Performance of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns under Bidirectional Shear & Axial Loading

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1 Performance of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns under Bidirectional Shear & Axial Loading Laura M. Flores University of California, San Diego REU Institution: University of California, Berkeley REU Advisor: Dr. Jack P. Moehle REU Symposium Kiawah Island Golf Resort - Kiawah, S.C. August 5-8, 2004 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER)

2 Outline Research Background & Project Objectives Design of Test Setup RC Column Specimen Material & Geometry Capacity Models Flexural, Shear and Axial Capacity Moment Curvature Response of Column Deformation Components Lateral Deformation Shear Failure Axial Deformation Residual Column Capacity & Damage Progression Fabrication of RC Column Specimens Sensitivity Analysis Ongoing Acknowledgments

3 Research Background Mechanisms leading to the collapse of existing, pre-seismic code RC frames are NOT well documented. Shake table tests are currently being conducted at PEER-UCB to observe & identify the failure components & load redistribution processes in RC bridge columns & in RC building frames under seismic & gravity loading. Identifying mechanisms causing shear failure in RC columns can be used to develop performance-based seismic design - strengthen future & existing structures against earthquake loading Column shear failure & its effect on the degradation of axial capacity in a pre-seismic code RC column is the focus of this project.

4 PERSONAL: Project Objectives To independently conduct research & gain extensive laboratory experience in the field of structural earthquake engineering Opportunity to work with researchers on cutting-edge research and learn about ongoing studies in seismic design and retrofitting Opportunity to learn and apply theories of seismic design & analysis to RC columns under seismic and gravity loads RESEARCH: Identify lateral & axial deformation components leading to RC column failure Compute flexural, shear and axial capacity models of RC column Design experimental setup allowing bidirectional loading of RC column for specific loading requirements & under budget Fabricate RC column specimens based on design specs Analyze the effect of bidirectional loading on the shear and axial failure of RC column and compare to predictive capacity models

5 Simplified Model of RC Column One-third scale of existing, pre-seismic ACI code designed RC Column ½ of RC column used in analysis Free end of column idealized as hinge connection with a fixed end at base of column

6 Simplified Model of RC Column (cont.) M(x) RC Col n M = 0 (hinge) M = M MAX (fixed) RC Col n

7 Design of Test Setup Gravity Load = 10 kips Actuator / Seismic Load = 8.3 kips HINGE RC Col n FIXED

8 Design of Test Setup (cont.) TEST APPARTUS 1'-4 3/8" (platform width?) 9"x8" flanged beam 70lb/ft. S=61.5 cu. in. 1'-5" 4'-6" 6"x3"channel beam 2' "ACTUATOR POSITION A 42.25" B C 4" x 5" x 1" pillow block - pnt.load 1/2" x 1/2" x 10" hold-in-place rods(check height&spacing?) 1' " lead ingot-14 bars 110 lb/bar total wt lb. 4" (add spacing if needed) clamp?? (H-structure) safety frame 3"x2" angle iron welded construction 1/2" concrete anchor bolts (??2 places??) A base plate 2 in. thickness 15 in.width and 3 ft. length FRONT VIEW CONCRETE FLOOR 4' " SIDE VIEW SECTION C-C

9 RC Column Material & Geometry

10 RC Column Material & Geometry (cont.)

11 Capacity Models of RC Column Specimen: Axial Capacity Axial Capacity of undamaged RC column: P N = 0.85*f C *(A g A SL ) + f YL* A SL..where f C concrete compressive strength, A g is the gross concrete area, A SL is the longitudinal reinforcement area, f YL is yield strength of longitudinal steel P N = 0.85*(3ksi)*[36in in 2 ] + (70ksi)*(0.884in 2 ) P N = kips

12 Capacity Models of RC Column Specimen: Flexural Capacity h ε cu =.003 ε s2 ε s3 N.A..85f C a T S2 T S3 C C T S3 T S2 ε S1 = T S1 T S1 M N C C T S3 ΣM h/2 = Failure (Z=-1) P N T S2 -T S3 *[(h/2)-d S3 ] - C C *[(h/2)-(a/2)] + M N -T S1 *[d S1 -(h/2)] T S1 M N = T S3 *[(h/2)-d S3 ] + C C *[(h/2)-(a/2)] + T S1 *[d S1 -(h/2)]..so, M N =153.3 kip-in

13 Capacity Models of RC Column Specimen: Shear Capacity Total shear capacity of an RC column depends on the shear capacity of the concrete, V C and the shear capacity carried by the transverse reinforcement, V ST in the column V N = (V C + V ST ) = 2*[1+(P/2000*Ag)]* f C *b W *d + [(4*A ST *f YT *d)/s]..where A ST is the transverse reinforcement area, f YT is yield strength of transverse reinforcement, d is distance from compression fiber to farthest tensile reinforcement, s is transverse reinforcement spacing, b W is the width of column x-section, P is axial load V N = 2*[1+(10,000lb/(2000*35.12in 2 ))]* (3000psi)*(6in)(5.145in) + ( in 2 )(70,000psi)(5.145in) V N = kips

14 Interaction Diagram of RC Column Specimen The flexural and axial capacity model for RC columns is used to derive an interaction diagram which relates the axial load column capacity with its moment capacity at any given time Maximum Axial Load Zero stress in tensile reinforcement, Z=0 (nom inal) Axial Load Capacity, Pn (kips) Balanced Failure, Z= -1 COMPRESSION TENSION -40 (nominal) Moment Capacity, Mn (kip-in)

