Biological Processes. Neurons - how do they work? Nervous system: communication system of your body and brain

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biological Processes. Neurons - how do they work? Nervous system: communication system of your body and brain"

Transcription

1 Biological Processes Overview: The Nervous System: s Anatomy, communication, networks CNS/PNS The Brain Anatomy, localization of function Methods to study the brain (Dr. Heidenreich) Nervous system: communication system of your body and brain The basic unit of the nervous system is a neuron The nervous system contains over 1000 billion individual neurons Your brain alone consists of about 100 billion neurons s have both chemical and electrical processes s how do they work? (1) Your brain is almost entirely made up of neurons, specialized for different behaviors (2) s are complex cells that communicate by means of an electrochemical language (3) Activity in the neurons gets passed from one to another in a network (4) Chemicals stimulate the cell to transmit an electrical impulse. When the impulse reaches the end of the cell, chemicals are released which are picked up by neighboring cells which stimulate those cells 1

2 s have three basic parts Dendrites (1) Receives chemicals called neurotransmitters from neighboring cells and starts the electrical signal Axon (2) Transmits the electrical impulse down the length of the cell Terminal buttons (3) Releases chemical neurotransmitters to neighboring cells How neurons communicate Step1: chemicals (neurotransmitters) enter through the dendrites dendrites +++ Different neurotransmitters have different effects on the neuron. Some will make it more likely to fire. Others will make it less likely to fire. Step2: Action potential If enough of the excitatory (++) chemicals enter the dendrites, the neuron will transmit an electrical signal down the length of the axon Resting potential = Axon (1) Fluid inside the neuron is negatively charged (2) Fluid outside has positive and negative ions When the message is positive, + ions flow into cell and an electrical charge travels down the neuron This impulse is called an action potential 2

3 If enough of the inhibitory ( ) chemicals enter the dendrites, the neuron is less likely to have an action potential Resting potential = (1) Fluid inside the neuron is negatively charged (2) Fluid outside has positive and negative ions When the message is negative, ions flow into cell making the inside more negative than the resting potential and the cell is less likely to fire Step3: Neurotransmitter release Sacs of chemicals (called neurotransmitters) sit in the terminal endings. terminal buttons When the electrical signal makes its way down the axon. neurotransmitters are released into the space between nerve cells (the synapse) Synapse and are are picked up by the dendrites of neighboring neurons How are neurotransmitters relevant to real world behavior? Certain psychological and neurological disorders may be linked to abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters Depression may be linked to abnormally low levels of serotonin Alzheimer s disease may be linked to abnormally low levels of acetylcholine Parkinson s disease may be linked to abnormally high levels of dopamine 3

4 The neurons in your brain are highly interconnected. It is really a communication network. The networks are called neural nets. They consist of as many as 1,000 billion neurons and 100,000 billion connections among neurons The connections between neurons are key in many experiences and behaviors. For example, learning serves to change the connections and makes the network store information. Action potentials only travel in one direction. Each neuron is like an on and off switch. It either fires or it doesn t. Each neuron connection carries information about experience or behavior (pleasure, pain, hunger, thirst, movements of your body, etc.) but what is most important is a pattern of activity across groups of neurons Your experiences and behaviors are a consequence of complex patterns of activity in groups of neurons in your brain The 100 billion neurons in the brain can be thought of as 100 billion onoff switches Each onoff pattern means something different to the brain

5 Your experiences and behaviors are a consequence of complex patterns of activity in groups of neurons in your brain The 100 billion neurons in the brain can be thought of as 100 billion onoff switches Each onoff pattern means something different to the brain Your experiences and behaviors are a consequence of complex patterns of activity in groups of neurons in your brain Brain images show these onoff patterns on a much larger scale How do these ideas help us learn about human behaviors? McClelland s work video What about neurons outside of the brain? The central nervous system (CNS)consists of the brain and spinal cord 5

