# CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS INVOLV- ING SUMS OF SIMILAR POWERS

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1 CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS INVOLV- ING SUMS OF SIMILAR POWERS BY ECKFORD COHEN 1. Introduction. Suppose F to be a finite extension of the rational field and let P denote a prime ideal of F of norm N(P) = p/ where p is a rational prime. We shall be concerned in this paper with the number of solutions Qe(p) of the congruence (1.1) ctix? + + a.x? +P = 0 (mod P*), where p is an arbitrary integer of F, X is a positive integer, ai,, a, are integers of F prime to P, and in addition the following conditions are satisfied: (1.2) (m,p) = \, k = (m,p'-l)>l. Choose an ideal C oi F such that (P, C) = l and PC = 6 is principal. We may suppose the integer p to be of the form (1.3) P = 0< (Xfc_*fcO,tt,P)-l), where t is uniquely determined, and is uniquely determined (mod P) if t? \. We discuss briefly the main results of the paper. An exact formula for Q,(p) involving the generalized Jacobi sum (2.9) is obtained in Theorem 1 ( 3). This formula, which is rather complicated, simplifies considerably in the component cases (1) \>(=0 (mod m), (2) \>tj 0 (mod m), and (3) \ = t. The results for Q,(p) in these cases are given in 4 in Theorems 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Explicit formulas for the case 5 = 1 are listed in Theorem 5. In the final section ( 5) estimates for Q,(p) are obtained (Theorems 6 and 7) and solvability criteria for the congruence (1.1) are deduced (Theorems 8 and 9). As a consequence of these results, it is proved that (1.1) is solvable in the case s = 3 for all P oi sufficiently large norm. The precise statement of this result is contained in Theorem 10. The method employed in this paper is based on the theory of exponential sums in algebraic number fields. In this method the Hecke sums (2.5) and the generalized Gauss-Lagrange sums (2.6) are of particular importance. The most useful results involving these sums are collected in 2 in a series of preliminary lemmas. We mention that results in the special case of binary congruences (5 = 2) have already appeared in a separate publication [2]. Since these results are corollaries of theorems proved in the present paper, we do not take the space Presented to the Society, February 26, 1955; received by the editors February 10,

2 548 ECKFORD COHEN [November to restate them here. The special case of quadratic congruences (m = 2) was treated in detail in a previous paper [l ]. The latter article forms the principal foundation for the method of the present paper. The special case A = l, that is, the case of congruences to a prime ideal modulus, may be stated equivalently as a problem concerning equations in a Galois field GF(p/). This problem has attracted considerable attention, and we cite, in particular, papers of Davenport and Hasse [3], Hua and Vandiver [4], and Weil [6]. Earlier references can be found in the bibliographies to these papers. 2. Preliminary lemmas. We introduce first a notation for exponentials in F which is somewhat simpler than that used in [l ]. Let D represent the ideal different in F and choose B, (B, P) = l, so that \$ = B/PXD is principal. We place rn = f0x~" (O^ragA) so that = \j and define further (2.1) en(p) = e2*< *«>, (e(p) = ex(p)), where the symbol tr (7) denotes the trace in F. The function en(p) defines an additive character (mod Pn) and has the simple properties: e0(p) = l, en(p) = en(p') if p=p' (mod Pn), en(a-\-8)=e (a)en(b). In addition, we have the fundamental relations, (2.2) en(pe>) = en-j(p) (0 j n), ^ lp'n if p = 0 (mod P") (2.3) Y en(pz) = r. *(modp") (0 otherwise. We denote by x a fixed, primitive &th power character ( mod P) and let Xo represent the principal character (mod P). As a multiplicative character, Xh has the properties, xh(a8) = Xh(a)xh(B), and for raj^l, (2.4) _ Y... ip"»-»(p* ~ D Xh(a) = i (x* = Xo), (a.p»)-l 10 (%h 9* Xo), where the summation is over a reduced residue system (mod Fn). The Hecke sum (mod P"), A^ra^O, is defined by (2.5) Sn(p, m) = Y en(pzm), (S(P, m) = 5,(p,»)). 2(mod Pn) The generalized Gauss-Lagrange sum (mod P") corresponding to the character x* is defined for A ^ra gi 1 by (2.6) r (xh,p)= Y Xh(a)en(Pa). (a,p")=l We also use the abbreviated notation (2.7) r(x\ p) = ri(x\ p), r(xh) = r(x\ 1), and in the case xh = Xo, the special notation [l, 3],

