Singular and Plural Subjects

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1 Mr. Brasher

2 Singular and Plural Subjects When making a verb agree with its subject, you identify the subject and determine whether it is singular or plural. A phrase or clause that interrupts a subject and its verb does not effect the agreement. Exercise 1 and 2 as a class.

3 Compound Subjects Compound subjects consist of 2 or more subjects, usually connected by or or and, and have same verb. One rule with subjects connected by and: verb is usually plural. (Examples on board)

4 Compound Subjects Singular Subjects joined by or or nor- when both parts are singular, singular verb required. Plural subjects joined by or or nor- plural verb required. Subjects of mixed number joined by or or nor- verb agrees with subject that is closet to it Exercise 4

5 Confusing Subject Even if verb comes before subject, they still must agree. Note about There s and Here s- each contain singular verbs; not to be used with plural subject. Exercise 5

6 Confusing Subject Subjects of Linking Verbs-linking verb must agree with its subject Collective Nouns (assembly, audience, class) are considered singular unless refers to members of group acting as individuals. Nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning take singular verbs.

7 Confusing Subject Indefinite Pronouns- look at list of always singular and plural indefinite pronouns. Exercise 6 A title or name of organization is singular and must have a singular verb. Noun expressing an amount of a measure is usually singular and requires a singular verb. Exercise 7

8 Homework Page 582 exercises 8, 10, 12

9 25.2 Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement Refresher what are antecedents? Antecedent- nouns to which pronouns refer back to. Robbie can t believe he fell for the trick.

10 Agreement Between Personal Pronouns and Antecedents Personal pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number and gender. Gender of 3 rd -person singular pronouns Masculine- he, him, his, himself Feminine- she, her, her, herself Neutral- it, its, itself

11 Agreement Between Personal Pronouns and Antecedents Use a singular personal pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor. Example: Neither Kalissa nor Emma remembered her homework.

12 Agreement Between Personal Pronouns and Antecedents Use a plural personal pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and. Example: Ziggy and Alan ran their routes hard during football practice.

13 Agreement Between Personal Pronouns and Antecedents When dealing with a pronoun-antecedent agreement, take care to not shift person. Shift in person (incorrect): Auston watched the game film that you need to watch for football practice. Correct: Auston watched the game film that he needed to watch for football practice.

14 Agreement Between Personal Pronouns and Antecedents When gender is not specified, use the masculine and feminine pronouns or rewrite the sentence. Example: A student should keep his or her password a secret. Students should keep their passwords a secret. Exercise 18 as a class

15 Using Reflexive Pronouns Refresher- reflexive pronouns end in self or selves. Reflexive pronouns must have antecedent in sentence in which it appears. Example: Jenna taught herself Chinese. Look at poor use and correct use on page 586. Exercise 19 and 20 as a class.

16 Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular indefinite pronoun. Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural indefinite pronoun. Example: One of the boys got an A on his test. All of the students in class received their papers back today. With an indefinite pronoun that can be their singular or plural, agreement depends on word to which indefinite pronoun refers. If referring to singular, indefinite pronoun should be singular. Plural=plural. Exercise 21.

17 Three Special Problems with Pronoun Agreement 1. A personal pronoun requires an antecedent that is either stated or clearly understood. Poor: The program was easy, but they didn t explain it clearly. Correct: The program was easy, but it wasn t explained clearly.

18 Three Special Problems with Pronoun Agreement 2. A personal pronoun should always refer to a single, obvious antecedent. Poor: I saw the procedure in the manual, but now I can t find it. Correct: I saw the procedure in the manual, but now I can t find the procedure. Poor: When the technician adjusted the sound, the musician was pleased, Even so, he wasn t satisfied. Correct: When the technician adjusted the sound, the musician was pleased. Even so, the technician wasn t satisfied.

19 Three Special Problems with Pronoun Agreement 3. Use the personal pronoun you only when the reference is truly to the reader or the listener. Poor: In a sound studio, you see high-tech equipment. Correct: In a sound studio, one sees high-tech equipment. Exercise 22 as a class.

20 Homework Page 591 exercises: (1-5)

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