6 What about neurons outside of the brain? The peripheral nervous system consists of all the other nerve cells of the body The PNS and CNS work together to process and react to stimuli in the environment. What about neurons outside of the brain? Sensory neurons take signals from the PNS and send them to CNS. Motor neurons take signals from CNS and send them to the PNS. interneurons This is known as a reflex or a reflex arc ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN The brain is organized into two hemispheres. Each hemisphere has four lobes. Parietal Lobe Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe Top View Right View: Right Cerebral Hemisphere 6

7 Localization of function: DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BRAIN SEEM TO DO DIFFERENT THINGS There are frontback differences RECEPTION perceptions, interpretations Back Front EXPRESSION actions, plans More Localization of function THE BRAIN IS ORGANIZED INTO FOUR LOBES Vision Touch/Movement Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Cognitive Functions Right View: Right Cerebral Hemisphere Language & Hearing Even more localization of function THE BRAIN IS ORGANIZED INTO PROJECTION AREAS AND ASSOCIATION AREAS somatosensory motor Impulses from the sense organs are sent to the primary sensory areas visual auditory Association Area organizes and integrates information across projection areas Impulses from the primary motor area are sent to the rest of the body An important lesson: Equal areas of body do not receive equal brain space 7

8 Different parts of the somatosensory cortex receive nerve impulses from different parts of the body. foot knee chest hand face What do you notice about how the somatosensory cortex is organized? Why do you think the hands have so many cells devoted to them? Different parts of the motor cortex send out nerve impulses to different parts of the body. foot knee chest hand face The motor cortex is organized the same way as the sensory cortex in an adjacent area of the brain. Brain function is also lateralized Lateralization of function: DIFFERENT HALVES OF THE BRAIN SEEM TO DO DIFFERENT THINGS Damage to the left hemisphere leads to difficulties in language tasks Damage to the right hemisphere leads to difficulty in spatial tasks LANGUAGE (like producing and understanding words) SPATIAL ABILITIES (like reading maps) Top View 8

9 It is important that the two hemispheres of the brain receive and process the same information about the world The corpus callosum is a band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. It allows for fast and efficient sharing of information. LANGUAGE (like producing and understanding words) SPATIAL ABILITIES (like reading maps) but what would happen if someone did not have a corpus callosum? Would one hemisphere of the brain know something that the other did not? How could we find out? We would need to find people without a corpus collosum (such people exist) and present them with information so that only one hemisphere of their brain received it. The organization of the visual system provides one way for us to do this Vision is not divided by eye. Instead it is divided by visual field. Left Field Right Field Left Cortex Right Cortex When stimulation occurs in only ONE visual field ONLY the OPPOSITE visual cortex receives the image In order to do this, the participant is instructed to stare straight ahead and the image is flashed very briefly Left Field Right Field Why does it have to be flashed so quickly? Left Cortex Right Cortex 9

10 Let s say we briefly flash an image in the RIGHT visual field... What did you see? In this case the image goes to the LEFT HEMISPHERE, which has access to the words to describe what is being seen. A bird LANGUAGE SPATIAL ABILITIES Let s say we briefly flash an image in the LEFT visual field... What did you see? In this case the image goes to the RIGHT HEMISPHERE, which DOES NOT have access to the words to describe what is being seen. I don t know LANGUAGE SPATIAL ABILITIES Lateralization of function: motor control LEFT HEMISPHERE Controls movement of and processes stimulation from the RIGHT SIDE of the body Contralateral control RIGHT HEMISPHERE Controls movement of and processes stimulation from the LEFT SIDE of the body 10

11 This is what happened to Phineas Gage... Notice what part of the brain is injured... Excerpts from Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, By Antonio Damasio The rod enters his left cheek, pierces the base of the skull, traverses the front of the brain, and exits at high speed through the top of the head. The rod has landed more than a hundred feet away, covered in blood and brains What happened to Gage after the accident? After being transported to a nearby doctor, Gage got out of the cart himself, with a little assistance from his men However he was somehow different. Before the accident Gage was: wellbalanced, a shrewd businessman, controlled, considerate, and soft spoken.. After the accident he was: fitful, irreverent, profane, irritable, demanding, and unable to plan for the future According to his doctor the equilibrium or balance between his intellectual faculty and his animal propensities has been destroyed He could no longer function as a foreman of the railroad site. 11