3 1956] CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS 549 (2.8) Rn(P) = rn(xo, p) = Y en(pa). «,,p")=i The generalized XM,,xh'hy(ci. Jacobi sum (mod P) is defined for r ^ 1 and for characters [5, (7a)]) (2.9) *(*,, -,*,)- E xhvi) xhvr), the sum being over vt(i=l,, r) in a reduced residue system (mod P) such that»i+ -Hr+1=0 (mod P). We next state a number of lemmas concerning the Hecke and generalized Gauss-Lagrange sums, most of which are familiar in one form or another. These results are listed without proof except for Lemmas 3 and 9. Lemma 1. Ifn^j^O, then (2.10) SnipO', tn) = pfisn-j(p, m). Lemma 2. If k = (m, p/ 1), then (2.11) S(P,m)=S(p,k). Lemma 3. If (v, P) = l, m>i^0,j^0, m>l, (m, p) = l, then (ffum-n (i = o), (2.12) Smi+i(p, m) = ^5(r, tn) (i = 1), [pfum-i+ir-l) (j >!) Proof. We may exclude the two cases 7 = 0, i = 0, and j = 0, t = l, because in these cases the lemma is clearly true. Nowthesetz = ;y-r-x0m,'+*-1,x (modp), y (mod P"i+i-i) furnishes a complete residue system (mod Pm>+i). Using this set in the summation involved in the definition of Smj+i(v, m), one obtains by (2.2) and the additive property of en(p), Smj+i(v, m) = Y. emj+i(vym) Y e(vmxym~l). y (mod f'**-1) x (mod P) By (2.3) the inner sum =0 unless P\ y, in which case it has the value p1. Hence we obtain, placing y = Y6, Y (mod Pm»'+'-2) and simplifying,,,, jp^-^sma-i,+i(",m) (j>0), (2.13) Smj+i(v,m) = < V(i_1) (j = 0,»S 2). This proves the lemma in case j = 0. If j>0, we may repeat the process j times to obtain the relation, (2.14) Smj+i(», m) = pf«m-»si(v, m), which reduces the general case to the case j = 0. The Lemma follows from (2.13) and (2.14).

4 550 ECKFORD COHEN [November Lemma 4. If (v, P) = 1, k>l, then (2.15) S(v, k) = Y r(x\ v). ;-i Lemma 5. If (v, P) = l, then (2.16) r(x\ v) = xk(v)r(xh). Lemma 6. Ifxh?*Xo, then (2.17) r(xh)r(xh) = Xh(-DP'. By Lemmas 5 and 6 one may deduce easily Lemma 7. If xh?*xo and (v, P) = 1, then (2.18) r(x*) =p"2. Lemma 8. 7/r>0, hi+ -\-hr+1=0 (mod k), A.-^O (mod k),i = l,, r + 1, then (2.19) t(x*0 r(x^) = M(hu, hi). Lemma 9. Ifxh^Xo, and if p=6'v,»s l, n^t^o, (v, P) = 1, then, _.... (P"n-l)r(xh, v) (l = n- 1), (2-20) rn(x\p) = <n.. 10 (otherwise). Proof. If / =», we have by (2.4) r (x\ p) = Y Xh(a) =0, (I = ra). In the rest of the proof we may suppose then that l^n 1. Since there are pfl reduced residue systems (mod Pn~') contained in a reduced residue system (mod P"), one obtains by (2.2), (2.21) rn(x\ p) = *>"rn-z(x\»), (l^n- 1). The relation (2.21) yields the lemma immediately in the case l = n 1. Suppose therefore that Kn 1. In this case a reduced residue system (mod Pn~l) is given by the set a = a'+t?w, (a', P) = 1, m (mod P"_l_1). Summing over this set in the definition of t _i(x\ v), (2.21) becomes r (x\ p) = Pfl Y xh(a')en-i(a'v) Y en-i-i (uv), (a'.p)-l ulraod?" '"') but the inner sum = 0 by (2.3). The analogue of Lemma 9 in the case x* = Xo is given by Lemma 10. If ra ^ 1 and if p and I are defined as in Lemma 9, then

