1 Chemistry Lab 2010 Presenter: John R Kiser, MS Hickory Regional Director State Supervisor, Chemistry Lab
2 Introductions Topics for 2010: Solutions and Redox Regional vs State Topics Safety Requirements Long Sleeve Shirt! Must bring calculator! Need to know topics Formula Writing/Nomenclature Mole & Stoichiometry Calculations
3 Solution Terminology Solution: Homogeneous mixture Solvent: Component in greater/greatest amount Solute: Component(s) in lesser/least amount
4 Factors that influence solubility Polarity of Solute and Solvent Like Dissolves Like Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents Nonpolar solutes do not dissolve well in polar solvents Temperature Solubility of most solids in water increases with temperature Solubility of gases in water decreases with temperature Gas Pressure As the pressure of a gas above a solution increases, the solubility of the gas in the solution increases. (Henry s Law) Sweet Tea and Soft Drinks
5 Amounts of Solute in Solution Saturated: The maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent Unsaturated: Less than maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent Supersaturated: More than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in solvent To obtain a supersaturated solution, you heat solution until all solute dissolves. Carefully and slowly cooling the solution keeps all the solute dissolved in solvent. Solubility curves show maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in 100 ml (sometimes 100 g) of water at a particular temperature. Above curve = supersaturated, Below curve = unsaturated
6 Saturation Pay attention to units of solubility on Y axis! Suppose a saturated solution of sodium nitrate is prepared at 60 o C in 200 ml of water. The solution is quickly cooled to 20 o C. What mass of sodium nitrates crystallizes during cooling?
7 Units of Concentration Moles of solute Molarity (M) = Liters of solution Mass Percent = Mass of component Total mass of solution x 100% Moles of solute Molality (m) = Mass of solvent (kg) Copyright 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.
8 Units of Concentration Assuming that seawater is an aqueous solution of NaCl, what is its molarity? The density of seawater is g/ml at 20 C, and the NaCl concentration is 3.50 mass % mass % = 3.50 grams of salt in grams of solution Assuming g of solution, calculate the volume: g solution 1 ml solution x g solution Convert the mass of NaCl to moles: x 1 L solution = L solution 1000 ml solution 3.50 g NaCl x 1 mole NaCl = moles NaCl 58.4 g NaCl Then, calculate the molarity: moles NaCl = M NaCl L solution
9 Units of Concentration In the previous example, what was the MOLALITY (m) of sodium chloride in seawater? Assume seawater contains only sodium chloride and water. Calculate the mass of water (solvent) in kg: g solution 3.50 grams NaCl (solute) = grams water (solvent) = kg Convert the mass of NaCl (solute) to moles: 3.50 g NaCl 1 mole NaCl x = moles NaCl 58.4 g Then, calculate the molality: moles NaCl = m NaCl kg Solvent
10 Concentrations - ppm Parts per million (ppm)= (Mass based) Mass of component Total mass of solution x ppm means a solution contains 50 grams of solute in 10 6 grams of solution (50 mg in 1 kg solution) In dilute aqueous solutions at 25 o C, ppm is also equivalent to mg solute in 1 L solution
11 Solving For Unknown Concentration: Titrations (Volumetric Analysis) In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete. Indicator substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point Equivalence point the point at which the reaction is complete Sometimes called stoichiometric point Endpoint The point at which the indicator changes color Slowly add reactants UNTIL the indicator changes color 4.7
12 Steps for Solving Titration Problems Be sure you have the correct balanced equation before beginning! STEP 1 Determine moles of starting compound STEP 2: Determine moles of desired compound STEP 3: Solve the problem Example Problem: Titration of Citric Acid in Fruit Juice State Level Question, 2010, commonly missed at many regionals! 3 NaOH (aq) + H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 (aq) 3 H 2 O (l) + Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 (aq)
13 Solving for Unknown Concentration: Lambert-Beer Lambert-Beer Law: A = εbc A = Absorbance (unitless) b = path length (cm) c = concentration (M) ε = Molar absorbtivity (constant, units M -1 cm -1 ) Lambert-Beer or Beer s Law Plot: Provided all absorbance measurements are made on the same spectrophotometer with the same cell, a graph of absorbance vs. concentration will be linear. Lab activity at State in 2010! Commonly missed: Incorrect graphing, use of SpectroVis, and connecting the dots on the graph.