12 What can we (as scientists interested in the influence of the brain on behavior) learn from this? Two key questions: What part of the brain did he injure? How did it affect his behavior? Conclusion: This part of the brain (the frontal lobe) has something to do with decision making, planning, social interaction, personality, etc. Summary of Biological Processes: (1) fires through electrical and chemical processes (2) Action potential starts process for sending info to other neurons (3) Activity of neurons across the network = behavior (4) Brain function localized and lateralized lobes/hemispheres (5) Brain function studied by clinical cases, brain recordings, and experimental methods 12

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System NAME PERIOD MY TEST DATE: STUDY GUIDE UNIT 9 The Human Body NERVOUS SYSTEM TEST FORMAT: 10 Fill-Ins (using word bank) 20 Multiple choice DIAGRAMS: Neuron Brain DIAGRAMS + OPEN RESPONSE: Label the diagram

More information

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions

More information

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d. Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

More information

CEN Outreach Lesson Plan Updated March Neuroanatomy. Grades 6-12

CEN Outreach Lesson Plan Updated March Neuroanatomy. Grades 6-12 Neuroanatomy Grades 6-12 Driving Question: In what ways do parts of the brain and body work together in order to maintain homeostasis? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe how neurons differ from

More information

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health Brain Power Counseling and Mental Health TEA COPYRIGHT Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R)

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R) Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system?

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system? EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The

More information

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind The nervous system: Controls, integrates and coordinates the body s activities Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli Has 2 major divisions: 1. The central

More information

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems How is the Nervous System Organized? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems 1 Class Objectives: Understand the function and purpose of the nervous system Identify and define the

More information

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today?

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and

More information

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below:

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below: The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal

More information

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation

More information

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11 The Brain: Structure Brain structure evolved over millions of years Divided into sections Each section built upon the others Brain Structure Brain Divisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain 1 Hindbrain Components

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system

More information

Chapter 4. The Brain

Chapter 4. The Brain Chapter 4 The Brain The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) receives, processes, interprets and stores info (taste, sound, smell, color etc.) Sends information to muscles, glands and internal organs

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions

More information

Chapter 2. The Biological Perspective

Chapter 2. The Biological Perspective Chapter 2 The Biological Perspective The Nervous System - An extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body. Neurons & Nerves: Building the Network Neuron

More information

The Nervous System CH 28

The Nervous System CH 28 The Nervous System CH 28 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+ The Giant Squid Nervous System

More information

Lecture One: Brain Basics

Lecture One: Brain Basics Lecture One: Brain Basics Brain Fractured Femur Bone Spinal Cord 1 How does pain get from here to here 2 How does the brain work? Every cell in your body is wired to send a signal to your brain The brain

More information

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component.

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component. Nervous System Organization PNS and CNS Chapters 8 and 9 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Central Nervous System (CNS) control/integrating center brain

More information

Animal Systems: The Nervous System

Animal Systems: The Nervous System Animal Systems: The Nervous System Your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will are, in fact, no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly

More information

One of the main arteries supplying the back of the brain.

One of the main arteries supplying the back of the brain. Glossary Anterior cerebral artery Arachnoid (mater) Arachnoid granulations (arachnoid villae) Basal ganglia (basal nuclei) Basilar artery Brainstem Brocca s area CSF CNS Carotid arteries Caudate nucleus

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology Slide 1 of 38 Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

The connection between adjacent neurons.

The connection between adjacent neurons. 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse

More information

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg UNIT 4: Homeostasis Chapter 11: The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make appropriate adjustments and survive. The nervous

More information

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Notes Divisions of the Nervous System. The Nervous System

Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Notes Divisions of the Nervous System. The Nervous System The Nervous System The nervous system of the human body is responsible for numerous functions, such as: analysing sensory information from the body and external environment storing some information making

More information

Nervous System: Part I

Nervous System: Part I Nervous System: Part I The Nervous System Your body s communication s network & control center Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)-gathers info from inside & outside the body Central Nervous System (CNS)-receives

More information

1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied.

