ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary

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1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary A cura di NADIA TOSI Centro IDA ITE Enrico Tosi Busto Arsizio

2 CONTENTS DEFINITE ARTICLES 3 INDEFINITE ARTICLES 3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECTS 4 PLURALS. 5 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 6 Verb to BE 7 THERE IS. 11 THERE ARE 11 CAN.. 12 MUST 13 PERSONAL PRONOUNS OBJECTS.. 14 SIMPLE PRESENT 15 PRESENT CONTINUOUS 20 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES and PRONOUNS.. 23 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 25 MOLTO. 26 UN PO. 27 Verb to BE SIMPLE PAST. 28 SIMPLE PAST REGULAR VERBS.. 29 SIMPLE PAST IRREGULAR VERBS.. 30 PAST CONTINUOUS. 31 SIMPLE FUTURE WILL. 32 2

3 ARTICLES DEFINITE ARTICLES THE + singular EX: The girl in blue is my sister THE + plural Ex: The boys on the car are my friends INDEFINITE ARTICLES We use the INDEFINITE ARTICLES ONLY with SINGULAR nouns. A + consonant (singular) Ex. There is a cat in the garden AN + vowel (singular) Ex. There is an old cat in the garden We can t use the INDEFINITE ARTICLES with the plural Ex. There is an old book on the table (singular) There are old books on the tables. (plural) 3

4 PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECTS Singular Plural I WE HE SHE THEY IT 4

5 PLURALS The plural of a noun is made by adding S to the singular day - days house - houses Nouns ending in S - SS -SH -CH -O -X -Z add ES box - boxes kiss - kisses watch - watches Nouns ending in CONSONANT + Y: 1) transform Y in I 2) add ES canary - canaries baby - babies country - countries Nouns ending in F / -FE add VES knife - knives wife - wives leaf - leaves Irregular plurals man - men woman - women child - children foot - feet person - people 5

6 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Personal pronouns SUBJECT I Possessive adjectives MY R HE HIS SHE HER IT ITS WE OUR R THEY THEIR 6

7 To BE Simple present AFFIRMATIVE form FULL form SHORT form singular I AM I M ARE RE HE IS HE S SHE IS SHE S IT IS IT S plural WE ARE WE RE ARE RE THEY ARE THEY RE 7

8 To BE Simple present INTERROGATIVE form singular AM I? ARE? IS HE? IS SHE? IS IT? plural ARE WE? ARE? ARE THEY? 8

9 To BE Simple present SHORT ANSWERS Affirmative form Yes, I AM singular Negative form No, I M NOT Yes, ARE No, AREN T Yes, HE IS No, HE ISN T Yes, IT IS Yes, WE ARE plural No, IT ISN T No, WE AREN T Yes, ARE No, AREN T Yes, THEY ARE No, THEY AREN T We can t use the affirmative short answers in the CONTRACT form. 9

10 To BE Simple present NEGATIVE form FULL form SHORT form singular I AM NOT I M NOT ARE NOT AREN T HE IS NOT HE ISN T SHE IS NOT SHE ISN T IT IS NOT IT ISN T plural WE ARE NOT WE AREN T ARE NOT AREN T THEY ARE NOT THEY AREN T 10

11 Singular form THERE IS THERE ISN T IS THERE? Ex: There is a cat in the garden. There isn t a cat in the garden. Is there a cat in the garden? Plural form THERE ARE THERE AREN T ARE THERE? Ex: There are three cats in the garden There aren t three cats in the garden Are there three cats in the garden? 11

12 I HE SHE IT WE THEY CAN AFFIRMATIVE form CAN PLAY I HE SHE IT WE THEY NEGATIVE form CAN T PLAY CAN INTERROGATIVE form I HE SHE IT WE THEY PLAY? 12

13 I HE SHE IT WE THEY MUST AFFIRMATIVE form MUST PLAY I HE SHE IT WE THEY NEGATIVE form MUSTN T PLAY MUST INTERROGATIVE form I HE SHE IT WE THEY PLAY? 13

14 PERSONAL PRONOUNS OBJECTS Singular Plural ME US HIM HER THEM IT 14

15 SIMPLE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE form Example: to COME 1 singular I COME 2 singular COME 1 pural WE COME 2 plural COME 3 plural THEY COME 15

16 SIMPLE PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE form 3rd person singular The 3rd person singular of the simple present adds S to the infinitive Ex: to COME 3 singular masculine HE COMES 3 singular feminine SHE COMES 3 singular objects/animals IT COMES Spelling notes Verbs ending in S - SS -SH -CH -O -X -Z add ES WASH - he WASHES KISS - he KISSES GO - he GOES WATCH - he WATCHES Verbs ending in CONSONANT + Y: 1) transform Y in I 2) add -ES Ex: to fly he FLIES to try he TRIES BUT to PLAY he PLAYS regular form 16

17 SIMPLE PRESENT INTERROGATIVE form Example: to COME AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB without TO DO I WE THEY COME? 3rd person SINGULAR AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB without TO DOES HE SHE IT COME? 17

18 SIMPLE PRESENT SHORT ANSWERS DO DRINK COFFEE? YES, I DO NO, I DON T DOES PAUL PLAY TENNIS? YES, HE DOES NO, HE DOESN T DO AND MARY SMOKE? YES, WE DO NO, WE DON T 18

