Explain & compare the processes in meiosis I & meiosis II. Explain the position and changes of the chromosomes at each stages.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Explain & compare the processes in meiosis I & meiosis II. Explain the position and changes of the chromosomes at each stages."

Transcription

1

2 Explain & compare the processes in meiosis I & meiosis II. Explain the position and changes of the chromosomes at each stages. Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma, crossing over & centromere State the significance of meiosis Compare meiosis & mitosis

3 a form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is halved from the diploid number (2n) to the haploid number (n).

4 During gametogenesis MEIOSIS I MEIOSIS II

5 SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS Produce gametes Reduces number of chromosomes by half 2 n n n

6 SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS Restore the normal diploid number n n 2 n Increase variation

7 TERMS Chromatid - One of the two daughter strands of duplicated chromosomes joined by a single centromere Sister chromatids - Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II Homologous chromosomes - Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. Sister chromatids Non sister chromatids

8 TERMS Synapsis The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Bivalent - A paired of chromosomes temporarily united Tetrad - A paired set of homologous chromosomes, which composed 4 chromatids / 2 sister chromatids.

9 TERMS Crossing over The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I. Chiasma / chiasmata - The x-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over.

10

11 INTERPHASE I MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I Reduction Division Reduce the number of chromosome from diploid number into haploid number.

12 PROPHASE I There are 5 substages in Prophase I: leptotene zygotene pachytene diplotene diakinesis

13 PROPHASE I

14 PROPHASE I Chromosome behavior: Group of 4 chromatids Chromatin condensed into chromosomes that consist of 2 sister chromatids. Tetrad Bivalent Synapsis

15 PROPHASE I Chromosome behavior: Crossing Over occurs The exchange of corresponding segments of DNA molecules by nonsister chromatids. Synapsis

16 PROPHASE I Events in cell: spindle fibers start to form The centrosomes migrate The nucleoli & nuclear envelope disintegrate.

17 METAPHASE I pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged/alligned on the metaphase plate

18 ANAPHASE I Spindle fibers pull homologous chromosomes Pairs of homologous chromosomes separate and move to the opposite poles

19 TELOPHASE I Chromosomes completely move to the polar of cell and number of chromosomes become haploid. Cytokinesis occurs, divide the cell into two haploid cell. Nuclear membrane reformed.

20

21 MEIOSIS II INTERPHASE II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II

22 INTERPHASE II -chromosomes decondense, -nuclear membrane & nucleoli re-form No further DNA replication occurs II

23 PROPHASE II chromosomes shorten, thicken new spindle fibers appear Nuclear envelope disintegrate Centrosomes, move to opposite poles Nucleolus disappear

24 METAPHASE II Sister chromatids arranged on the metaphase plate

25 ANAPHASE II Sister chromatids separate And move to the opposite poles spindle fibers pull the chromatids to opposites poles

26 TELOPHASE II chromosomes uncoiled, lengthen Nuclear envelope re-form (nuclei form) Cytokinesis Cleavage - animal Cell plate - plant

27

28

29 COMPARE MEIOSIS I AND MEIOSIS II

30

31

32 COMPARE AND CONTRAST BETWEEN MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS No. MITOSIS MEIOSIS 1. Two daughter cells are produced (each,diploid) 2. Conserves chromosome number Four daughter cells are produced (each,haploid) Reduces the chromosome number by half 2 n 2 n 2 n n n

33 COMPARE AND CONTRAST BETWEEN MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS No. MITOSIS MEIOSIS 3. no synapsis occur to form bivalent. 4. No chiasma occurs so there is no cross over. Synapsis occurs to form bivalent at the homologous chromosomes during prophase I Some chiasma occurs to form cross over.

34 COMPARE AND CONTRAST BETWEEN MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS No. MITOSIS MEIOSIS 5. The contain of genetic material in daughter cell is identical as parental cells. 6. Cytokinesis occurs once. 7. The daughter cell can undergoes mitosis and meiosis. The contain of genetic material in daughter cell is not identical as the parental cell. Cytokinesis occurs twice. The daughter cell can only undergoes mitosis.

35 MITOSIS PRODUCES 2 IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS BUT MEIOSIS PRODUCES 4 NON-IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS

36

37 .QUESTIONS. If 6 chromosomes are observe in a cell at anaphase II of meiosis, workout how many chromosomes the cell would have contained at metaphase I?