1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied. Nervous System - Chapter 41 1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied. 2. Distinguish between the central

More information

Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA Phone:

Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA Phone: The Physiology of Memory Craig E. Geis, M.B.A., Management; M.S. Psychology 1831 Quail Court Saint Helena, CA 94574 Phone: 707-968-5109 craiggeis@cti-home.com Physiology of Memory Neurons are the basic

More information

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives Name Class Date 31.1 The Neuron Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the nervous system. Describe the function of neurons. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted. BUILD Vocabulary A. The chart

More information

It s All in the Brain!

It s All in the Brain! It s All in the Brain! Presented by: Mari Hubig, M.Ed. 0-3 Outreach Coordinator Educational Resource Center on Deafness What is the Brain? The brain is a muscle In order to grow and flourish, the brain

More information

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers From WikiEducator < The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Nervous System Worksheet 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 2 The Neural Impulse Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The cell body is enclosed by the. A) cell membrane

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

K N O W Y O U R. Brain B rbasics

K N O W Y O U R. Brain B rbasics K N O W Y O U R B R A I N Brain B rbasics a i n B a s i c s Introduction The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This threepound organ is the seat of intelligence, interpreter of the senses,

More information

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4 ANATOMY I; CHAPTER 11, NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system is the master control, 2 communication and coordinating system between the different body structures and systems Every activity, thought and emotion

More information

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NEURONS A photograph taken through a light microscope (500x) of neurons in the spinal cord. NEURON

More information

Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide

Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide Figure 1: Right Hemisphere of Sheep s Brain Figure 2: Underside of Sheep s Brain Figure 3: Saggital cut of Sheep s Brain to reveal subcortical structures Figure 4:

More information

Basic Brain Information

Basic Brain Information Basic Brain Information Brain facts Your brain weighs about 3lbs, or just under 1.5Kg It has the texture of blancmange Your brain is connected to your spinal cord by the brain stem Behind your brain stem

More information

The Brain of a Normal Human

The Brain of a Normal Human The Brain of a Normal Human Your Brain Evolved Over Time Human Brain Logic and reasoning Mammalian Brain More complex feelings and reactions Lizard Brain Basic functions The Brain Stem or Hindbrain (The

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

More information

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system Nervous System Nervous system performs three overlapping functions of sensor input, integration, and motor output. This process is generally the same even at a very primitive level of nervous system, but

More information

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain Te a c h e r s G u i d e Films for the Humanities & Sciences Background Information This program, made entirely of

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

Vision: Receptors. Modes of Perception. Vision: Summary 9/28/2012. How do we perceive our environment? Sensation and Perception Terminology

Vision: Receptors. Modes of Perception. Vision: Summary 9/28/2012. How do we perceive our environment? Sensation and Perception Terminology How do we perceive our environment? Complex stimuli are broken into individual features, relayed to the CNS, then reassembled as our perception Sensation and Perception Terminology Stimulus: physical agent

More information

Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND

Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND Nervous System Grades 3-5 BACKGROUND The nervous system is the highway along which your brain sends and receives information about what is happening in the body and around it. This highway is made up of

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body

More information

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system

More information

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages 52-62 and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

More information

Nervous System: PNS and CNS

Nervous System: PNS and CNS Nervous System: PNS and CNS Biology 105 Lecture 10 Chapter 8 Outline I. Central Nervous System vs Peripheral Nervous System II. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o Controls involuntary responses o Divided into the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division o Sympathetic: fight or flight o Parasympathetic: rest and digest

More information

Homework #1: Multiple choice:

Homework #1: Multiple choice: Homework #1: Multiple choice: 1. Which of the following statements about the expression of genes in the nervous system is true? a. Every gene in the human genome is expressed in the CNS. b. There are tens

More information

Table of Contents. Date Title Page # /29/14 Ch 8: Muscular System 12 03/03/14 Ch 9: Nervous System /27/14 Ch 7: Skeletal System

Table of Contents. Date Title Page # /29/14 Ch 8: Muscular System 12 03/03/14 Ch 9: Nervous System /27/14 Ch 7: Skeletal System i # Table of Contents Date Title Page # 1. 01/27/14 Ch 7: Skeletal System 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 01/29/14 Ch 8: Muscular System 12 03/03/14 Ch 9: Nervous System 66 1 03/17/14 Ch. 9 Nervous System 76 describe the

