Dynamics of Rotational Motion

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1 Chapter 10 Dynamics of Rotational Motion PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 5_31_2012

2 Goals for Chapter 10 To see how torques cause rotational dynamics (just as linear forces cause linear accelerations) To calculate work done by a torque To study angular momentum and its conservation To relate rotational dynamics and angular momentum

3 Torque A force (F) applied at a distance ( r) and at an angle (θ) will generate a torque (τ ). " # r $ F Magnitude of torque = " = rfsin#. Direction of torque is given by the "right - hand rule"- see next slide. Which force on the figure produces the largest torque about point O and which one produces the smallest torque? r "

4 Moment force and Lever arm Compute cross product using î,ĵ,ˆk: In this example: r=rsin î+rsin ĵ F = Fĵ r F = ( rsinî+rcos ĵ ) Fĵ = rsinî Fĵ+rcos ĵ Fĵ =rfsin ˆk + 0

5 Direction of torque vector Mathematically, the direction of torque vector is given by the right-hand rule (RHR) by convention. Physical effect of torque is tend to rotate the object counterclockwise or clockwise.

6 Calculate an applied torque Consider Example Refer to Figure Which angle should you use in " = rfsin#?

7 Τ = Iα is just like F = ma A 9.0N force is applied to the wheel for 2s and then released. What is the angular acceleration as a function of time? What is the angular velocity as a function of time? (Given the wheel was initially at rest)

8 Another look at the unwinding cable Given the mass (m) and the wheel (M), find the acceleration of m. (Assume no airresistance or friction at the axle of the wheel, assume the no-slipping) Concept 1: net F = m a Concept 2 : net " = I # Concept 3: a = R # (no slipping condition)

9 The yo-yo - rolling without slipping Calculate the yoyo s acceleration and then the final v after it has fallen a distance h. Concept 1: net F = M a Concept 2 : net " = I # Concept 3: a = R # (no slipping condition)

10 Energy method (translation + rotation) K = 1 2 mv 2 CM I CM" 2 Rolling without slipping condition " v CM = R# " K = 1 2 mv 2 CM I $ 2 v CM ' CM & ) % R 2 (

11 Application of Conservation of Energy Find speed of yo-yo after falling a distance h.

12 The race of objects with different moments of inertia Use energy method to determine which object will reach the bottom of the incline first (i.e. which object reach the bottom with the largest speed?) The object with the smallest moment of inertia will spend less energy rotating and hence has more energy for translation. The sphere has the smallest moment of inertia => will have the largest speed.

13 Why conservation of mechanical energy works when there is friction? What is the role of friction? Answer: The role of static friction is to do negative work on the center of motion while doing positive work on the rotation motion. Net result, the work done by static friction is zero.

14 Angular momentum Angular momentum ( L ) for a moving point mass : L " r # p = r # (m v ). $ d L dt = r # F = % Angular momentum for a rotating rigid object about a symmetry axis : L = I " d L dt = d(i ") = # dt If I = constant $ I % = # as before.

15 Compare linear and rotational dynamics Linear F = m a (if m = constant) p = m v Rotational dynamics of a rigid object " = I # (if I = constant) L = I $ (valid for rotation about a symmetry axis) F = d p " = d L dt dt For a system of objecys : If net F external = 0 If net " external = 0, then p total is conserved. then, L total is conserved.

16 Conservation of Angular momentum The frictionless platform ensures the external torque along the z-direction is zero=>l z is conserved I 1 " 1 = I 2 " 2 ; I #" $

17 This is how a car s clutch works-conservation of angular momentum I A " A + I B " B = (I A + I B ) "

18 Conservation of angular momentum in daily devices: Gyroscope - A fast spinning top whose angular momentum vector points at a fixed direction in space => a navigation device. Fast rotating bicycle wheels keep the bicycle stable. What is the purpose of the small propeller at the back of a helicopter?

19 Gyroscopic precession If external torque =/ =0, there could be precession motion.

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