15 Moment-Curvature Response of Shear-Critical RC Column under Axial & Lateral (Shear) Loading The flexural and axial capacity model for RC columns is used to derive an interaction diagram which relates the axial load column capacity with its moment capacity at any given time 160 M Y =V Y *l Moment, M (kip-in) E-22 1.E-04 3.E-04 4.E-04 5.E-04 7.E-04 8.E-04 9.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-03 1.E-03 1.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 4.E-03 4.E-03 Curvature, θ (1/in)

16 Deformation Components: Lateral Deflection Flexure M M FL = [(39in) 2 /6]*(7.6*10-4 in -1 ) = in

17 Flexure Deformation Components: Lateral Deflection

18 Deformation Components: Lateral Deflection Bar (Bond) Slip M M SL = [(39in)(0.375in)(70,000psi)(7.6*10-4 in -1 )] / [8*6* 3000psi] = in

19 Deformation Components: Shear Lateral Deflection V V SH = [2(113,000lb-in)] / (1.53*10 6 )(29.26in 2 ) = in.

20 Deformation Components: Shear Lateral Deflection

21 Lateral Yield Deformation of RC column: Lateral yield deformation (prior to shear failure) of longitudinal reinforcement in RC column results from 3 components acting in series: Flexure, Bar (Bond) Slip, Shear ( LAT ) Y = Y = ( FL + SL + SH ) ( LAT ) Y = Y = ( in) + ( in) + ( in) = in. Flexural displacement, FL Slip displacement, SL Shear displacement, SH Yield displacement, Y in in in in

22 Deformation Components: Shear Axial Failure! After yielding of longitudinal reinforcement, column sustains gravity and lateral (shear) loads until shear demand on column exceeds ultimate??? shear capacity of column (V>V U ) shear failure occurs! After shear failure occurs in column, gravity loads are supported by shear-friction forces along shear failure plane ( LAT ) AX occurs θ Shear Failure Plane

23 Deformation Components: Shear Axial Failure (cont.) θ Shear Failure Plane

24 Deformation Components: Shear Axial Failure (cont.) Residual Axial Capacity (after shear failure) of damaged RC column: P N = tanθ*[(a ST *f YT *d C )/s]*[(1+µtanθ)/(tanθ-µ)]..where f YT is yield strength of transverse reinforcement, d C is distance b/w extreme longitudinal reinforcement., s is transverse reinforcement spacing, θ is critical crack angle, µ is effective friction coefficient, A ST is transverse reinforcement area P N = [tan65( in2)(70ksi)(4.5417in) / (4in)]*[(1+(8.28kip/10kip)*tan65) / (tan65-(8.28kip/10kip))] = 4.4 kips!when gravity loads exceed shear-friction forces, axial failure occurs in column (column loses ALL shear capacity) total collapse of structure

25 Deformation Components: Shear Axial Failure (cont.) Axial Failure of Column Total Collapse of Column

26 Damage Progression in Column Drift Capacity Model Progression of damage in a shear-critical RC column can be quantified using an empirical drift capacity model based on the column s lateral displacement (i.e. drift ) Drift Ratio at Yielding of Longitudinal Reinforcement ( /L) Y = Drift Ratio at Shear Failure ( /L) SH = Drift Ratio at Axial Failure L ( /L) AX = L

27 Damage Progression in Column EPP Backbone Model Elastic-Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) backbone model approximates the shear load vs. lateral displacement behavior of shear-critical RC columns via. a shear-failure surface EPP backbone model utilizes the calculated column drift ratios at yielding, shear & axial failure, as well as the yield moment derived from the column moment-curvature response to generate the column s shear failure surface under lateral and gravity loading

28 Shear-Critical RC column Shear Hysteretic (forcedisplacement) Response w/ EPP shear-drift backbone Y SH AX EPP-predicted shear failure surface

29 Fabrication of RC Column Specimens Column Forms plywood, 2x4 s /8 RC Col n 1-1 5/8 1-10

30 Fabrication of RC Column Specimens (cont.) Steel Cages / Longitudinal & Transverse Reinforcement 60 Grade #3 & #5 rebar, tie wires, 1/8 diameter stirrups

31 Fabrication of RC Column Specimens (cont.) Casting of Column Specimens f C = 3 ksi

32 Fabrication of RC Column Specimens (cont.) Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity of RC Column Moment Capacity to Increasing 28-day Compressive Strength of Concrete (nominal) Moment Capacity, Mn (kip-in) fy constant Concrete Compressive Strength, fc' (ksi)

33 Fabrication of RC Column Specimens (cont.) Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity of RC Column Axial Load Capacity to Increasing 28-day Compressive Strength of Concrete (nominal) Axial Load Capacity, Pn (kips) fy constant Concrete Compressive Strength, fc' (ksi)

34 -Ongoing- My Research Objectives to be completed: " Fabrication of experimental setup " Testing of RC column specimens " Comparing observed RC column hysteretic response under axial & shear loading w/ that response predicted by capacity models Overall Research Objectives to be completed: " Using results to calibrate existing OpenSees analytical model that is based on RC structure deformation components & capacity models " Using revised OpenSees analytical model to predict hysteretic response of existing RC building structure (composed of several column-beam components) to seismic & gravity loading " Fabrication & testing of large-scale RC building frame " Additional verification studies of OpenSees analytical model

35 Acknowledgments Research conducted as part of the 2004 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Research Experience for Undergraduates & funded by the National Science Foundation Special thanks to my PEER advisor, Professor Jack P. Moehle for his guidance in the direction of my project and working hard to secure the funding which made this research experience possible Thanks to UC Berkeley graduate students, Wassim Michael Ghannoum & Yoon Bong Shin for their assistance in every aspect of this project Thanks to Richmond Field Station PEER headquarters lab personnel for their assistance in the design & fabrication of my experimental setup

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