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2 The life cycle of a cell Cell cycle consists of 2 major phases Interphase, where chromosomes duplicate and cell parts are made The mitotic phase, when nuclear division occurs Figure 8.5

3 Most of the life of a cell is spent in Interphase Cell does most of its growth during interphase During interphase a cell performs all of its regular functions and gets ready to divide Metabolic activity is very high Figure 8.5

4 Untwisting and replication of DNA Figure 10.4B

5 Before a cell starts dividing, the chromosomes are duplicated Sister chromatids This process produces sister chromatids Centromere EM of human chromosome that has duplicated Figure 8.4B

6 Structure of Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes are identical pairs of chromosomes. One inherited from mother and one from father made up of sister chromatids joined at the centromere. Copyright McGraw-Hill Companies Permission required for reproduction or display

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8 G 2 Phase This phase spans the time from the completion of DNA synthesis to the onset of cell division Following DNA replication, the cell spends about 2-5 hours making proteins prior to entering the M phase Figure 8.5

9 INTERPHASE PROPHASE Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Early mitotic spindle Chromatin Centrosome Fragments of nuclear envelope Kinetochore Nucleolus Figure 8.6 Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Centrosome Spindle microtubules

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11 METAPHASE Metaphase plate ANAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Spindle Figure 8.6 (continued) Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming

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15 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells In animals, cytokinesis occurs by cleavage This process pinches the cell apart The first sign of cleavage is the appearance of a cleavage furrow Cleavage furrow Cleavage furrow Contracting ring of microfilaments Figure 8.7A Daughter cells

16 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells As the daughter chormosomes move to opposite poles The cytoplasm constricts along the plane of the metaphase plate The process of cytokinesis divides the cell into two genetically identical cells Figure 8.7A Cleavage furrow Cleavage furrow Contracting ring of microfilaments Daughter cells

17 When the cell divides, the sister chromatids separate Two daughter cells are produced Each has a complete and identical set of chromosomes Centromere Chromosome distribution to daughter cells Chromosome duplication Sister chromatids Figure 8.4C

18 The human life cycle Meiosis is a special form of cell division that produces gametes Figure 8.13 MEIOSIS Haploid gametes (n = 23) Multicellular diploid adults (2n = 46) Mitosis and development Egg cell haploid Sperm cell haploid FERTILIZATION Diploid zygote (2n = 46)

19 There is a special mechanism to produce gametes Each gamete has a single set of chromosomes 22 autosomes and a single sex chromosome Figure 8.13 MEIOSIS Haploid gametes (n = 23) Multicellular diploid adults (2n = 46) Mitosis and development Egg cell haploid Sperm cell haploid FERTILIZATION Diploid zygote (2n = 46)

20 Gametes have a single set of chromosomes Haploid gametes keeps the chromosome number from doubling in each succeeding generation Haploid gametes are produced by a special sort of cell division called meiosis Which occurs only in reproductive organs, ovaries and testes Purpose of meiosis is to produce sperm and egg

21 MEIOSIS Meiosis involves 2 cell divisions Meiosis produces 4 cells from 1 parental cell Each of the 4 daughter cells has 23 individual chromosomes rather than 23 pairs of chromosomes Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid Meiosis, like mitosis, is preceded by chromosome duplication However, in meiosis the cell divides twice to form four daughter cells

22 MITOSIS MEIOSIS PARENT CELL (before chromosome replication) Site of crossing over MEIOSIS I PROPHASE Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) Chromosome replication 2n = 4 Chromosome replication PROPHASE I Tetrad formed by synapsis of homologous chromosomes METAPHASE Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate Tetrads align at the Metaphase plate METAPHASE I ANAPHASE TELOPHASE Figure n Daughter cells of mitosis Sister chromatids separate during anaphase 2n Homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I; sister chromatids remain together No further chromosomal replication; sister chromatids separate during anaphase II Daughter cells of meiosis I n n n n Daughter cells of meiosis II ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I Haploid n = 2 MEIOSIS II

23 MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate INTERPHASE PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Sites of crossing over Spindle Microtubules attached to kinetochore Metaphase plate Sister chromatids remain attached Nuclear envelope Chromatin Sister chromatids Tetrad Centromere (with kinetochore) Homologous chromosomes separate Figure 8.14, part 1

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25 MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate TELOPHASE I AND CYTOKINESIS PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND CYTOKINESIS Cleavage furrow Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming Figure 8.14, part 2

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27 POSSIBILITY 1 POSSIBILITY 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I Metaphase II Gametes Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 Combination 4 Figure 8.16

28 MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs Each synapsis is made up of 2 pairs of sister chromatids This matched set of 4 chromatids is called a tetrad Chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Figure 8.12

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30 Crossing over further increases genetic variability Crossing over is the exchange of corresponding segments between two non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes Genetic recombination results from crossing over during prophase I of meiosis This increases variation further

31 How crossing over leads to genetic recombination Nonsister chromatids break in two at the same spot Coat-color genes Eye-color genes Tetrad (homologous pair of chromosomes in synapsis) Breakage of homologous chromatids Joining of homologous chromatids Chiasma Separation of homologous chromosomes at anaphase I The 2 broken chromatids join together in a new way Figure 8.18B 4 Separation of chromatids at anaphase II and completion of meiosis Gametes of four genetic types Parental type of chromosome Recombinant chromosome Recombinant chromosome Parental type of chromosome

32 A segment of one chromatid has changed places with the equivalent segment of its nonsister homologue If there were no crossing over meiosis could only produce 2 types of gametes Figure 8.18B Coat-color genes Eye-color genes Tetrad (homologous pair of chromosomes in synapsis) Breakage of homologous chromatids Joining of homologous chromatids Chiasma Separation of homologous chromosomes at anaphase I Separation of chromatids at anaphase II and completion of meiosis Gametes of four genetic types Parental type of chromosome Recombinant chromosome Recombinant chromosome Parental type of chromosome

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MEIOSIS AND CROSSING OVER (The story of how we make more) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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