Introduction. Acids and Bases

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction. Acids and Bases"

Transcription

1 1 Acids, Bases, Buffers and ph Introduction Purpose: To examine properties of acids and bases, buffers, and salt solutions, and use different methods to measure the ph of those solutions. Acids and Bases Arrhenius proposed the first theory of acids and bases. According to Arrhenius, pure water dissociates to some extent to produce hydrogen ions (H + ) and hydroxide ions (OH - ). When this occurs, equal amounts of H + and OH - ions are produced: H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) (1) It is now known that the hydrogen ion does not exist as such in water; rather, it is bonded to water and exists as the hydronium ion (H ). Therefore the ionization of water may be better represented by equation (2): 2 H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) (2) An Arrhenius acid is a substance that increases the hydronium concentration in water. This causes the concentration of H 3 O + ions to be higher than that of OH - ions, and the solution is said to be acidic. The following shows the ionization of nitric acid, HNO 3, in water, and its behavior as an Arrhenius acid: HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO - 3 (aq) (3) Similarly, an Arrhenius base is a substance that increases the hydroxide ion concentration when dissolved in water. The resulting solution has a higher concentration of OH - ions than H 3 O + ions and is said to be basic or alkaline. Sodium hydroxide is a base. It ionizes to form hydroxide ion when dissolved in water: NaOH(s) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) (4) Both acids and bases can be classified as either strong or weak, terms that describe the extent to which they produce either H 3 O + or OH - ions, respectively, in solution. A strong acid is one that is essentially 100% dissociated when dissolved in water. Hydrochloric acid, HCl, and nitric acid, HNO 3, are strong acids, and both will produce an H 3 O + concentration equal to the concentration of the acid. For example, a 2.0 M HNO 3 will dissociate to 2.0 M H 3 O +. There are six strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4. A weak acid is one that undergoes only partial dissociation in water. Any acid that is not one of the six strong acids must be a weak acid. Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, is an example of a weak acid and will produce an H 3 O + concentration that is much lower than the concentration of the acid. Only a small fraction of the molecules of a weak acid are ionized in solution. Most of the acid is present as molecules. For example, in a 2.0 M acetic acid solution, only 13 of every 1000 acid molecules are ionized (1.3% dissociation). CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) (5) The double arrow indicates that a state of dynamic chemical equilibrium exists. Here the two opposing reactions occur simultaneously at the same rate. At equilibrium the concentrations of

2 2 the reactants and products have stabilized at some constant value and it appears that the reaction has ceased. The state of equilibrium is described by an equilibrium constant, K. The general expression for K is given in equation (6): [product] K = The brackets, [ ], denote molar concentration. (6) [reactant] The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid is called the acid dissociation constant, K a. For example K a for acetic acid is given by the following equation: K a = - + [CH3COO ][H3O ] [CH3COOH] (7) Because there is always a very large quantity water (the solvent), the concentration of H 2 O is essentially a constant and is therefore not included in the equilibrium expression. The higher the value of K a, the higher is the degree of dissociation of the acid. Thus an acid with a K a value of 2.6 x 10-2 is stronger than an acid with a K a of 8.5 x10-8. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2, are strong bases. In solution, these compounds dissociate completely into ions. All group 1 hydroxides and Group 2 hydroxides beginning with calcium and continuing down the periodic table are considered strong bases. Aqueous ammonia, NH 3 (aq) (or ammonium hydroxide, NH 4 OH), and methylamine, CH 3 NH 2, are weak bases. In solution, they produce a hydroxide ion concentration that is very small compared to that of the base: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) (8) The strength of a base is expressed in terms of a base dissociation constant, K b. For example K b for ammonia is given in equation (9): K b = + - [NH 4 ][OH ] [NH 3] (9) A base with a K b value of 9.2 x 10-3 is stronger than a base with a K b of 4.3 x Bronsted and Lowry proposed a more general theory of acids and bases. A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a substance that donates H + (protons) and is called a proton donor, while a base is a proton acceptor. Notice with this definition, no water is needed, and so formation of H 3 O + or OH - is not required. The H + can be donated to any other molecule (base) that can accept it. It is also useful to consider the relationship between related pairs of structures with either one less or one more H +. For example, consider CH 3 COOH/ CH 3 COO -. These are examples of conjugate acid-base pairs. For any conjugate acid-base pair, the acid has one more proton than its conjugate base. Any Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction involves two conjugate acid-base pairs, as illustrated in the examples below:

3 3 CH 3 COOH(aq) + OH - (aq) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 2 O(l) (10) acid base conj. base conj. acid NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) (11) base acid conj. acid conj. base Two general statements apply to acid-base equilibria: The stronger an acid, the weaker is its conjugate base. Also, the stronger a base, the weaker is its conjugate acid. Equilibrium favors the formation of the weaker acid and the weaker base. HNO 3 is a strong acid and gives up protons readily; this means that its conjugate base, NO 3 -, is not going to accept protons readily. Thus, NO 3 - is a weak Bronsted base. On the other hand, CH 3 COOH is a weak acid and does not readily give up protons; its conjugate base, CH 3 COO -, has a tendency to accept protons and is therefore a significant Bronsted base. In general, anions of weak acids are relatively strong bases, and cations of weak bases are relatively strong acids. The relative strength of acids and bases can be used to predict whether the products or reactants will be favored (present in larger amounts) at equilibrium. Consider the following reaction. CH 3 COOH + NO 3 - CH 3 COO - + HNO 3 (12) Compare the acids on each side. At equilibrium, we can see that the reactants are favored, as the reaction will NOT proceed toward the stronger side (HNO 3 ).

4 4 ph Scale The ph of a solution is a measure of its hydronium ion concentration. The ph scale was developed to express low concentrations of H 3 O + ion without the inconvenience of negative exponents. The defining equation of ph is: ph = -log[h 3 O + ] (13) In a similar manner, a measure of the concentration of the hydroxide ion can be expressed as the poh of the solution: poh = - log [OH - ] (14) In any aqueous solution, the product of the hydronium ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration equals a constant, called the ion product constant, K w : K w = [H ][OH - ] = 1.0 X at 25 C (15) Because of this relationship between the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in aqueous solutions, the ph and poh of a solution are also related: ph + poh = 14 (16) If the ph of a solution is 5, the poh must equal 9. If the ph of a solution increases, the poh decreases, and vice versa. If [H 3 O + ] is greater than [OH - ], the solution is considered to be acidic; acidic solutions have a ph less than 7. On the other hand, if [OH - ] is greater than [H 3 O + ], the solution is basic; basic solutions have a ph greater than 7. A ph of exactly 7 represents a neutral solution, one in which the [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 X 10-7 M. There are two common ways to measure the ph of a solution. The easiest method involves using wide-range ph paper (a paper saturated with indicator dyes that change color in response to the ph of a solution) or universal indicator solution. A more accurate and precise ph value requires the use of a ph meter. This is an electronic device with a special electrode that generates a small voltage proportional to the hydronium ion concentration of the solution in which it is placed. The electrical signal is amplified, converted to ph, and displayed. Although ph paper is less sensitive than the ph meter, it is satisfactory in many applications.

5 5 Hydrolysis A salt, to a chemist, is any ionic compound. When a salt is dissolved in water, it dissociates into its component ions. Some ions react with water to a small degree to produce solutions that are either acidic or basic. Any chemical reaction in which water is a reactant is called a hydrolysis reaction. Example 1: When ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) is dissolved in water, the ammonium ion undergoes hydrolysis and the solution becomes slightly acidic. The chloride ion (the conjugate base of a strong acid) does not undergo hydrolysis. NH H 2 O H 3 O + + NH 3 Yes! This reaction can occur because no strong acid or base formed. Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCl + OH - No! No reaction because strong acid (HCl) won t form. So overall (above), the ph will go down (becomes acidic) when NH 4 Cl is added to water because of the H 3 O + that forms in the first chemical equation above. Example 2: When sodium acetate (NaCH 3 COO) is dissolved in water, only the acetate ion undergoes hydrolysis and the solution becomes slightly basic. The sodium ion does not react with water. Na + + H 2 O NaOH + H + No! No reaction because strong base (NaOH) won t form. CH 3 COO - + H 2 O CH 3 COOH + OH - base formed. Yes! This reaction occurs because no strong acid or So overall (above), the ph will go up (becomes basic) when sodium acetate is added to water because of the OH - that forms in the second chemical equation shown above. To determine the effect of a salt, consider each equation and decide on the overall effect as shown in the two examples above. In some cases, there will be no reaction for either the cation or the anion (and, therefore, no change in ph). In other cases, both reactions will occur, which means more detailed information would be needed to see which equation dominates (has a larger equilibrium constant). Buffers A buffer is a solution that resists large changes in ph when small amounts of acid or base are added. A buffer solution consists of either: 1. a weak acid and the conjugate base of that acid, for example, CH 3 COOH and CH 3 COO - (from the salt CH 3 COONa) this will generally provide an acidic ph, or 2. a weak base and the conjugate acid of that base, for example, NH 3 and NH 4 + (from the salt NH 4 Cl) this will generally provide a basic ph.