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 SECTION 9-1 CELLULAR GROWTH Page 244 ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why is it beneficial for cells to remain small? MAIN IDEA Cells grow until they reach their size limit,

More information

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Page 1 of 5 Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Genetics Exercise: Understanding how meiosis affects genetic inheritance and DNA patterns

More information

Cellular Reproduction

Cellular Reproduction 9 Cellular Reproduction section 1 Cellular Growth Before You Read Think about the life cycle of a human. On the lines below, write some of the stages that occur in the life cycle of a human. In this section,

More information

If and when cancer cells stop dividing, they do so at random points, not at the normal checkpoints in the cell cycle.

If and when cancer cells stop dividing, they do so at random points, not at the normal checkpoints in the cell cycle. Cancer cells have escaped from cell cycle controls Cancer cells divide excessively and invade other tissues because they are free of the body s control mechanisms. Cancer cells do not stop dividing when

More information

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Name Period Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Overview: 1. What are the three key roles of cell division? State each role, and give an example. Key Role Reproduction Growth and development Tissue removal Example

More information

Guided Notes: Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

Guided Notes: Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Guided Notes: Cellular Reproduction When do cells divide? Cells grow and function normally until they become too. Cell size is because increases faster than This means that there is not enough area on

More information

Teacher s Guide. Mitosis. Grades 5-9 MTTV

Teacher s Guide. Mitosis. Grades 5-9 MTTV Teacher s Guide Mitosis Grades 5-9 MTTV CREDITS Program Production Sunburst Visual Media Teacher s Guide Terry Gates Print Material Design Cecile Foshee 2004 Sunburst Visual Media, a division of Global

More information

Test Two Study Guide

Test Two Study Guide Test Two Study Guide 1. Describe what is happening inside a cell during the following phases (pictures may help but try to use words): Interphase: : Consists of G1 / S / G2. Growing stage, cell doubles

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Meiosis Quiz 1. (1 point) A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? a. sex cell b. germ cell c. somatic cell d. haploid cell 2. (1 point) How many chromosomes are in a human

More information

Look for these related items from Learning Resources :

Look for these related items from Learning Resources : Look for these related items from Learning Resources : LER 1901 Cross Section Plant Cell LER 1902 Cross Section Heart Model LER 1903 Cross Section Brain Model LER 2437 Cross Section Earth Model For a dealer

More information

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3%

8 kcal/mole of ATP 2 ATP 16 kcal 16 kcal/2 moles of ATP 686 kcal/mole of glucose 2.3% 4. The cell s supply of ADP, P i, and NAD + is finite (limited). What happens to cellular respiration when all of the cell s NAD + has been converted to NADH? If NAD is unavailable, the cell is unable

More information

the plant & animal cell

the plant & animal cell 6.1 Basic unit of life Biology Biology Structure & functions of 06 the plant & animal cell In 1665, Robert Hooke observed a section of a cork using a microscope prepared by him. He discovered a structure

More information

I. Genes found on the same chromosome = linked genes

I. Genes found on the same chromosome = linked genes Genetic recombination in Eukaryotes: crossing over, part 1 I. Genes found on the same chromosome = linked genes II. III. Linkage and crossing over Crossing over & chromosome mapping I. Genes found on the

More information

the!sun!to!sugars.!this!is!called!! photosynthesis.!the!byproduct!of!those! Nucleus! sugars!is!our!oxygen.!

the!sun!to!sugars.!this!is!called!! photosynthesis.!the!byproduct!of!those! Nucleus! sugars!is!our!oxygen.! Cytoplasm ANIMAL CELL Vacuoles Mitochondria Chromosomes GolgiApparatus Chloroplast+ TheChloroplastiswhatmakesthefood inthecell.they reonlyfoundinplant cellsandsomeprotists.everygreen plantyouseeisconvertingenergyfrom

More information

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam Do the Practice Exam under exam conditions. Time yourself! MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. The substrate fits in the of an enzyme: (A) allosteric site (B) active site (C) reaction groove (D) Golgi body (E) inhibitor

More information

Summary.-Miniature-3 gamma gene is unstable in somatic cells.