More information

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 AA Spring 2012 The intent of this packet is to supplement regular classroom instruction, not to replace it. This also supposes that the students have access

More information

Elementary Neuroscience

Elementary Neuroscience Elementary Neuroscience Grades 3-5 Driving Question: Why is your brain so important and how do different parts of it work together? Objectives: Students will be able to Demonstrate proper helmet fitting

More information

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop

More information

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS)

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS) UNIT 7 NOTES NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous System (NS) has 3 functions: 1. Sensory Input Conduction of electrical signals from sensory receptors 2. Integration Information is interpreted and response generated

More information

HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM Class X Episode 5 A. P State HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM The human nervous system can be divided into three parts or systems. They are: 1) The Central Nervous System or C N S 2) The Peripheral nervous System

More information

Brain Anatomy. The large upper part of the brain is divided into left and right halves, called cerebral hemispheres (suh-ree-brul HEM-is-feers).

Brain Anatomy. The large upper part of the brain is divided into left and right halves, called cerebral hemispheres (suh-ree-brul HEM-is-feers). WHAT IS A SEIZURE? A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that usually affects how a person feels or acts for a short time. Some seizures are hardly noticed perhaps a feeling of

More information

Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization

Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization Elaboration of the anterior portion of the CNS Increase in number of neurons in the head Highest level is reached in

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION B Sc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY (2011 Admission Onwards) I Semester Complementary Course PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY QUESTION BANK 1. are the basic units of

More information

First. The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts. Peripheral Nervous System. Somatic System. Overview of the Nervous System

First. The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts. Peripheral Nervous System. Somatic System. Overview of the Nervous System First Overview of the Nervous System The Brain and Behavior All parts are interrelated. Thus, you need all parts to function normally. Neurons = Nerve cells The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

Introduction. Resources. Suggested answers. Science explanations

Introduction. Resources. Suggested answers. Science explanations Teacher Notes Introduction This activity gives students practice in recognising that different parts of the brain have different functions. They are given a set of short case studies of people with brain

More information

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells! Class Outline" 5 minutes" "Attendance, Breath of Arrival, and Reminders "

More information

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons:

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons: Neuron cell structure s: Contain neuroreceptors that respond when exposed to neurotransmitters. : Body of neuron cell. DNA in the nucleus in the soma code for all the proteins of the neuron. Axon hillock:

More information

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation

More information

F1. Advances in Neuroscience & Neuroethics

F1. Advances in Neuroscience & Neuroethics A Cross-Cultural Introduction to Bioethics 233 F1. Advances in Neuroscience & Neuroethics Chapter Objectives. As our knowledge of the brain increases we are able to alter its function; therefore, it becomes

More information

Brain Imaging and Mental Health Issues in Criminal Cases. Wm. F. Klumpp, Jr. Assistant Attorney General August 27, 2013

Brain Imaging and Mental Health Issues in Criminal Cases. Wm. F. Klumpp, Jr. Assistant Attorney General August 27, 2013 Brain Imaging and Mental Health Issues in Criminal Cases Wm. F. Klumpp, Jr. Assistant Attorney General August 27, 2013 Graham v Florida, 130 S Ct 2011 (2010) 8 th Amendment prohibits life w/o parole on

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS Class X Episode 4 A P State NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS You all must have seen a Computer and most of you also use the computer. What are the parts in a computer? The C P U Monitor, Keyboard, and the

More information

Things You Will Need r u l e r, 30 cm or longe r 8 standa rd do m i no e s ma s k i ng tape s c i s s o r s paper for re c o rd i ng observatio ns

Things You Will Need r u l e r, 30 cm or longe r 8 standa rd do m i no e s ma s k i ng tape s c i s s o r s paper for re c o rd i ng observatio ns Explorer s Guide The Domino Effect THE DOMINO EFFECT 75 Use dominoes to model a nerve cell s transmission of a signal Your nervous system does its job by transmitting information through the long bodies

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

ES145 - Systems Analysis & Physiology. Introduction to the Central Nervous System Maurice Smith 10/18/2005

ES145 - Systems Analysis & Physiology. Introduction to the Central Nervous System Maurice Smith 10/18/2005 Goal: To explain behavior in terms of neural activities in the brain. ES145 - Systems Analysis & Physiology Introduction to the Central Nervous System Maurice Smith 10/18/2005 How do the millions of nerve

More information

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS.

