού υποστυλώματος 1ου ορόφου 2Φ14 2Φ12 4Φ14 4Φ2 2Φ2 1Φ18 4Φ2 2Φ2 1Φ18 Φ6/7 Φ6/8 Φ8/1 Φ8/9 2Φ14 2Φ14 Κεφαλή εσωτερικού υποστυλώματος 1ου 2ου ορόφου Κεφαλή εξωτερικού υποστυλώματος 1ου 2ου ορόφου Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου4ου ορόφου 3Φ14 Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 3ου4ου ορόφου 4Φ14 4Φ2 4Φ2 2Φ2 1Φ18 2Φ2 1Φ18 Φ8/12 Φ8/15 Φ6/8 Φ6/8 Εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου  4ου ορόφου 4Φ18 Εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 3ου  4ου ορόφου 2Φ18 1Φ16 2Φ14 Εξωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου6ου ορόφου 4Φ12 2Φ14 Εσωτερική στήριξη δοκού 5ου6ου ορόφου 6Φ12 4Φ18 Φ8/15 2Φ18 1Φ16 Φ8/9 Φ6/7 Φ6/7 Εσωτερικό υποστύλωμα 5ου  6ου ορόφου 2Φ2 1Φ18 Εξωτερικό υποστύλωμα 5ου  6ου ορόφου 3Φ14 2Φ2 3Φ12 3Φ12 1Φ18 Φ8/15 3Φ14 Φ6/75 36
SEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:
SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the
More informationDraft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814
Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318
More informationPage 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SBProduksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250
Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..
More informationIntroduction. Eurocodes. Specification. Cost
Introduction Eurocodes Specification Cost Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures BS EN 1992 (EC2): BS EN 1993 (EC3): BS EN 1994 (EC4):
More informationDetailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures
Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For
More informationRC Detailing to Eurocode 2
RC Detailing to Eurocode 2 Jenny Burridge MA CEng MICE MIStructE Head of Structural Engineering Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures
More informationEVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE  FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST
EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE  FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti
More informationConcrete Design to Eurocode 2
Concrete Design to Eurocode 2 Jenny Burridge MA CEng MICE MIStructE Head of Structural Engineering Introduction to the Eurocodes Eurocode Eurocode 1 Eurocode 2 Materials Cover Flexure Shear Deflection
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements
More informationCode of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013 The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Published: February 2013 Prepared by: Buildings Department 12/F18/F Pioneer Centre 750
More informationConcrete Frame Design Manual
Concrete Frame Design Manual Turkish TS 5002000 with Turkish Seismic Code 2007 For SAP2000 ISO SAP093011M26 Rev. 0 Version 15 Berkeley, California, USA October 2011 COPYRIGHT Copyright Computers and Structures,
More informationSeismic design of beamcolumn joints in RC moment resisting frames Review of codes
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 23, No. 5 (2006) 579597 579 Technical Report Seismic design of beamcolumn joints in RC moment resisting frames Review of codes S. R. Uma Department of Civil
More informationMiss S. S. Nibhorkar 1 1 M. E (Structure) Scholar,
Volume, Special Issue, ICSTSD Behaviour of Steel Bracing as a Global Retrofitting Technique Miss S. S. Nibhorkar M. E (Structure) Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering
More informationSeismic retrofit of nonductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips
Seismic retrofit of nonductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips bracing Mustafa Taghdi, Michel Bruneau, & Murat Saatcioglu Ottawa Carleton Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Department of
More informationOctober 2001. ICS 00.000.00 Supersedes ENV 199211, ENV 199213, ENV 199214, ENV 199215, ENV 199216 and ENV 19923
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM October 2001 ICS 00.000.00 Supersedes ENV 199211, ENV 199213, ENV 199214, ENV 199215, ENV 199216 and ENV 19923 Descriptors: Buildings, concrete
More information4B2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections.
Shear Walls Buildings that use shear walls as the lateral forceresisting system can be designed to provide a safe, serviceable, and economical solution for wind and earthquake resistance. Shear walls
More informationSLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:
Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI31802 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems
More informationNational Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination
Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)
More informationSeismic Assessment and Retrofitting of Structures: Eurocode8 Part3 and the Greek Code on Seismic Structural Interventions
Working Group 7: Earthquake Resistant Structures Geneva, 25 September 2015 Seismic Assessment and Retrofitting of Structures: Eurocode8 Part3 and the Greek Code on Seismic Structural Interventions Prof.
More informationOptimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge
Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 114 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering
More informationSTEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE. MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams
STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design
More informationSeismic performance evaluation of an existing school building in Turkey
CHALLENGE JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL MECHANICS 1 (4) (2015) 161 167 Seismic performance evaluation of an existing school building in Turkey Hüseyin Bilgin * Department of Civil Engineering, Epoka University,
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,
DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared
More informationSeismic Risk Prioritization of RC Public Buildings
Seismic Risk Prioritization of RC Public Buildings In Turkey H. Sucuoğlu & A. Yakut Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey J. Kubin & A. Özmen Prota Inc, Ankara, Turkey SUMMARY Over the past
More informationDetailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures
THE CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING PANEL ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA SYDNEY DIVISION 28 August 2012 Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures R.I. Gilbert Introduction: Detailing is often considered to
More informationMECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMCOLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 16, 2004 Paper No. 4 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMCOLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY Tomohiko KAMIMURA
More informationASCE 41 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings
ASCE 41 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings Presentation Topics: 1. How to define a Rehabilitation Objective per ASCE 41. 2. Data Collection and Testing. 3. Analysis Requirements. 4. Modeling.
More informationRetrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables
Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management
More informationDesign of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column
Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend
More informationEurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures Dr Stephen Hicks, Manager Structural Systems, Heavy Engineering Research Association, New Zealand Introduction BS EN 1994 (Eurocode 4) is the
More informationTechnical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993
Technical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 40292) and Specifications
More informationEUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS
E TA TECHNICAL REPORT Design of Bonded Anchors TR 29 Edition June 27 EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS TABLE OF CONTENTS Design method for bonded anchors Introduction..4 1 Scope...2 1.1 Type
More informationSTRUSOFT EXAMPLES PRESTRESS 6.4
EXAMPLES PRESTRESS 6.4 STEP BY STEP EXAMPLES 6.o4.oo52o14o7o18 Page 1 CONTENTS 1 BASIC CONCEPT 2 1.1 CODES 2 1.2 LAYOUT OF THE PROGRAM 3 1.3 LIMITATIONS IN THE CURRENT VERSION 3 2 EXAMPLES 4 2.1 MODELLING
More informationbi directional loading). Prototype ten story
NEESR SG: Behavior, Analysis and Design of Complex Wall Systems The laboratory testing presented here was conducted as part of a larger effort that employed laboratory testing and numerical simulation
More informationSpon Press PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN EUROCODES. University of Glasgow. Department of Civil Engineering. Prabhakara Bhatt LONDON AND NEW YORK
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN TO EUROCODES Prabhakara Bhatt Department of Civil Engineering University of Glasgow Spon Press an imprint of Taytor & Francfe LONDON AND NEW YORK CONTENTS Preface xix Basic
More informationSEISMIC RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES
SEISMIC RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES RANJITH DISSANAYAKE DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF PERADENIYA, SRI LANKA ABSTRACT Many existing reinforced concrete structures in present
More informationEurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Owen Brooker, The Concrete Centre Introduction The transition to using the Eurocodes is a daunting prospect for engineers, but this needn t be the case. Industry
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More information1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (309) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Prof. Oral Buyukozturk Massachusetts Institute of Technology Outline 1 1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (309) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures
More informationFOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 141 Load Path and Transfer to
More informationSpecification for Structures to be Built in Disaster Areas
Ministry of Public Works and Settlement Government of Republic of Turkey Specification for Structures to be Built in Disaster Areas PART III  EARTHQUAKE DISASTER PREVENTION (Chapter 5 through Chapter
More information16. BeamandSlab Design
ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. BeamandSlab Design BeamandSlab System How does the slab work? L beams and T beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil
More informationMETHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
More informationTECHNICAL NOTE. Design of Diagonal Strap Bracing Lateral Force Resisting Systems for the 2006 IBC. On ColdFormed Steel Construction INTRODUCTION
TECHNICAL NOTE On ColdFormed Steel Construction 1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 320 W ashington, DC 20005 (202) 7852022 $5.00 Design of Diagonal Strap Bracing Lateral Force Resisting Systems for the 2006
More informationNonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Design and Structural Assessment
1 Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Design and Structural Assessment Jan Cervenka Červenka Consulting, Prague, Czech Republic Outline: Červenka Consulting  Computer simulation (virtual
More informationASSESSMENT AND PROPOSED STRUCTURAL REPAIR STRATEGIES FOR BRIDGE PIERS IN TAIWAN DAMAGED BY THE JIJI EARTHQUAKE ABSTRACT
ASSESSMENT AND PROPOSED STRUCTURAL REPAIR STRATEGIES FOR BRIDGE PIERS IN TAIWAN DAMAGED BY THE JIJI EARTHQUAKE PeiChang Huang 1, Graduate Research Assistant / MS Candidate Yao T. Hsu 2, Ph.D., PE, Associate
More informationHOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations
HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More informationModule 3. Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 3 Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Lesson 4 Computation of Parameters of Governing Equations Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able
More informationResistenza a taglio di travi in calcestruzzo fibrorinforzato
Resistenza a taglio di travi in calcestruzzo fibrorinforzato Università degli Studi di Brescia giovanni.plizzari@unibs.it Milano June 17 th, 2015 Outlines Shear Action Factor affecting the shear strength
More informationHOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams
HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges
7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience
More informationINTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis
More informationSECTION 7 Engineered Buildings Field Investigation
SECTION 7 Engineered Buildings Field Investigation Types of Data to Be Collected and Recorded A field investigator looking at engineered buildings is expected to assess the type of damage to buildings.
More informationINTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATES
4 INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATES 1.0 INTRODUCTION A Civil Engineering Designer has to ensure that the structures and facilities he designs are (i) fit for their purpose (ii) safe and (iii) economical and
More informationFOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE
County: Any Design: BRG Date: 10/007 Hwy: Any Ck Dsn: BRG Date: 10/007 FOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE Design: Based on AASHTO LRFD 007 Specifications, TxDOT LRFD Bridge Design Manual, and TxDOT Project 04371
More informationDesign MEMO 54a Reinforcement design for RVK 41
Page of 5 CONTENTS PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS... 2 GENERAL... 2 STANDARDS... 2 QUALITIES... 3 DIMENSIONS... 3 LOADS... 3 PART 2 REINFORCEMENT... 4 EQUILIBRIUM... 4 Page 2 of 5 PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS GENERAL
More informationChapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1
Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1 Basic types of bridge decks Insitu reinforced concrete deck (most common type) Precast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid
More informationANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 2535 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10
More informationDistribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems
Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems Part 2. Horizontal Distribution and Torsion IITGN Short Course Gregory MacRae Many slides from 2009 Myanmar Slides of Profs Jain and Rai 1 Reinforced
More informationARCH 331 Structural Glossary S2014abn. Structural Glossary
Structural Glossary Allowable strength: Nominal strength divided by the safety factor. Allowable stress: Allowable strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross
More informationExpected Performance Rating System
Expected Performance Rating System In researching seismic rating systems to determine how to best classify the facilities within the Portland Public School system, we searched out what was used by other
More informationETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA
ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all
More information9.3 Twoway Slabs (Part I)
9.3 Twoway Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are
More informationSEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS
Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures Proceedings FRAMCOS3 AEDIFICA TIO Publishers, D79104 Freiburg, Germany SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS H.
More informationSEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES. S.K. Ghosh, Ph. D. President S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Northbrook, IL BACKGROUND
SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES S.K. Ghosh, Ph. D. President S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Northbrook, IL BACKGROUND Until recently, precast concrete structures could be built in
More informationBEHAVIOR OF SHORT CONCRETE COLUMNS REINFORCED BY CFRP BARS AND SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOAD
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 1524 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10
More informationSECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED
SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams
More informationADVANCED SYSTEMS FOR RATIONAL SLAB REINFORCEMENT
ADVANCED SYSTEMS FOR RATIONAL SLAB REINFORCEMENT CASPER ÅLANDER M. Sc. (Civ. Eng.) Development manager Fundia Reinforcing Abstract This paper deals with rational and fast ways to reinforce concrete slabs.
More informationBuilding Project using PostTensioning
Building Project using PostTensioning Paulo Marques 1 Resume Nowadays building flexibility is an aspect to be taken into account at the idealization and project stages. The number of buildings that throughout
More informationDesign MEMO 60 Reinforcement design for TSS 102
Date: 04.0.0 sss Page of 5 CONTENTS PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS... GENERAL... STANDARDS... QUALITIES... 3 DIMENSIONS... 3 LOADS... 3 PART REINFORCEMENT... 4 EQUILIBRIUM... 4 Date: 04.0.0 sss Page of 5 PART BASIC
More informationCompanion Document. EN 199211: Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings
Companion Document EN 199211: Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings Final Research Report: BD 2403 Companion Document EN 199211: Eurocode 2: Design
More informationCOMMENTARY EUROCODE 2
EUROCODE 2 COMMENTARY 1 EUROCODE 2 COMMENTARY COMMENTARY EUROCODE 2 Copyright: European Concrete Platform ASBL, June 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
More informationDESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT
DESIGN OF BLAST RESISTANT BUILDINGS IN AN LNG PROCESSING PLANT Troy Oliver 1, Mark Rea 2 ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the work undertaken in the design of multiple buildings for one of
More informationBasics of Reinforced Concrete Design
Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design Presented by: Ronald Thornton, P.E. Define several terms related to reinforced concrete design Learn the basic theory behind structural analysis and reinforced concrete
More informationEXAMPLE CALCULATIONS to the Requirements of BC3: 2013
EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS to the Requirements of BC3: 2013 NOTE 1. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of the information contained in this design guide, the Building and Construction Authority
More informationCONCRETE SHEAR WALL CONSTRUCTION M. Ofelia Moroni, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
BACKGROUND CONCRETE SHEAR WALL CONSTRUCTION M. Ofelia Moroni, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile Buildings with castinsitu reinforced concrete shear walls are widespread in many earthquakeprone countries
More informationSimplified Design to BS 5400
