1 Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Acids and Bases
2 Three definitions of acid Who Theory: Acid= When Arrhenius increases H s Brønsted proton donor 1923 Lowry ditto 1923 Lewis Electron-pair acceptor 1923
3 Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 October 2, 1927) Swedish chemist; Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1903 * Arrhenius equation (activation energy) * Greenhouse effect Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted (February 22, 1879-December 17, 1947) Danish physical chemist Thomas Martin Lowry (October 26, 1874 November 2, 1936) English organic chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) American physical chemist
4 Some Definitions Arrhenius acids and bases Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons, H + ). Base: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.
5 Some Definitions Brønsted Lowry: must have both 1. an Acid: Proton donor and 2. a Base: Proton acceptor
6 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases are always paired. The Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a proton, while the Brønsted-Lowry base accepts it. Which is the acid and which is the base in each of these rxns?
7 A Brønsted Lowry acid HCl, H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 must have a removable (acidic) proton. A Brønsted Lowry base NH 3, H 2 O must have a pair of nonbonding electrons.
8 If it can be either...it is amphiprotic. HCO 3 HSO 4 H 2 O
9 What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed. Movies
10 Conjugate Acids and Bases: From the Latin word conjugare, meaning to join together. Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids.
11 Acid and Base Strength Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are quite weak. Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are weak bases.
12 Acid and Base Strength Substances with negligible acidity do not dissociate in water. Their conjugate bases are exceedingly strong.
13 Acid and Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium favors the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) H 2 O is a much stronger base than Cl, so the equilibrium lies so far to the right K is not measured (K>>1).
14 Acid and Base Strength Acetate is a stronger base than H 2 O, so the equilibrium favors the left side (K<1). The stronger base wins the proton. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq)
15 Autoionization of Water As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. This process is called autoionization.
16 Ion-Product Constant The equilibrium expression for this process is K c = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] This special equilibrium constant is referred to as the ion-product constant for water, K w. At 25 C, K w =
17 ph ph is defined as the negative base-10 logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration. ph = log [H 3 O + ]
18 ph In pure water, K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = Because in pure water [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ], [H 3 O + ] = ( ) 1/2 =
19 ph Therefore, in pure water, ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log ( ) = 7.00 An acid has a higher [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is <7 A base has a lower [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is >7.
20 These are the ph values for several common substances. ph
21 Other p Scales The p in ph tells us to take the negative log of the quantity (in this case, hydronium ions). Some similar examples are poh log [OH - ] pk w log K w
22 Watch This! Because we know that [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = K w = , log [H 3 O + ] + log [OH ] = log K w = or, in other words, ph + poh = pk w = 14.00
23 If you know one, you know them all: [H + ] [OH - ] ph poh
24 How Do We Measure ph? Litmus paper Red paper turns blue above ~ph = 8 Blue paper turns red below ~ph = 5 An indicator Compound that changes color in solution.
25 How Do We Measure ph? ph meters measure the voltage in the solution
26 Strong Acids You will recall that the seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 3, and HClO 4. These are strong electrolytes and exist totally as ions in aqueous solution. For the monoprotic strong acids, [H 3 O + ] = [acid].
27 Strong Bases Strong bases are the soluble hydroxides, which are the alkali metal (NaOH, KOH)and heavier alkaline earth metal hydroxides (Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, and Ba(OH) 2 ). Again, these substances dissociate completely in aqueous solution. [OH - ] = [hydroxide added].
28 Dissociation Constants For a generalized acid dissociation, the equilibrium expression is This equilibrium constant is called the aciddissociation constant, K a.
29 Dissociation Constants The greater the value of K a, the stronger the acid.
30 Calculating K a from the ph The ph of a 0.10 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate K a for formic acid at this temperature. We know that
31 Calculating K a from the ph The ph of a 0.10 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate K a for formic acid at this temperature. To calculate K a, we need all equilibrium concentrations. We can find [H 3 O + ], which is the same as [HCOO ], from the ph.
32 Calculating K a from the ph ph = log [H 3 O + ] 2.38 = log [H 3 O + ] = 10 log [H 3O+] = [H 3 O + ] = [H 3 O + ] = [HCOO ]
33 Calculating K a from ph In table form: [HCOOH], M [H 3 O + ], M [HCOO ], M Initially Change At Equilibrium = = 0.10
34 Calculating K a from ph K a = [ ] [ ] [0.10] =
35 Calculating Percent Ionization In the example: [A - ] eq = [H 3 O + ] eq = M [A - ] eq + [HCOOH] eq = [HCOOH] initial = 0.10 M
37 Calculating ph from K a Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of acetic acid, C 2 H 3 O 2 H, at 25 C. K a for acetic acid at 25 C is Is acetic acid more or less ionized than formic acid (K a =1.8 x 10-4 )?
38 Calculating ph from K a The equilibrium constant expression is:
39 Calculating ph from K a Use the ICE table: [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M [H 3 O + ], M [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M Initial Change x +x +x Equilibrium 0.30 x x x
40 Calculating ph from K a Use the ICE table: [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M [H 3 O + ], M [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M Initial Change x +x +x Equilibrium 0.30 x x x Simplify: how big is x relative to 0.30?