5 1956] CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS 551 pn»-i>(pf _ i) (/ = ), (2.22) R (P) = -#/(-»> (l = n- 1), 0 (/ < m - 1). 3. The principal theorem. In addition to the notation contained in (1.2) and (1.3) we require the notation given below. We shall also use the convention that a vacuous sum has the value 0. If h^o, place Ij,/A(m-.) _ J - (m * s), p/(m-.) _! h (m = s). It is noted that g(0)=0, g(l) = l. With i = 0,, m 1, we define further (3.2) 8i = 0 or 1 according as i = 0 or i j* 0; (3.3)»-\rir\- "-{^r} where the symbol [x] denotes the largest integer ix; fl (X > / = i (mod m)), (3.4) LAjt) = < (0 (otherwise); (3.5) <b(n) = (pf - l)g(n + 8i) - p/(»-)(^+«.u,_1(0; (3.6) Z = p/<'-» + p'^~^<p(ro) + Y P^rtr,). We shall also need the following function defined for integers yt oi F, (yitp) = l (i = l,,r): (3.7) 7(7i,, yr) = Y x(7i' y/x*i., ht), hi-.o-l.-.-.r) where the summation is over A, satisfying hx+ +hr^0 (mod k), ht^0 (mod k),i = l,,r (r>0). If «i,, a, are integers of F prime to P, we define for y, (y, P) = l, Jl >, ^ (»iril), (3.8) 7r(7) = \«1 «r/ 0 (r = 0); (3.9) r,. = /.-i(«) («= «.) Note that 771 = 0. On the basis of the above notation we now state the main theorem concerning Q.(p). m-l

6 552 ECKFORD COHEN [November by Theorem 1. The number of solutions Q,(p) of the congruence (1.1) is given (3.10) Q.(p) = ^"t-wf^t >jr.( Z,(0 + 7/s0(ri) + Z}. Proof. The Fourier expansion [l, Theorem 2] of Q,(p) is given by Q'(p) = /'_/X ]C e\(pu)s\(axu, tn) S\(a,u, m). u(mod P\ In the summation u (mod Px) we may place [l, Lemma 2] u=v6x~n, O^rajgA, (t), P") = 1, to get on the basis of Lemma 1, x Q.(p) = ^x""1) Y P~ln' Y en(pv)sn(axv, m) Sn(a.v, m). m=0 (r,pb)=l We rewrite this summation in the form, (3.11) Q,(p) = <7i+ U2+ Uz, where the outer summation in Ux is over n =wy + l, in U2 over n = mj, and in Uz over n = mj-\-i (1 <i<m). Applying Lemmas 2 and 3 and using the notation w = p/(m'-1)-<,), one obtains «i <7i = w Y P~f" Y emi+1(pv)s(axv, k) S(aev, k). j=0 (v,pm'+')=l By Lemmas 4 and 5, it follows that Ux = wyp-'j' Y emj+1(pv)il(y Xhi(<Xiv)T(xh<)). j-0 (v,pm'+1)-l t-1 \hi-l / This becomes, on rearranging and using the definition of r, *-i ft * * a?1 f/i = Jf 2 x(«i' a.v(x ') r(x ') Z P~fi'rmi+i(xh, p), A,=l;(t' i,,!) )'=o where h=hi~\- h,. The /?,- summations in Ui will now be divided into two types according as (3.12) h = 0 (mod k), k > hf t 1, or (3.13) hf±0 (mod *), k > hi 1, * = 1,, s. Summations of the first type will be indicated by the symbol Y' while summations of the second type will be denoted by Y"- We maywrite therefore

