Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West

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1 Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West Section 1 The Economic Revolution SPECIALIZATION-raising one or two cash crops to sell MARKET REVOLUTION- people bought and sold goods rather than growing/making them CAPITALISM- economic system in which private businesses and people control production ENTREPRENEURS- people who use their own money to start a business o Communication TELEGRAPH-carried messages tapped in code across a copper wire o Transportation Invented by SAMUEL F. B. MORSE Steam engines moved boats UP the Mississippi Canals allowed more travel and shipping Railroads began to emerge and bring good and people inland New Markets Links Regions o Southern Agriculture (Plantations)

2 People in the south relied on cotton, tobacco and rice crops Transportation and communication were less advanced in the south o Northeast Industry Shipping became the center of American commerce. Most goods came through New York City. Manufacturing--less people could produce better and more goods in factories o Midwest Agriculture (Farms) Farming-fertile soil, but needed cultivating JOHN DEERE-invented the first steel plow CYRUS MCCORMIC-invented the mechanical reaper to harvest grain Section 2 Manifest Destiny Frontier Draws Settlers MANIFEST DESTINY-The belief that the movement west was ordained by God Land ownership = wealth

3 Settlers and Native Americans Trails West FORT LARAMIE TREATY-gave control of the Great Plains to some Native Americans o SANTA FE TRAIL- from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico Wagons traveled in groups to protect themselves from Native American attacks. o OREGON TRAIL- from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon. This trail followed part of the Lewis and Clark trail o MORMON TRAIL MORMONS-a religious community that moved along the Oregon Trail. Territorial Dispute JOSEPH SMITH--established the Mormon Church. He led his followers west, but was murdered by an anti-mormon mob. BRIGHAM YOUNG--led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake because of religious persecution.

4 FIFTY-FOUR FORTY OR FIGHT - Section 3 Expansion in Texas Boundary dispute between the US and Great Britain slogan that referred to the northern limit of Oregon. This slogan was used by Polk during the election in support of the annexation of Oregon to the US. o Mission System Spain s system of Roman Catholic missions in California, Texas, and New Mexico tried to convert Native Americans and settle them on mission lands. The land was eventually given to the Mexican government officials and ranches. o Mexican Independence Once Mexico won its independence from Spain (1821), trade between Mexico s northern providences and the US increased. Americans settle in the southwest One American s Story o STEPHEN F. AUSTIN led groups of American settlers to a fertile area in Texas. After ending up in a Mexican prison, he warned of an upcoming crisis between Texas and Mexico.

5 o US Settlers LAND GRANTS-Land was given to agents (empresarios) who sold the land to American settlers who agreed to obey Mexican laws and observe the Roman Catholic religion. o Austin in Texas Stephen F. Austin was a successful empresario who established colonies in Texas. He ended up with almost 300 land grants. America tried to buy some land from Mexico, but Mexico refused. Texas Fights for Independence o Come to Texas -many Americans moved to Texas to buy the cheap land, despite strong taxes on importing American goods. ANTIONO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANA-the Mexican president TEXAS REVOLUTION-several rebellions between Texas and Mexico o Remember the Alamo ALAMO-an abandoned mission and fort in which Texans were slaughtered by the Mexican Armies San Antonio catch phrase for the rest of the Texas Revolution. o Lone Star Republic

6 SAM HOUSTON-led Texan military to victory against Santa Ana during the Revolution. He later became the president of the Republic of Texas. REPUBLIC OF TEXAS-the new nation set up after Texas won its independence from Mexico. o Texas joins the United States Texas invited the US to annex (incorporate) Texas into the US. In 1845, Texas became the 28 th state in the Union. Section 4 The War with Mexico Polk urges War JAMES K. POLK-president who attempted to take over Mexican territories, including Texas and the Southwest (New Mexico, California, Arizona) o Slidell s Rejection John Slidell was sent to Mexico to gain approval of the Rio Grande River as the Texas border, but Mexico refused to accept him. ZACHARY TAYLOR-general who marched the Rio Grande and blockaded the river from Mexicans o Sectional Attitudes toward war Southerners saw annexation of Texas as a way to give more power to Congress and extend slavery. They supported the war.

7 Northerners opposed the war because they did not want more slave states. The War Begins o Kearny Marches West STEPHEN KEARNY-marched from Kansas in order to take over New Mexico from Mexico. He then led his men on to California. o California American settlers raised a flag and declared their independence from Mexico. Their new nation was called THE REPUBLIC OF CALIFORNIA. Mexican troops withdrew when Kearny came and the US won California. o The War in Mexico The Mexican army had very poor leaders. WINFIELD SCOTT-American who attacked Mexico, but allowed Mexican army to escape American Gains the Spoils of War o TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO-a treaty between Mexico and US. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border for Texas, and gave New Mexico and California to the US. The US agreed to pay $15 million for the land. GADSDEN PURCHASE-established the borders for the lower 48 states.

8 o Zachary Taylor was elected president in 1848 The California Gold Rush (How the West was Won) o The Rush Begins FORTY-NINERS-prospectors who flocked to California in 1849 GOLD RUSH-a time of huge immigration to California in order to mine for gold. o Gold Fever San Francisco became a huge city because of the Gold Rush. o Gold Rush brings diversity People of all kinds came from all over the world to California.

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