41 Calculating ph from K a Use the ICE table: [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M [H 3 O + ], M [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M Initial Change x +x +x Equilibrium 0.30 x 0.30 x x Simplify: how big is x relative to 0.30?
42 Calculating ph from K a Now, ( ) (0.30) = x = x = x Check: is approximation ok?
43 Calculating ph from K a ph = log [H 3 O + ] ph = log ( ) ph = 2.64
44 Polyprotic Acids Have more than one acidic proton. If the difference between the K a for the first dissociation and subsequent K a values is 10 3 or more, the ph generally depends only on the first dissociation.
45 Weak Bases Bases react with water to produce hydroxide ion.
46 Weak Bases The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is where K b is the base-dissociation constant.
48 Weak Bases K b can be used to find [OH ] and, through it, ph.
49 ph of Basic Solutions What is the ph of a 0.15 M solution of NH 3? [NH 4+ ] [OH ] K b = = [NH 3 ] -5
50 ph of Basic Solutions Tabulate the data. [NH 3 ], M [NH 4+ ], M [OH ], M Initial Equilibrium x 0.15 x x Simplify: how big is x relative to 0.15?
51 ph of Basic Solutions = (x) 2 (0.15) ( ) (0.15) = x = x = x 2 Check: is approximation ok?
55 K a and K b K a and K b are related in this way: K a K b = K w Therefore, if you know one of them, you can calculate the other.
56 PRACTICE EXERCISES 1. Niacin, one of the B vitamins, has the following molecular structure: A M solution of niacin has a ph of (a) What percentage of the acid is ionized in this solution? (b) What is the acid-dissociation constant, K a, for niacin? 2. What is the ph of (a) a M solution of NaOH, (b) a M solution of Ca(OH) 2? What percentage of the bases are ionized? 3. Calculate the percentage of HF molecules ionized in (a) a 0.10 M HF solution, (b) a M HF solution. Ka for HF is 6.8 x10-4.
57 Reactions of Anions with Water Anions are bases. As such, they can react with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form OH and the conjugate acid: X (aq) + H 2 O(l) HX(aq) + OH (aq)
58 Reactions of Cations with Water Cations with acidic protons (like NH 4+ ) lower the ph of a solution by releasing H +. Most metal cations (like Al 3+ ) that are hydrated in solution also lower the ph of the solution; they act by associating with H 2 O and making it release H +.
59 Reactions of Cations with Water Attraction between nonbonding electrons on oxygen and the metal causes a shift of the electron density in water. This makes the O-H bond more polar and the water more acidic. Greater charge and smaller size make a cation more acidic.
60 Effect of Cations and Anions 1. An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid will not affect the ph. 2. An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid will increase the ph. 3. A cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base will decrease the ph.
61 Effect of Cations and Anions 4. Cations of the strong Arrhenius bases will not affect the ph. 5. Other metal ions will cause a decrease in ph. 6. When a solution contains both the conjugate base of a weak acid and the conjugate acid of a weak base, the affect on ph depends on the K a and K b values.
62 What effect on ph? An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid does not affect ph. An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid increases ph. A cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base decreases ph. Cations of the strong Arrhenius bases (Na +, Ca 2+ ) do not affect ph. Other metal ions cause a decrease in ph. Weak acid + weak base Why? = very weak base = strong base = strong acid = very weak acid (not really acidic at all) = moderate bases (cations) Depends on K a and K b
63 Factors Affecting Acid Strength The more polar the H-X bond and/or the weaker the H- X bond, the more acidic the compound. Acidity increases from left to right across a row and from top to bottom down a group.
64 Factors Affecting Acid Strength In oxyacids, in which an OH is bonded to another atom, Y, the more electronegative Y is, the more acidic the acid.
65 Factors Affecting Acid Strength For a series of oxyacids, acidity increases with the number of oxygens.
66 Factors Affecting Acid Strength Resonance in the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids stabilizes the base and makes the conjugate acid more acidic.
67 Lewis Acids Lewis acids are defined as electron-pair acceptors. Atoms with an empty valence orbital can be Lewis acids. A compound with no H s can be a Lewis acid.
68 Lewis Bases Lewis bases are defined as electron-pair donors. Anything that is a Brønsted Lowry base is also a Lewis base. (B-L bases also have a lone pair.) Lewis bases can interact with things other than protons.
69 PRACTICE EXERCISES 1. Niacin, one of the B vitamins, has the following molecular structure: A M solution of niacin has a ph of (a) What percentage of the acid is ionized in this solution? (b) What is the acid-dissociation constant, K a, for niacin? 2. Calculate the percentage of HF molecules ionized in (a) a 0.10 M HF solution, (b) a M HF solution. Ka for HF is 6.8 x A solution of acetic acid is 2% ionized at 25 C. K a =1.8x10-5. What was the original concentration of the acid?
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