Summary.-Miniature-3 gamma gene is unstable in somatic cells. 434 4GENETICS: C. R. BURNHAM be influenced by several genetic factors.6 'The higher rate in the males might be accounted for by the assumption that the male sex stimulates the instability. Experiments

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

02-SciProbe9-Chap02 2/8/07 12:12 PM Page 32 32 NEL

02-SciProbe9-Chap02 2/8/07 12:12 PM Page 32 32 NEL 32 UNIT A REPRODUCTION Chapter 2 Cell Growth and Reproduction Chapter 3 Sexual Reproduction Chapter 4 Human Reproduction Unit Preview Your body is made of many trillions of cells that came from a single

More information

University of Tripoli Faculty of Science / Zoology Department. Lecture notes

University of Tripoli Faculty of Science / Zoology Department. Lecture notes University of Tripoli Faculty of Science / Zoology Department Lecture notes in General Zoology course Zo 105 Part one: cytology Textbook: Kenneth Saladin. Anatomy and Physiology: the unity of form and

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes.

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes. 1. Why is the white-eye phenotype always observed in males carrying the white-eye allele? a. Because the trait is dominant b. Because the trait is recessive c. Because the allele is located on the X chromosome

More information

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Ch. 3

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Ch. 3 Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Ch. 3 THE CHROMOSOME THEORY OF INHERITANCE AND SEX CHROMOSOMES! The chromosome theory of inheritance describes how the transmission of chromosomes account for the Mendelian

More information

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes a. Cells tissues organs body systems Division of labour occurs in multicellular organisms (rather than each cell carrying out every function) Most cells become

More information

Life Sciences. Study Guide. Grade

Life Sciences. Study Guide. Grade Life Sciences Study Guide Grade 12 Life Sciences Study Guide Grade 12 This content may not be sold or used for commercial purposes. Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) Mind the Gap Grade

More information

THE lecture hall is no longer the primary portal for the

THE lecture hall is no longer the primary portal for the EDUCATION Using Online Lectures to Make Time for Active Learning Amy J. Prunuske,*,1 Janet Batzli, Evelyn Howell, and Sarah Miller *Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota

More information

REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST

REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST NOTE: The Unit Test will cover everything we have learned in the Biology Unit, starting from cell structures, cell division, various organ systems, disorders, organ donation,

More information

7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST. Part I: Cells. 1. The cell grows to its mature size during. a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d.

7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST. Part I: Cells. 1. The cell grows to its mature size during. a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d. 7 TH GRADE FINAL EXAM PRACTICE TEST Part I: Cells 1. The cell grows to its mature size during a. mitosis b. prophase c. telophase d. interphase 2. The final stage of the cell cycle is called a. interphase

More information

Materials and Methods. Ribonuclease.--Removal of ribonucleic acid from meristematic onion cells did not show any qualitative differences

Materials and Methods. Ribonuclease.--Removal of ribonucleic acid from meristematic onion cells did not show any qualitative differences B~U~ Noz~s 129 Alterations in Nuclear Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism Induced by l~inetin.* BY RUTH GUNMAN. From the Department of Genetics, University of California, Be, kezey.~ Kinetin, a substance recently

More information

Monopolar Attachment of Sister Kinetochores at Meiosis I Requires Casein Kinase 1

Monopolar Attachment of Sister Kinetochores at Meiosis I Requires Casein Kinase 1 Monopolar Attachment of Sister Kinetochores at Meiosis I Requires Casein Kinase 1 Mark Petronczki, 1,6 Joao Matos, 2,6 Saori Mori, 3 Juraj Gregan, 1 Aliona Bogdanova, 2 Martin Schwickart, 2,4 Karl Mechtler,

More information

High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology

High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology High School Science Lesson Plan: Biology Introduction Each lesson in the Adolescent Literacy Toolkit is designed to support students through the reading/learning process by providing instruction before,

More information

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Concept 1 - Thinking Practice 1. If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction, what molecules would result? Circle the parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw

More information

Christian Dietz M.Sc. University of Konstanz

Christian Dietz M.Sc. University of Konstanz Quantification of dynamic recruitment of repair factors to DNA-Damage and Automated localization, tracking and classification of dividing cells in live cell movies Christian Dietz M.Sc. University of Konstanz