Simplified Design to BS 5400 Bridge Design to the Eurocodes Simplified rules for use in student projects (Document RT1156) Version Date of Issue Purpose Author Technical Reviewer Approved 1 Distribution
More informationMATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
HAPTER Reinforced oncrete Design Fifth Edition MATERIALS AND MEHANIS OF BENDING A. J. lark School of Engineering Department of ivil and Environmental Engineering Part I oncrete Design and Analysis b FALL
More informationIMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, MarchApril 2016, pp. 117 127, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2
More informationPerformance of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns under Bidirectional Shear & Axial Loading
Performance of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns under Bidirectional Shear & Axial Loading Laura M. Flores University of California, San Diego REU Institution: University of California, Berkeley REU
More informationINSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
2/2013 ANCHOR BOLTS INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE  Threaded rebars ATP, AHP, AJP  Threaded high strength steel bolts ALPL, ALPP, AMP ATP AHP ALPL ALPP AMP Eurocode design according to EN199318 (2005) &
More informationPERFORMANCE OF SLABS REINFORCED BY PEIKKO PSB STUDS
TECHNICAL ARTICLES PERFORMANCE OF SLABS REINFORCED BY PEIKKO PSB STUDS Demonstrated by full scale tests and validated by ETA approval starting April 2013 Authors: Aurelio Muttoni (Professor), Ecole Polytechnique
More informationTransverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges
Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment 017 Chris R Hendy MA (Cantab) CEng FICE Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Epsom, UK Francesco Presta CEng, MIStructE Senior
More informationBridging Your Innovations to Realities
Graphic User Interface Graphic User Interface Modeling Features Bridge Applications Segmental Bridges Cable Bridges Analysis Features Result Evaluation Design Features 02 07 13 17 28 34 43 48 2 User Interface
More informationStructural use of concrete
BRITISH STANDARD Incorporating Amendments Nos. 1, 2 and 3 Structural use of concrete Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction ICS 91.080.40 This British Standard, having been prepared under
More informationThe following sketches show the plans of the two cases of oneway slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.
9.2 Oneway Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase
More informationConceptual Design of Buildings (Course unit code 1C2)
(Course unit code 1C2) Module C Design of Steel Members J.P. Jaspart (University of Liège) 520121120111CZERA MUNDUSEMMC Bolts are the main type of fasteners used in steel joints. The main geometrical
More informationPreliminary steel concrete composite bridge design charts for Eurocodes
Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 Rachel Jones Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David A Smith Regional Head of Bridge Engineering Highways & Transportation Atkins Abstract
More informationDEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLOCKS
1 th Canadian Masonry Symposium Vancouver, British Columbia, June 5, 013 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLOCKS Vladimir G. Haach 1, Graça Vasconcelos and Paulo
More informationMethods for Seismic Retrofitting of Structures
Methods for Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Retrofitting of existing structures with insufficient seismic resistance accounts for a major portion of the total cost of hazard mitigation. Thus, it is
More informationDesign and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures
Buildings Department Practice Note for Authorized Persons, Registered Structural Engineers and Registered Geotechnical Engineers APP68 Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures
More informationA transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.
Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTOLRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular
More informationNew approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design
New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beamcolumn FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural
More informationReinforced Concrete Design
FALL 2013 C C Reinforced Concrete Design CIVL 4135 ii 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Reading Assignment Chapter 1 Sections 1.1 through 1.8 of text. 1.2. Introduction In the design and analysis of reinforced
More informationNumerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck
7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 1013, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres
More informationOptimising plate girder design
Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree
More informationAnalysis and Repair of an EarthquakeDamaged Highrise Building in Santiago, Chile
Analysis and Repair of an EarthquakeDamaged Highrise Building in Santiago, Chile J. Sherstobitoff Ausenco Sandwell, Vancouver, Canada P. Cajiao AMEC, Vancouver, Canada P. Adebar University of British
More informationPrepared For San Francisco Community College District 33 Gough Street San Francisco, California 94103. Prepared By
Project Structural Conditions Survey and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment For SFCC Civic Center Campus 750 Eddy Street San Francisco, California 94109 Prepared For San Francisco Community College District
More informationPERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC EVALUATION AND RETROFITTING OF UNSYMMETRICAL MEDIUM RISE BUILDINGS A CASE STUDY
Paper No. 682 PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC EVALUATION AND RETROFITTING OF UNSYMMETRICAL MEDIUM RISE BUILDINGS A CASE STUDY Jimmy Chandra, Pennung Warnitchai, Deepak Rayamajhi, Naveed Anwar and Shuaib Ahmad
More information