Introduction. Eurocodes. Specification. Cost

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1 Introduction Eurocodes Specification Cost

2 Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures BS EN 1992 (EC2): BS EN 1993 (EC3): BS EN 1994 (EC4): BS EN 1995 (EC5): BS EN 1996 (EC6): BS EN 1999 (EC9): Design of concrete structures Design of steel structures Design of composite steel and concrete structures Design of timber structures Design of masonry structures Design of aluminium structures BS EN 1997 (EC7): BS EN 1998 (EC8): Geotechnical design Design of structures for earthquake resistance

3 The Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): Basis of structural design BS EN 1991 (EC1): Actions on Structures BS EN 1992 (EC2): Design of concrete structures BS EN 1993 (EC3): Design of steel structures BS EN 1994 (EC4): Design of composite steel and concrete structures BS EN 1995 (EC5): Design of timber structures BS EN 1996 (EC6): Design of masonry structures BS EN 1997 (EC7): Geotechnical design BS EN 1998 (EC8): Design of structures for earthquake resistance BS EN 1999 (EC9): Design of aluminium structures

4 Format of the Eurocodes Each Eurocode Contains: a. National front cover

5 Format of the Eurocodes Each Eurocode Contains: a. National front cover b. National foreword

6 Format of the Eurocodes Each Eurocode Contains: a. National front cover b. National foreword c. CEN front cover

7 Format of the Eurocodes Each Eurocode Contains: a. National front cover b. National foreword c. CEN front cover d. Main text and annexes (which must be as produced by CEN)

8 Format of the Eurocodes Each Eurocode Contains: a. National front cover b. National foreword c. CEN front cover d. Main text and annexes (which must be as produced by CEN) e. Annexes - can by normative or informative f. National Annex (NA)

9 f. National Annex (NA) The National Annex provides: Values of Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) (NDPs have been allowed for reasons of safety, economy and durability) Example: Min diameter for longitudinal steel in columns min = 8 mm in text min = 12 mm in N.A. The decision where main text allows alternatives Example: Load arrangements in Cl (1) P The choice to adopt informative annexes Example: Annexes E and J are not used in the UK Non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI) PD 6687 Background paper to UK National Annexes

10 Eurocode 2 - contents General Basis of design Materials Durability and cover to reinforcement Structural analysis Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons General Detailing of member and particular rules Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures Lightweight aggregated concrete structures Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures

11 Eurocode 2 - Annexes A. (Informative) Modification of partial factors for materials B. (Informative) Creep and shrinkage strain C. (Normative) Reinforcement properties D. (Informative) Detailed calculation method for prestressing steel relaxation losses E. (Informative) Indicative Strength Classes for durability F. (Informative) Reinforcement expressions for in-plane stress conditions G. (Informative) Soil structure interaction H. (Informative) Global second order effects in structures I. (Informative) Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls J. (Informative) Examples of regions with discontinuity in geometry or action (Detailing rules for particular situations) EC2 Annex J - replaced by Annex B in PD 6687

12 Eurocode 2 / BS 8110 Compared Code deals with phenomena, rather than element types Does not contain derived formulae (e.g. only the details of the stress block is given, not the flexural design formulae) Design is based on characteristic cylinder strength High strength, up to C90/105 covered

13 Eurocode 2 / BS 8110 Compared Plain or mild steel not covered Anchorage & lap lengths lots of alpha factors Strut & Tie method for discontinuity regions Flat slab design similar Shear reinforcement new method Punching Shear check similar Detailing of members shift rule

14 Standards BS EN Execution of Structures BS EN Specifying Concrete BS 8500 Specifying Concrete PD (Part 1.1 & 3) PD ( Part 2) BS EN 1992 Design of concrete structures Part 1-1: General & buildings Part 1-2: Fire design Part 2: Bridges Part 3: Liquid retaining National Annex NSCS N.A. BS EN Reinforcing Steels BS 4449 Reinforcing Steels BS 8666 Reinforcement Scheduling

15 Execution specifications:

16 Specification NBS, E-Sections E05 In-situ Concrete generally E10 Cast In-situ Concrete E11 Sprayed In-situ Concrete E20 Formwork Finishes E30 Reinforcement E40 Designed Joints E41 Worked Finishes E60 Precast Concrete

17 BS EN & NSCS, v April 2010 New types of finishes Geometric tolerances National Annex Part 1- Standard Specification Part 2- Project Specification Part 3 Guidance

18 Specification NSCS, v4 1 Scope 2 Bibliography 3 Definitions 4 Execution Management 5 Falsework and Formwork 6 Reinforcement 7 Prestressed Concrete 8 in-situ Concrete - Finishes 9 Precast Concrete 10 Geometric Tolerances

19 Specification NSCS, Finishes NSCS Guidance: 1 Basic 2 Ordinary 3 Plain 4 Special Visual Concrete

20 Cost (material & labour) Concrete % Formwork % Reinforcement %

21 Labour and Material (Peri) 24% 58% 18%

22 Rationalisation of Reinforcement Optimum cost depends on: Material cost Labour Plant Preliminaries Finance Team decision required

23 Detailing

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