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE. BIOL 101 Introduction to Biology

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE. BIOL 101 Introduction to Biology STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE BIOL 101 Introduction to Biology Prepared By: W. David Barnes SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH & PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE

More information

Von Mäusen und Menschen E - 1

Von Mäusen und Menschen E - 1 Von Mäusen und Menschen E - 1 Mus musculus: Genetic Portrait of the House Mouse E - 3 Outline Mouse genome Mouse life cycle Transgenic protocols Addition of genes by nuclear injection Removal of genes

More information

MERCER COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE DIVISION OF MATH SCIENCE AND HEALTH PROFESSIONS COURSE OUTLINE. General Biology I. Hours: lecture/laboratory

MERCER COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE DIVISION OF MATH SCIENCE AND HEALTH PROFESSIONS COURSE OUTLINE. General Biology I. Hours: lecture/laboratory MERCER COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE DIVISION OF MATH SCIENCE AND HEALTH PROFESSIONS COURSE OUTLINE BIO101 Course Number General Biology I Course Title 4 3/3 Credits Hours: lecture/laboratory Catalogue Description

More information

BIO 184 Page 1 Spring 2013 NAME VERSION 1 EXAM 3: KEY. Instructions: PRINT your Name and Exam version Number on your Scantron

BIO 184 Page 1 Spring 2013 NAME VERSION 1 EXAM 3: KEY. Instructions: PRINT your Name and Exam version Number on your Scantron BIO 184 Page 1 Spring 2013 EXAM 3: KEY Instructions: PRINT your Name and Exam version Number on your Scantron Example: PAULA SMITH, EXAM 2 VERSION 1 Write your name CLEARLY at the top of every page of

More information

Control of Gene Expression

Control of Gene Expression Home Gene Regulation Is Necessary? Control of Gene Expression By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection favoring

More information

by the PCR-mediated method (Krawchuk and Wahls, 1999). The construction of Ams2-null and conditional ams2-shut-off strains was previously described

by the PCR-mediated method (Krawchuk and Wahls, 1999). The construction of Ams2-null and conditional ams2-shut-off strains was previously described Table S1. Fission yeast strains used in this study. Gene disruption was performed by the PCR-mediated method (Krawchuk and Wahls, 1999). The construction of Ams2-null and conditional ams2-shut-off strains

More information

The Plant Cell UNIT II

The Plant Cell UNIT II Levetin McMahon: Plants 2. The Plant Cell The McGraw Hill UNIT II C H A PT E R OU T L I N E Early Studies of Cells 20 The Cell Wall 22 The Protoplast 22 Membranes 22 Moving Into and Out of Cells 22 Organelles

More information

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009 Cancer Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer 1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer

More information

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter 3 Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure and Function Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Misconceptions

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Forensic DNA Testing Terminology

Forensic DNA Testing Terminology Forensic DNA Testing Terminology ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer a capillary electrophoresis instrument used by forensic DNA laboratories to separate short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the basis of their size.

More information

Complex multicellular organisms are produced by cells that switch genes on and off during development.

Complex multicellular organisms are produced by cells that switch genes on and off during development. Home Control of Gene Expression Gene Regulation Is Necessary? By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection favoring

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

REVIEW ARTICLE DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts

REVIEW ARTICLE DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts Biochem. J. (2000) 349, 1 12 (Printed in Great Britain) 1 REVIEW ARTICLE DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts Hiroshi MURAKAMI 1 and

More information

Unit 2 Cell Biology Page 1

Unit 2 Cell Biology Page 1 Sub-Topics Include: 2.1 Cell structure 2.2 Transport across cell membranes 2.3 Producing new cells 2.4 DNA and the production of proteins 2.5 Proteins and enzymes 2.6 Genetic Engineering 2.7 Respiration

More information

Support structure for genetic material

Support structure for genetic material Support structure for genetic material 1 Making proteins in the RER Making copies of humans 2 Making copies of cells Making copies of genetic material 3 Making copies of genetic material Making copies

More information

Biology I New Summit School High School Diploma Program

Biology I New Summit School High School Diploma Program Course Description: Biology I Syllabus Biology I is a two semester course. Students completing this course will earn 1.0 unit upon completion. Required Materials: 1. Student Text: Biology-Principles and