14 Solving for Unknown Concentration: Density Density of solution increases as solute concentration increases. The plot of density of solution versus concentration of solution should be linear. Can be used to solve for an unknown concentration.
15 Using Concentrations to Find Molar Mass: FP Depression Adding a solute to a solvent decreases the freezing point T f = k f *m T f = decrease in freezing point k f = Freezing point constant (1.86 o C m -1 for water) m = molality (mole solute per kg solvent) Assumes ideal behavior and that solute is NOT ionic. How to use to find molar mass of solute: Use T f and k f to find molality of solution Use mass of solvent to find moles solute present Mass solute dissolved divided by moles solute gives the molar mass of solute!
16 Freezing Point Depression Example When 2.50 grams of a covalent compound is dissolved in kg of water, the freezing point is determined to be ⁰C. What is the molar mass of the compound? (Assume Ideal Behavior) Molality = T f = ⁰C = m Kf 1.86 ⁰C m kg water * moles solute = moles solute kg water Molar mass= 2.50 grams solute = 62.0 grams per mole moles solute
17 Oxidation Reduction (Redox) Fundamental Concepts Oxidation is Loss of electrons, gain of O, loss of H Reduction is Gain of electrons, loss of O, gain of H Mnemonic Devices: LEO the lion goes GER! OIL RIG The species being reduced is the oxidizing agent The species being oxidized is the reducing agent
18 Activity Series of Elements Usually lists the best reducing agent (most easily oxidized) at top. Metal above reacts with ion below. Sample lab activity: The metal that reacts with everything else goes at the top; the ion that reacts with everything goes (as element, not ion) at bottom Aluminum Demonstration
20 Determining if a species is oxidized or reduced: Oxidation Numbers Rules above take precedence over rules below! An atom in its elemental state has an oxidation number of 0. Oxidation number of H in H 2 = 0 An atom in a monatomic ion has an oxidation number identical to its charge. Oxidation number of Fe 3+ = +3 The total sum of oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge. Sum of oxidation numbers in a neutral molecule is 0. Pay attention to subscripts!
21 In a compound or polyatomic ion: 1A metal, ox #= +1; 2A metal, ox # = +2; 3A Metal, Ox # = +3 H, ox # = -1 if bonded to metal or Boron; H, ox # = +1 if bonded to another nonmetal Oxygen, ox# = -2 (EXCEPT IN PEROXIDES, -1) Fluorine, ox # = -1. Other halogens (if written to right in formula), ox # = -1 Other atoms not on this list can be deduced by following the rules above Finding oxidation number of Cl in ClO 4 Oxidation number of O = -2 Cl + 4*-2 = -1 Cl 8 = -1 Cl = +7 If oxidation number increases, oxidation is taking place If oxidation number decreases, reduction is taking place
22 Redox Half Reactions In many complex redox reactions, H + (or OH - ) and H 2 O are involved in the reaction and may not be obvious at first. Therefore, there is a systematic method to balancing complex redox reactions. First, separate into two half reactions, one for oxidation, one for reduction. Total Reaction: Cl - + Cr 2 O 7 2- Cl 2 + Cr 3+ Half Reactions: Cl - Cl 2 and Cr 2 O 7 2- Cr 3+
23 Balancing Half Reactions Using Coefficients, balance all atoms BUT H and O: Cr 2 O Cr 3+ Balance O by adding H 2 O Cr 2 O 7 2- Cr H 2 O Balance H by adding H + 14 H + + Cr 2 O Cr H 2 O Balance charge by adding e - 14 H + + Cr 2 O e - 2Cr H 2 O Number of electrons should correspond to change in oxidation number (keeping number of atoms in mind too!) No electrons in final answer, so multiply one (or both) half reaction(s) by a number so that electrons are equal. 2 Cl - Cl e - 2 Cl - Cl e - becomes 6 Cl - 3 Cl e -
24 Adding Half Reactions Together 6 Cl - 3 Cl e - 14 H + + Cr 2 O e - 2Cr H 2 O Be sure to cancel out electrons, water, and H + that appears on both sides 6 Cl H + + Cr 2 O Cl Cr H 2 O Be sure to double check charges and numbers of atoms! Electrons should not be left over! If you are balancing a half-reaction in basic solution, add OH - to both sides, convert H + to H 2 O, and cancel out!