19 SIMPLE PRESENT NEGATIVE form Example: to COME SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB without TO I WE THEY DON T COME 3rd person SINGULAR SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB without TO HE SHE IT DOESN T COME 19

20 PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE form I AM ARE HE IS SHE IT IS IS GOING WE ARE ARE THEY ARE 20

21 PRESENT CONTINUOUS INTERROGATIVE form AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB -ING form AM I GOING? ARE GOING? IS HE GOING? IS SHE GOING? IS IT GOING? ARE WE GOING? ARE GOING? ARE THEY GOING? SHORT ANSWER Ex: ARE GOING HOME? YES, I AM NO, I M NOT 21

22 PRESENT CONTINUOUS NEGATIVE form I M NOT AREN T HE ISN T SHE IT ISN T ISN T GOING WE AREN T AREN T THEY AREN T 22

23 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS SOME SOME + plural nouns + UNCOUNTABLE nouns (ex: butter, bread, ) AFFIRMATIVE form Ex: There are SOME potatoes on the table. There is SOME butter in the fridge OFFERS Ex: Would you like SOME coffee? Would you like SOME biscuits? REQUESTS Ex: Can I have SOME water, please? Why don t you buy me SOME ice cream? 23

24 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS ANY ANY + plural nouns + UNCOUNTABLE nouns (ex: butter, bread, )ormo INTERROGATIVE form Ex: Are there ANY potatoes left? Is there ANY butter in the fridge? Ex: There aren t ANY potatoes left There isn t ANY butter in the fridge. NO NOT.. ANY We use NO instead of NOT..ANY in the NEGATIVE sentence but the verb of the sentence is POSITIVE Ex: There isn T ANY coffee left There is NO coffee left 24

25 PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE SUBJECTS OBJECTS ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS I ME MY MINE R RS HE HIM HIS HIS SHE HER HER HERS IT IT ITS WE US OUR OURS R RS THEY THEM THEIR THEIRS 25

26 MOLTO VERY + adjective Ex: That house is VERY tall AFFIRMATIVE form A LOT OF LOTS OF + UNCOUNTABLE + PLURAL nouns Ex: Bees produce A LOT OF honey There are A LOT OF new houses in this city INTERROGATIVE form MUCH + UNCOUNTABLE Ex: Do bees produce MUCH honey? MANY + PLURAL nouns Ex: Are there MANY cars in the street? NEGATIVE form (the verb in the sentence is negative) MUCH + UNCOUNTABLE Ex: There isn t MUCH honey in the jar on the table MANY + PLURAL nouns Ex: There aren t MANY cars in the street 26

27 UN PO A LITTLE + UNCOUNTABLE + SINGULAR noun Ex: There is A LITTLE bread A FEW + PLURAL nouns Ex: There are A FEW biscuits left. 27

28 To BE Simple past AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I WAS I WASN T WAS I? WERE WEREN T WERE? HE WAS HE WASN T WAS HE? SHE WAS SHE WASN T WAS SHE? IT WAS IT WASN T WAS IT? WE WERE WE WEREN T WERE WE? WERE WEREN T WERE? THEY WERE THEY WEREN T WERE THEY? 28

29 Simple past REGULAR VERBS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I PLAYED I DIDN T PLAY DID I PLAY? PLAYED DIDN T PLAY DID PLAY? HE PLAYED HE DIDN T PLAY DID HE PLAY? SHE PLAYED SHE DIDN T PLAY DID SHE PLAY? IT PLAYED IT DIDN T PLAY DID IT PLAY? WE PLAYED WE DIDN T PLAY DID WE PLAY? PLAYED DIDN T PLAY DID PLAY? THEY PLAYED THEY DIDN T PLAY DID THEY PLAY? 29

30 Simple past IRREGULAR VERBS Ex: GO - WENT - GONE AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I WENT I DIDN T GO DID I GO? WENT DIDN T GO DID GO? HE WENT HE DIDN T GO DID HE GO? SHE WENT SHE DIDN T GO DID SHE GO? IT WENT IT DIDN T GO DID IT GO? WE WENT WE DIDN T GO DID WE GO? WENT DIDN T GO DID GO? THEY WENT THEY DIDN T GO DID THEY GO? 30

31 PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I WAS GOING I WASN T GOING WAS I GOING? WERE GOING HE WAS DRINKING SHE WAS DRINKING WEREN T GOING HE WASN T DRINKING SHE WASN T DRINKING WERE GOING? WAS HE DRINKING? WAS SHE DRINKING? IT WAS RUNNING IT WASN T RUNNING WAS IT RUNNING? WE WERE TRAVELLING WE WEREN T TRAVELLING WERE WE TRAVELLING? WERE READING WEREN T READING WERE READING? THEY WERE SWIMMING THEY WEREN T SWIMMING WERE THEY SWIMMING? 31

32 SIMPLE FUTURE - WILL AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I WILL GO I WON T GO WILL I GO? WILL DRINK WON T DRINK WILL DRINK? HE WILL COME HE WON T COME WILL HE COME? SHE WILL SWIM SHE WON T SWIM WILL SHE SWIM? IT WILL RUN IT WON T RUN WILL IT RUN? WE WILL PLAY WE WON T PLAY WILL WE PLAY? WILL DANCE WON T DANCE WILL DANCE? THEY WILL WASH THEY WON T WASH WILL THEY WASH? WILL + NOT = WON T 32

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