7 1956] CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS 553 (3.14) UfUu+Un where Un corresponds to summations satisfying (3.12) and Ui2 to those satisfying (3.13). Application of Lemma 8 yields then, with a = a Un = wpf Y' x((-) ( ) ^W1' ' ' ' *->) i p-<i'rmi+i(p) *j,,*. \\ai/ \a -i/ /,-o if 5>1, and Un = 0 if 5 = 1. Applying Lemma 10 and the definitions of rj, and 4>(ri), we obtain for 5^1, (3.15) Un = pt«-»l-»r,,<l>(ri). By Lemma 9 we have for Ui2, Ua = «*"»<- > Y" X(«i' «*')r(xal) t(xa')t(x\ QL0(t). hi.-- -,h. Hence by Lemmas 5 and 8 and the definition (3.16) U12 = p/1hx-l)(-l)+ro(m-.)]/j^)l()(/)_ of /,( ) it follows that Returning to U2 and using Lemma 3, one obtains "o U2 = #**<-» Y p-fi'rmj(p), j-0 which becomes, on applying Lemma 10 and simplifying, (3.17) Ut =?/»-ih«-i>(p/<«-»0(ro) + p^'-d). In the case of Ut, we have again by Lemma 3, m-l Ii u3 = w Y Y p-fi'r<»i+i(p), and by Lemma 10 and simplification, it follows that m 1 (3.18) (73 = #/<*-»<-» E Pni-2)<p(rt). Collecting (3.11), (3.14), (3.15), (3.16), (3.17), and (3.18), the theorem results. 4. Component cases. In this section we obtain simplifications of Theorem 1, by considering separately the three cases mentioned in the Introduction. The results obtained in these cases are direct corollaries of Theorem 1, and numerical details will therefore be omitted. We mention, however, the identity, g(e + l) =g(e)+p/e{m~'), which is useful in simplifying the calculations. We need the additional notation 1=2

8 554 ECKFORD COHEN [November (4.1) T( i) - (pt - 1)1,. + *".-!> _ 1. 1, on simplify- In the first case, A>/ = 0 (mod ra*), one obtains from Theorem ing, Theorem 2. If\>t = em, then (4.2) Q,(p) = p/<*-i>(.-i){p/«e»->(7,( ) + */<-" - v.) + g(e)f(,.)}. Corollary 2.1. If t = 0, then (4.3) 0,(p) = f<*-»<-«(/.(0 + #«*-«- t,.). In the second case, \>(^0 (mod rat), Theorem 1 simplifies to give Theorem 3. If\>t = em+j, m>j>0, then (4.4) f).(p) = p/a-ih.-vg{e + 1)r(,,). Corollary 3.1 (e = 0).lf\>t=j,m>j>0, then (4.5) &(p) = p/'^x-dfo,,). In the third case, \ = t, Theorem 1 reduces, on simplification, to Theorem 4 (p = 0). If\ = t = em+j, m>j^0, then ^ ^ lpto-»l>-»(pf^-"+i-» + g(e + 1)F(.)) ifj > 0, (4.6) 0»(p) = \ (p/(n-l)(.-l)(?/(em-«+.-l) + S(e)r(7J.)) if j = 0. As a final result in this section, we state explicit formulas for the case 5 = 1. In this connection, we note that F(?7i) =0 and that (a = ai) (k - 1 if x(- ) = x(a), (4.7) 7i( ) = \ l-l ifx(-d^x(«). Place 8= p=0t, (f, P) = 1, and let H(B) denote the number of solutions of the congruence (4.8) Xm=> B (modpx), under the restrictions (m, p) = l, (m, pf l)=k>l. Then specializing to the case 5 = 1 in Theorems 2, 3, and 4 and using (4.7) with f =, a = l, it follows that Theorem 5. If H(B) denotes the number of solutions of the congruence (4.8), then *#*<-» (A >t = em, x(f) = 1), p/«(m-i)+/(,-i) (X = * = em + /, m > j > 0), (4.9) T7(0)= \F p/e(m-1) (X = «= m),.0 (otherwise).