25 Example Problem Balance the following half reaction in basic solution: Oxidation or reduction? OCl - Cl -
26 Galvanic Cells What happens when a redox reaction is spread out over 2 beakers? Oxidation at anode (-), reduction at cathode (+) Electrons flow from anode to cathode
28 Standard Reduction Potential (E o red) E o cell =E o cathode E o anode Positive E o cell means the reaction is spontaneous More positive E o means a more favored reaction O Standard Conditions, 298 K, 1 atm, 1 M solutions All these values are measured with respect to 2H + /H 2 (These E o values are technically E o reduction. E o oxidation can also be written for reverse reactions)
29 Shorthand Notation for Galvanic Cells Anode half-reaction: Cathode half-reaction: Zn(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu(s) Overall cell reaction: Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Anode half-cell Salt bridge Cathode half-cell Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) Cu(s) Phase boundary Copyright 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Electron flow Phase boundary
30 Example Problem For the following Galvantic cell, determine the cathode, anode, and E o cell Ni (s) Ni 2+ (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) Cu(s)
31 The Effect of Concentration on Cell E What happens when conditions are not standard? Nernst Equation: E = E - RT nf ln Q or E = E - or 2.303RT nf log Q E = E V n log Q in volts, at 25 C Q = Reaction Quotient (from Equilibrium topics) Setup is just like an equilibrium constant, except the system is not at equilibrium. Products on top, reactants on bottom. Coefficients become exponents. Solutions in M, gases in atm, pure liquids and solids omitted.
32 Consider a galvanic cell that uses the reaction: Cu(s) + 2Fe 3+ (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2Fe 2+ (aq) What is the potential of a cell at 25 C that has the following ion concentrations? [Fe 3+ ] = 1.0 x 10-4 M [Cu 2+ ] = 0.25 M [Fe 2+ ] = 0.20 M
33 Anode: Cathode: Batteries Lead Storage Battery Pb(s) + HSO 4- (aq) PbO 2 (s) + 3H + (aq) + HSO 4- (aq) + 2e - PbSO 4 (s) + H + (aq) + 2e - PbSO 4 (s) + 2H 2 O(l) Overall: Pb(s) + PbO 2 (s) + 2H + (aq) + 2HSO 4- (aq) 2PbSO 4 (s) + 2H 2 O(l) Copyright 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Chapter 17/33
36 Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells Electrolysis: The process of using an electric current to bring about chemical change. Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride Anode: 2Cl - (l) Cl 2 (g) + 2e - Cathode: 2Na + (l) + 2e - 2Na(l) Copyright 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Overall: 2Na + (l) + 2Cl - (l) 2Na(l) + Cl 2 (g)
37 Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells Cathode has negative charge, connected to negative terminal on battery; anode has positive charge, connected to positive terminal. Reduction still at cathode, Oxidation still at anode Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride
38 Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells Electrolysis of Water Anode: Cathode: 2H 2 O(l) 4H 2 O(l) + 4e - O 2 (g) + 4H + (aq) + 4e - 2H 2 (g) + 4OH - (aq) Overall: 6H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) + 4H + + 4OH - (aq)
39 Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions Electrolysis of NaI Consider reduction of water and reduction of cation Na + (aq) + e - Na (s) E o red = V 2 H 2 O (l) + 2e - H 2 (g) + 2 OH - (aq) E o red = V Less negative (or more positive) reduction is preferred! Consider oxidation of water and oxidation of anion 2 H 2 O (l) O 2 (g) + 4 H + (aq) + 4 e - E o ox = V 2 I - (aq) I 2 (s) + 2 e - E o ox = V Less negative (more positive) oxidation preferred! (Note: reversing from E o red table. If reading directly from table, without reversing oxidation, look for more negative E o red)
40 Overvoltage makes predictions difficult if both competing reactions have similar E o values. In electrolysis of aqueous NaCl, even though oxidation of water is less negative, Cl is oxidized to Cl 2 gas. Poorly understood, mainly due to kinetic factors and concentration effects. Prediction is difficult if values are close on table. Rules of Thumb for electrolysis of solutions Look on left side of SRP table. If cation is higher than water, cation will be reduced. Look to right side of SRP table. If anion is below water, anion will be reduced
41 Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis Charge(C) = Current(A) x Time(s) Moles of e - = Charge(A) x 1 mol e - 96,500 C Faraday constant
42 Example Problem How much Ca will be produced in an electrolytic cell of molten CaCl 2 if a current of A is passed through the cell for 1.5 hours? 19.8
43 Lab Time! Lab #1 Beer s Law Lab #2 Redox Titration Lab #3 Setup of a Galvanic cell and determining E O cell and E o for a half reaction