More information

Heinemann Biology 1 Unit 1 - Summary

Heinemann Biology 1 Unit 1 - Summary Heinemann Biology 1 Unit 1 - Summary ALSO refer to Heinemann Student Workbook for: Essential knowledge summary. UNIT 1 Area of Study 1 Cells in action On completion of this unit the student should have

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

Chromosome Preparation and Banding

Chromosome Preparation and Banding Chromosome Preparation and Banding Charleen M Moore, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA Robert G Best, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South

More information

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells Comparing Plant And Animal Cells http://khanacademy.org/video?v=hmwvj9x4gny Plant Cells shape - most plant cells are squarish or rectangular in shape. amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an organelle

More information

Structural characterization and distribution of zebrafish germ plasm during interphase and mitosis

Structural characterization and distribution of zebrafish germ plasm during interphase and mitosis Structural characterization and distribution of zebrafish germ plasm during interphase and mitosis Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.)

More information

Genetics 301 Sample Final Examination Spring 2003

Genetics 301 Sample Final Examination Spring 2003 Genetics 301 Sample Final Examination Spring 2003 50 Multiple Choice Questions-(Choose the best answer) 1. A cross between two true breeding lines one with dark blue flowers and one with bright white flowers

More information

BIO 130.001 Principles of Cell & Molecular Biology Fall 2014 TR 11:00-12:15

BIO 130.001 Principles of Cell & Molecular Biology Fall 2014 TR 11:00-12:15 BIO 130.001 Principles of Cell & Molecular Biology Fall 2014 TR 11:00-12:15 S233 Dr. Sarah Canterberry Office Hours: S202 SI Leader: Assistant Professor, Biology MWF 1:00 3:00 Ramiro Espericueta *E-mail:

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *9282687787* UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education BIOLOGY 0610/21 Paper 2 Core October/November 2012 1 hour 15 minutes Candidates

More information

GENE REGULATION. Teacher Packet

GENE REGULATION. Teacher Packet AP * BIOLOGY GENE REGULATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production of this material. Pictures

More information

PLANT CELLS AND ANIMAL CELLS

PLANT CELLS AND ANIMAL CELLS PLANT CELLS AND ANIMAL CELLS General Science, Biology, Anatomy, Physiology Grades 6 12 OBJECTIVES CONTENT THINKING SKILL/PROCESS Students will learn the role of cells as building blocks of all living structures.

More information

Meiotic crossover number and distribution are regulated by a dosage compensation protein that resembles a condensin subunit

Meiotic crossover number and distribution are regulated by a dosage compensation protein that resembles a condensin subunit Meiotic crossover number and distribution are regulated by a dosage compensation protein that resembles a condensin subunit Chun J. Tsai, 2 David G. Mets, Michael R. Albrecht, 3 Paola Nix, 1,4 Annette

More information

Cells. Introduction WSBCTC 1

Cells. Introduction WSBCTC 1 Cells Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are composed of cells. While there are several characteristics that are common to all cells, such as the presence of a cell membrane, cytoplasm,

More information

Interphase (A) and mitotic (B) D16 cells were plated on concanavalin A and processed for

Interphase (A) and mitotic (B) D16 cells were plated on concanavalin A and processed for E07-10-1069 Rogers SUPPLEMENTARY DATA Supplemental Figure 1. Interphase day-7 control and γ-tubulin23c RNAi-treated S2 cells stained for MTs (green), γ-tubulin (red), and DNA (blue). Scale, 5μm. Supplemental

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide and to make needed materials. S7L2a b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by

More information

Writing in the Biolog iting in the Biolo ical Sciences

Writing in the Biolog iting in the Biolo ical Sciences A Student s Guide to Writing in the Biological Sciences A Student s Guide to Wr W iting in the Biological Sciences A Student s Guide to Writing in the Biological Sciences 2005 The President and Fellows

More information

Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrna? A: Translation Ribosomes translate mrna into protein

Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrna? A: Translation Ribosomes translate mrna into protein ranslation (written lesson) Q: How are proteins (amino acid chains) made from the information in mrn? : ranslation Ribosomes translate mrn into protein ranslation has 3 steps also! 1. ranslation Initiation:

More information

BIoLoGY the origin of the eukaryotic cell IntroductIon

BIoLoGY the origin of the eukaryotic cell IntroductIon BIOLOGY The Origin of the Eukaryotic Cell Published in BIOLOGIA.ORG, nº 20, 2005 LUIS SANTIAGO LARIO HERRERO - slarioh@icesaludvet.com & SANTIAGO LARIO LADRÓN - 9684sll@comb.cat English Translation by

More information

Application Note. Cell Cycle and DNA Content Analysis Using the BD Cycletest Assay on the BD FACSVerse System. Summary

Application Note. Cell Cycle and DNA Content Analysis Using the BD Cycletest Assay on the BD FACSVerse System. Summary Cell Cycle and DNA Content Analysis Using the BD Cycletest Assay on the BD FACSVerse System Yibing Wang, Catherine McIntyre, and Dev Mittar BD Biosciences, San Jose Contents 1 Summary 2 Introduction 3

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

Genetics. Biology Spring 2014

Genetics. Biology Spring 2014 Genetics Biology 2296 Spring 2014 Lecture Times Class Location Course Coordinators Lab Coordinator M, W, F 12:00-12:50pm Gladfelterr Hall 0L013 Dr. Darius Balciunass Dr. Jorune Balciuniene Dr. Jennifer

More information

Mlp1 Acts as a Mitotic Scaffold to Spatially Regulate Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Proteins in Aspergillus nidulans

Mlp1 Acts as a Mitotic Scaffold to Spatially Regulate Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Proteins in Aspergillus nidulans Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 20, 2146 2159, April 15, 2009 Mlp1 Acts as a Mitotic Scaffold to Spatially Regulate Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Proteins in Aspergillus nidulans Colin P. De Souza,* Shahr

More information

14.3 Studying the Human Genome

14.3 Studying the Human Genome 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Objectives Summarize the methods of DNA analysis. State the goals of the Human Genome Project and explain what we have learned so far. Lesson Summary Manipulating

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

Biology 3201 Grading Standards June 2008

Biology 3201 Grading Standards June 2008 Pre-Marking Appraisal Biology 3201 Grading Standards June 2008 The examination was considered fair and had coverage of each unit of study and each level of cognitive learning as per the table of specs.

More information

Biology 274: Genetics Syllabus

Biology 274: Genetics Syllabus Biology 274: Genetics Syllabus Description: An examination of the basic principles of genetics in eukaryotes and prokaryotes at the level of molecules, cells, and multicelluar organisms, including humans.

More information

Translation Study Guide

Translation Study Guide Translation Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. In translation, the cell uses the genetic information contained in mrna to

More information

(1-p) 2. p(1-p) From the table, frequency of DpyUnc = ¼ (p^2) = #DpyUnc = p^2 = 0.0004 ¼(1-p)^2 + ½(1-p)p + ¼(p^2) #Dpy + #DpyUnc

(1-p) 2. p(1-p) From the table, frequency of DpyUnc = ¼ (p^2) = #DpyUnc = p^2 = 0.0004 ¼(1-p)^2 + ½(1-p)p + ¼(p^2) #Dpy + #DpyUnc Advanced genetics Kornfeld problem set_key 1A (5 points) Brenner employed 2-factor and 3-factor crosses with the mutants isolated from his screen, and visually assayed for recombination events between

More information

Milestones of bacterial genetic research:

Milestones of bacterial genetic research: Milestones of bacterial genetic research: 1944 Avery's pneumococcal transformation experiment shows that DNA is the hereditary material 1946 Lederberg & Tatum describes bacterial conjugation using biochemical

More information

B2 1 Cells, Tissues and Organs

B2 1 Cells, Tissues and Organs B2 Cells, Tissues and Organs 5 minutes 5 marks Page of 7 Q. The diagram shows a bacterium. On the drawing, name the structures labelled A, B, C and D. (Total 4 marks) Q2. (a) The diagrams show cells containing

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

Johnson State College External Degree Program. BIO-1210-JY01 Introduction to Biology Syllabus Spring 2015