9 1956] CONGRUENCES IN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELDS Estimates and solvability criteria. To obtain estimates for Q,(p) we need first a bound on Jr(y) \, (y, P) = 1. Place Nt = 0 and define Nr for r ^ 1 to be the number of sets (hi,, ht) such that k>ht>0 (r^i^l) with h+ +hr^0 (mod k). We note the identity, Nr+Nr-i = (k l)r, in case r^l. On the basis of this notation and Lemmas 7 and 8, one obtains. Lemma 11. If r ^0 and (y, P) = l, then (5.1) Jr(y) i N^r-VI*. In particular, we have the estimates (5^1), (5.2) jr.({) i N.p/<-»i*, \v.\ i N._ip'('-»i\ By Corollary 2.1 and (5.2) we obtain the following estimate for Q.(p) in case / = 0. Theorem 6. If\>t = 0, then (5.3) Q,(p) - p*<-» i p/t(x-i)c-i)+(»-2)/!!l(p//2,vj + N>_1)_ A second estimate is obtained on applying the bound for tj, in (5.2) to the result in Corollary 3.1. Theorem 7. If\>t=j, m>j>0, then (5.4) Q,(P) - p/cx-d(«-l)(p/(»-l) - 1) ^ p/i(x-l)(.-d + (.-2)/2]^/ _ ijjv,.!. We use these two estimates to obtain solvability criteria for the congruence (1.1) in case X>/. Remark. To show that Q,(p) >0 where p=0em+', (, P) = l, (m>j^0), it is sufficient to consider the case e = 0. Theorem 8. If\>t = 0 (mod m), then Q,(p) ^ 'J -'^ovided (5.5) fi(c) = a* - NBc - #_, > 0 (a = pfl*). Proof. By the above remark we may suppose that t = 0. In this case we obtain from (5.3) the lower bound, and hence, &(p)>0 Theorem 9. If\>t^0 QM ^ f <*-»<-»>+/«-«)'s/i(<r), if/i(o-)>0. (mod m), then Q,(p)>0 provided (5.6) f2(<r) = (r2'-1' - Na-i<r" + N,-ia-* - 1 > 0 (a - p"2). Proof. Again by the remark preceding Theorem 8, it is sufficient to consider the case XX, tm><>0. We obtain in this case by (5.4) the lower bound, It follows that Q,(p)>0 iift(ff)>0. Q,(p) ^ A'0r-"(r- >/«W.

10 556 ECKFORD COHEN We are now in a position to prove the following solvability criterion in the case 5 = If (aia2a3, P) = 1, then subject to the conditions (1.2), the con- Theorem gruence, (5.7) axx7 + a2x7 + a3x7 + P - 0 (mod Px), *5 solvable for all prime ideals P of norm N(P) =pt>(k l)2(k 2)2. Proof. We consider three cases. Case 1 (\>t = 0 (mod m)). In this case Qz(p)>0 by Theorem 8, provided fx(a)>0, where fx(x) = x» - (k - l)(k2-3k + 3)x - (k - 1)(* - 2). If = 2, then/i(cr) =cr3 cr>0 for all cr. Hence we may suppose k^3. It is easily verified in case k^3 that/i(x)=0 has a single simple, positive root. Thus with k = 3, we have/i(71/2) >0, so that ft(p)>0 except possibly when p = 2,/=2. If k>3, we have fx((k - l)(k - 2)) = (k - l)2(k - 2)[k2(k - 6) + 11* - 7] - (k - l)(k - 2). Since the bracketed expression >0 for k>3, it follows in this subcase that /i(cr)>0 for all a>(k l)(k 2). This proves the Theorem in Case 1. Case 2 (A>/^0 (mod m)). In this case Qs(p)>0 by Theorem 9, provided /2(cr) >0, where /,(*) = (x2 - l)(x2 - (k - l)(k - 2)x + 1). For all k^2, it is clear that/2(cr) >0 if cr> (k-l)(k 2), and the theorem follows in Case 2. Case 3 (\ = t). Since in this case p = 0, there is always the trivial solution. Bibliography 1. Eckford Cohen, Congruence representations in algebraic n ember fields, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. vol. 75 (1953) pp , Binary congruences in algebraic number fields, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 42 (1956) pp H. Davenport and H. Hasse, Die Nullstellen der Kong'uenzzetafunktionen in gewissen Zyklischen Fallen, J. Reine Angew. Math. vol. 172 (1935) pp L. K. Hua and H. S. Vandiver, Characters over certain types of rings with applications to theory of equations in a finite field. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 35 (1949) pp H. S. Vandiver, On a generalization of a Jacobi exponential sum associated with cyclotomy, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. vol. 36 (1950) pp Andre; Weil, Numbers of solutions of equations in finite fields, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. vol. 55 (1949) pp University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tenn.

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