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional

More information

the puzzle packet! Brought to you by

the puzzle packet! Brought to you by the puzzle packet! Brought to you by It s Mindboggling! word search The following brain-related words all appear in It s Mindboggling! How many can you find? Words may appear in all directions, including

More information

Nervous System Function:

Nervous System Function: Nervous System Function: It regulates and coordinates many of the other systems. It controls memory and logical thought, and it gives the body the ability to react or respond to both internal and external

More information

Adrian Owens Research

Adrian Owens Research *Classic View: Not entirely correct Nervous System Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System is broken down into a component called the somatic division.

More information

What role does the nucleolus have in cell functioning? Glial cells

What role does the nucleolus have in cell functioning? Glial cells Nervous System Lab The nervous system of vertebrates can be divided into the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which contains nerves,

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE SENSES

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE SENSES i A Wealth of Information. A World of Ideas. Instructor s Guide The Human Body: How It Works Introduction This program is part of the nine-part series The Human Body: How It Works. The series uses physiologic

More information

Why does an understanding of brain development matter?

Why does an understanding of brain development matter? Why does an understanding of brain development matter? In the last ten years there has been an explosion of interest and research in brain development. New technologies such as MRI scanners have allowed

More information

Control and Coordination

Control and Coordination CHAPTER 7 Control and Coordination Living organisms respond and react to various stimuli like heat, light, cold, touch, pressure etc. Plants and animals both respond to stimuli but in different manner.

More information

Lesson # 5A Workshop: Complex Networks and Graphs (Adapted from Teaching Engineering s It s a Connected World )

Lesson # 5A Workshop: Complex Networks and Graphs (Adapted from Teaching Engineering s It s a Connected World ) Subject area / course / grade level: Science Grade 7-10 Summary: Students are introduced to networks and systems. The students will use this knowledge to create their own model of a neural network (Lesson

More information

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes

More information

How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function?

How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function? How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function? Scientists have found That the basic anatomical components of brain function are related to brain size and shape. The brain is composed of two hemispheres.

More information

Dementia Awareness Introduction Dementia Awareness 1

Dementia Awareness Introduction Dementia Awareness 1 Introduction Dementia Awareness 1 These learning resources and assessment questions have been approved and endorsed by NCFE. Disclaimer: All references to individuals, groups and companies contained within

More information

Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology. Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University

Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology. Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology Elaine M. Hull, PhD, Florida State University What is the soul? I grew up in a very conservative Christian family and believed in the soul, which would outlive our

More information

The Cranium Connection

The Cranium Connection Your Brain! The brain is the command center of your body. It controls just about everything you do, even when you are sleeping. Weighing about 3 pounds, the brain is made up of many parts that all work

More information

BRAIN ASYMMETRY. Outline

BRAIN ASYMMETRY. Outline 2 BRAIN ASYMMETRY 3 Outline Left Brain vs. Right Brain? Anatomy of the Corpus Callosum Split Brain The Left Hemisphere The Right Hemisphere Lateralization of Emotion 1 Questionnaire 4 1. When you work

More information

Module 1: The Somato-Motor System: Tendon Tap reflex

Module 1: The Somato-Motor System: Tendon Tap reflex Module 1: The Somato-Motor System: Tendon Tap reflex Module Objectives: 1. Describe the anatomic pathway of a tendon tap reflex. 2. Explain how a tendon tap reflex assessment assists in diagnosis of a

More information

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0. IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour] How do Neurons communicate? Neurons

More information

Chapter 2. The Biological Bases of Psychological Functioning

Chapter 2. The Biological Bases of Psychological Functioning Chapter 2 The Biological Bases of Psychological Functioning Outline I. Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System A. A neuron is a nerve cell that transmits information from one part of the body

More information