Johnson State College External Degree Program. BIO-1210-JY01 Introduction to Biology Syllabus Spring 2015 Instructor: Barbara Pratt bigskyvt@gmail.com Dates: Jan 19 to May 10 (no class Apr 6 to 12) Johnson State College External Degree Program BIO-1210-JY01 Introduction to Biology Syllabus Spring 2015 Location:

More information

http://www.springer.com/3-540-23372-5

http://www.springer.com/3-540-23372-5 http://www.springer.com/3-540-23372-5 Chromatin Remodeling Factors and DNA Replication Patrick Varga-Weisz Abstract Chromatin structures have to be precisely duplicated during DNA replication to maintain

More information

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Lineage Markers Lineage markers are passed down from generation to generation without changing Except for rare mutation events They can help determine the lineage (family tree)

More information

BIOLOGY. Course Description M A Y 2 0 0 6, M A Y 2 0 0 7

BIOLOGY. Course Description M A Y 2 0 0 6, M A Y 2 0 0 7 BIOLOGY Course Description M A Y 2 0 0 6, M A Y 2 0 0 7 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

METHODS. [Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, Vol. 97, part 1, pp. 39-45, March 1956.]

METHODS. [Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, Vol. 97, part 1, pp. 39-45, March 1956.] The Site of Damage in Amoebae exposed to Low Concentrations of Methyl di-(p-chloroethyl)-amine (a 'Nitrogen Mustard') By M. J. ORD {From the Department of Zoology, King's College, London, W.C. ) 9 SUMMARY

More information

The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project Brief History of the Human Genome Project Physical Chromosome Maps Genetic (or Linkage) Maps DNA Markers Sequencing and Annotating Genomic DNA What Have We learned from the HGP?

More information

Biology 5. Biology 5. Cell Biology and Genetics. By Mr. Charles K.Twesigye

Biology 5. Biology 5. Cell Biology and Genetics. By Mr. Charles K.Twesigye Biology 5 Biology 5 Cell Biology and Genetics By Mr. Charles K.Twesigye African Virtual university Université Virtuelle Africaine Universidade Virtual Africana African Virtual University 1 NOTICE This

More information

Cancer: Cells Behaving Badly

Cancer: Cells Behaving Badly Cancer: Cells behaving badly It s quite likely your body is harboring precancerous cells. Don t panic: this doesn t mean you have cancer. Many of us have cells here and there with defense mechanisms that

More information

F1 Generation. F2 Generation. AaBb

F1 Generation. F2 Generation. AaBb How was DNA shown to be the genetic material? We need to discuss this in an historical context. During the 19th century most scientists thought that a bit of the essence of each and every body part was

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Note: At least 1 point must be earned from each of parts (a), (b), (c), and (d) in order to earn a maximum score of 10. The ability to reproduce is a characteristic

More information

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Biology Learning Centre Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Tips for most effective learning of this material: Memorize the names and structures over several days. This will help you retain what you

More information

Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression

Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression 18.1. Gene Regulation Is Necessary By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection

More information

Molekularbiologie. Menu of14.10.09. Organisatorisches Kurze Wiederholung aus der Grundvorlesung

Molekularbiologie. Menu of14.10.09. Organisatorisches Kurze Wiederholung aus der Grundvorlesung Zyklusvorlesung Molekularbiologie WS 2009/10 Oliver Gruß, Seite 1 Molekularbiologie Menu of14.10.09 Organisatorisches Kurze Wiederholung aus der Grundvorlesung DNA: More than just... the protein coding

More information

Fact Sheet 14 EPIGENETICS

Fact Sheet 14 EPIGENETICS This fact sheet describes epigenetics which refers to factors that can influence the way our genes are expressed in the cells of our body. In summary Epigenetics is a phenomenon that affects the way cells

More information

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA Fingerprinting Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA fingerprinting The name used for the unambiguous identifying technique that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequence

More information

Sequence and regulation of morphological and molecular events during the first cell cycle of mouse embryogenesis

Sequence and regulation of morphological and molecular events during the first cell cycle of mouse embryogenesis /. Embryol. exp. Morph. 87, 175-206 (1985) 175 Printed in Great Britain The Company of Biologists Limited 1985 Sequence and regulation of morphological and molecular events during the first cell cycle

More information

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function. 12.1 What are animals and plants built from? All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. to relate the structure of different types

More information