44 Thank you! Please me at For follow-up questions, concerns, etc..
Ch 20 Electrochemistry: the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. In electrochemical reactions, electrons are transferred from one species to another. Learning goals and
Chapter 17 Electrochemistry GCC CHM152 Electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the study of batteries and the conversion between chemical and electrical energy. Based on redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions
Sample Exercise 20.1 Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents The nickel-cadmium (nicad) battery, a rechargeable dry cell used in battery-operated devices, uses the following redox reaction to generate
CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in
Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds
Harnessing the Power in Nature Lecture Presentation Chapter 18 Electrochemistry Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University The goal of scientific research is to understand nature. Once we understand the
Chemical Reactions Chapter 6 Chemical Arithmetic Balancing Equations The mole Gram - mole conversions Mole - mole relationships in chemical equations Mass relationships in chemical equations Per cent yeilds
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's
1 OXIDATION NUMBERS (Section 4.4) Oxidation number is the charge of an atom in a molecule if all the bonding is considered ionic. Oxidation number is different from formal charge. Using oxidation numbers
Electrolytic Cells Voltaic cells are driven by a spontaneous chemical reaction that produces an electric current through an outside circuit. These cells are important because they are the basis for the
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions What is an Oxidation-Reduction, or Redox, reaction? Oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions, are technically defined as any chemical reaction in which the oxidation
Redox and Electrochemistry This section should be fresh in your minds because we just did this section in the text. Closely related to electrochemistry is redox chemistry. Count on at least one question
Chemistry 1215 Experiment #10 The Reaction of Zinc and Iodine: The Combination of Two Elements Objective The objective of this experiment is to perform a combination reaction by reacting elemental zinc
Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual
John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 18 Electrochemistry and Its Applications Stephen C. Foster Mississippi State University Electrochemistry
1. What occurs during a redox reaction? Electrochemistry Electrons are transferred. 2. What does the acronym OIL RIG stand for? Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain (Referring to the loss/gain of electrons)
Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point
Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration
Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned
Chapter 20 Electrochemistry Electrochemistry deals with the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions were introduced in Chapter 4 Can be simple displacement
1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse
Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances
Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl
Discovering Electrochemical Cells Part I Electrolytic Cells Many important industrial processes PGCC CHM 102 Cell Construction e e power conductive medium What chemical species would be present in a vessel
Chapter 21: Electrochemistry Page 1 CHAPTER 21 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 21-1. Consider an electrochemical cell formed from a Cu(s) electrode submerged in an aqueous Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution and a Cd(s) electrode submerged
IB/SL Chemistry Name ANSWERS Test; Past Chemistry Regents Exams Most Frequently Missed Questions 1. 1. A HIGH PROBABLITY OF FINDING AN ELECTRON 2. 3. +8 (every atom of oxygen in the universe) 3. 2. LOW
Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations Practical Applications of Chemistry Determining chemical formula of a substance Predicting the amount of substances consumed during a reaction
CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous
AP Chemistry 2010 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded
Chemistry 122 Mines, Spring 2014 Answer Key, Problem Set 9 1. 18.44(c) (Also indicate the sign on each electrode, and show the flow of ions in the salt bridge.); 2. 18.46 (do this for all cells in 18.44
Chemistry of Voltaic Cells An electrochemical cell consists of two parts, called half-cells, in which the separate oxidation and reduction reactions take place. Each half cell contains a metal electrode
Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term
TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present
Chapter 18-1 1. Assign oxidation numbers to each atom in: Ni Nickel ion charge would be +2, so oxidation number is +2 Chloride ion charge would be 1, so each chlorine has an ox # of -1 Mg 2 Ti 4 Magnesium
Name Period CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW Final Exam: approximately 75 multiple choice questions Ch 12: Stoichiometry Ch 5 & 6: Electron Configurations & Periodic Properties Ch 7 & 8: Bonding Ch 14: Gas
Name AP CHEM / / Collected Essays Chapter 17 Answers 1980 - #2 M(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) M 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) For the reaction above, E = 0.740 volt at 25 C. (a) Determine the standard electrode potential for the
Exploring Creation With Chemistry Table of Contents MODULE #1: Measurement and Units...1 Introduction... 1 Experiment 1.1: Air Has Mass... 1 Experiment 1.2: Air Takes Up Space... 2 Units of Measurement...
Two Types of Chemical Rxns Oxidation/Reduction Chapter 20 1. Exchange of Ions no change in charge/oxidation numbers Acid/Base Rxns NaOH + HCl Two Types of Chemical Rxns Precipitation Rxns Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)
Chemical Equations and Calculations A chemical equation is a shorthand way of indicating what is going on in a chemical reaction. We could do it the long way Two molecules of Hydrogen gas react with one
Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Outline: Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing
Chemistry 12 UNIT 5 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION PACKAGE #2 HOW TO PREDICT WHETHER A REDOX REACTION WILL BE SPONTANEOUS: Looking at the table in the data booklet on page 8, INCREASING TENDENCY TO REDUCE = INCREASING
Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there
CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.
Limi$ng reactants How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies How Many Cookies Can I Make? In this
4/15/13 Illustrate bonding Describe the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations Find the charge of the ions below: (int: Ignore the neutrons and compare p and e) 1.5 protons, 6 electrons,
1. Using the Activity Series on the Useful Information pages of the exam write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following reactions. Identify all products phases as either (g)as,
Electrochemistry Voltaic Cells Many chemical reactions can be classified as oxidation-reduction or redox reactions. In these reactions one species loses electrons or is oxidized while another species gains
1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.
GCSE CHEMISTRY Higher Tier Chemistry 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed). Instructions Answer all
NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants
AP Chemistry 2004 Scoring Guidelines Form B The materials included in these files are intended for noncommercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use must be
Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance
Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take
Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Zumdahl 6 th Ed, Chapter 4 Sections 1-6. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition
Chapter 3 - Molecules, compounds, and chemical equations Elements and compounds Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures Atomic elements: Ionic bond: attraction of oppositely
More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and 3.5 3.7) Ion: an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Examples: Na + (sodium ion), Cl - (chloride), NH 4 + (ammonium). Anion: a negative ion, formed when electrons
Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 20 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) is reduced in the following reaction: Cr2O7
Chem 170 Stoichiometric Calculations Module Seven Including Liquids and Solutions in Stoichiometric Calculations DePauw University Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Page 1 Introduction to Module
Name: Score: 50 / 50 points (100%) 2008 SOL Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. C 1. Trial Concentration 1 0.971 M 2 0.982 M 3 1.02 M 4 0.971
Conductors Metals and graphite are the only solids which conduct electricity, but no chemical change is involved. Liquid (melted) metals also conduct, but again there is no chemical change. Electrolytes
John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component
Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find
Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Avogadro's Number, molar mass and converting between mass and moles (REVIEW). 2. empirical formulas from analysis.
Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another
Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,
Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute
3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be
Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret
10.1 Reactions and Equations Evidence of Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction a process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different physical and chemical properties.
Reactions in solution A subset of chemical reactions Learning objectives Define solution and its components Distinguish among strong, weak and non-electrolyte Identify strong acids and strong bases Apply
1 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS Allessandra Volta (1745-1827) invented the electric cell in 1800 A single cell is also called a voltaic cell, galvanic cell or electrochemical cell. Volta joined several cells together
Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling
FE Review Chemistry Heather J. Shipley Assistant Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering UTSA Basic Concepts Nucleus of atom Proton: positively charged particle, 1.00728 amu Neutron: neutral particle,