6 6 Consider first the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer. The equilibrium that controls the ph is: CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) (17) If a small amount of acid is added to this buffer solution, it combines with the CH 3 COO -, forming the compounds shown on the left. The ph remains relatively unchanged as the acid is consumed by the conjugate base, CH 3 COO -. CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) CH 3 COOH + H 2 O(l) (18) If a small amount of base is added to the buffer, it is consumed by the acid to form water and acetate ion. Again, this means the ph remains relatively unchanged as the base is consumed by the weak acid. CH 3 COOH(aq) + OH - (aq) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 2 O(l) (19) Consider now the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer which is used to control the ph of solutions in the mildly basic range of about 8 to 10. The equilibrium that controls the ph is that described by the following equation. NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) (20) If a small amount of acid is added to this buffer solution, it combines with ammonia, forming ammonium ion and consuming the acid in the process. NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O(l) (21) If a small amount of base is added, it is consumed by the conjugate acid to form water and ammonia. N H 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (22) These equations show how this buffer system can neutralize both acid and base. The buffering capacity of a buffer (the amount of acid or base that it can neutralize without a significant change in ph) is limited by the nature and concentration of its components. Higher concentrations of reagents results in a higher buffer capacity. The ph of blood is maintained in the normal range ( ) by the buffering action of three buffers: the bicarbonate buffer( H 2 CO 3 /HCO 3 - ), the phosphate buffer (H 2 PO 4 - /HPO 4-2 ), and the plasma proteins. The buffer that plays the major role here is the bicarbonate buffer. Acidosis and alkalosis result when the blood ph drops below 7.35 or rises above 7.45 respectively.

7 Procedure SAFETY NOTE Handle hydrochloric acid (HCl) with care. Avoid breathing its vapors and avoid skin contact. If you do spill some on yourself, wash immediately with cold water. Notify your instructor. Handle sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with care. Avoid skin contact. If you do spill some on yourself, wash immediately with cold water. Notify your instructor.! Use caution with all acid and base reagents. Note: You will need freshly boiled deionized water for portions of this experiment. Pour about 80 ml of deionized water into a clean 100 ml beaker and boil for about 5 minutes to remove any dissolved CO 2, which affects the ph of water. Set this aside to cool. Use of the ph Meter Follow the lab instructor's directions for the use of the ph meter. Handle the meter with great care as the electrode is very fragile. Calibrate using a one point calibration before taking any ph measurements. Before each measurement, rinse the electrode with deionized water and gently dry it with a Kimwipe. At the end of the experiment, rinse the electrode thoroughly, dry it with a Kimwipe, switch off the power, and replace in the storage bottle, ensuring that the electrode tip is in the solution. Use of Wide-Range ph Paper and Universal Indicator Solution To use ph paper, tear the strips of paper into pieces about 2 cm long and lay them on a clean watch glass. Then, to test the ph of a solution, obtain a droplet of the solution on the end of a clean stirring rod or Pasteur pipet and transfer it to a piece of ph paper. Compare the color produced with the color chart on the ph paper vial. Always rinse the stirring rod or pipet with deionized water before testing the next sample. To use universal indicator solution, transfer about 1 ml of the solution to be tested to a test tube, add 1 or 2 drops of universal indicator, and compare the color produced to the colors of the standards on the Universal Indicator Chart.

8 8 Waste disposal: all the test solutions may be flushed down the drain. Begin by boiling water (see above) and then cooling to room temperature for future use. Record all observations and results in the Data Tables on pages 9 and 10. Part A. Measuring the ph of Common Acids and Bases 1. Pour about 25 ml of the following solutions into clean 50 ml beakers. Measure the ph of each solution with the ph meter. Record the ph values. 2. Repeat the ph measurement of these same solutions using ph paper and universal indicator solution. Record the colors produced and ph values. 3. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration for each solution using the ph values from the ph meter. a. 0.1 M NH 3 b. 0.1 M NaOH c. 0.1 M H 3 BO 3 d. 0.1 M HCl Part B. Hydrolysis: Measuring the ph of Salt Solutions 1. Pour about 25 ml of the following solutions into clean 50 ml beakers. Measure the ph of each solution with the ph meter. Record the ph values. 2. Repeat the ph measurement of these same solutions using universal indicator solution. Record the colors produced and ph values. 3. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration for each solution using the ph values from the ph meter. a. 0.1 M Na 2 CO 3 b. 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 c. 0.1 M NaCl Part C. Buffer Action Use only the ph meter for the following ph measurements. 1. Measure 25.0 ml of acetic acid using a graduated cylinder, and transfer the solution to a clean 100 ml beaker. Measure the ph. 2. Measure 25.0 ml of sodium acetate using a graduated cylinder, and transfer the solution to a clean 100 ml beaker. Measure the ph. 3. Mix the two solutions and measure the ph of the resulting buffer. Record the ph values. Divide the buffer solution into 2 portions. 4. To one portion of the buffer (=25 ml), add 5 drops of 1.0 M HCl one drop at a time. Swirl the solution after each addition, and measure the ph. 5. To the other portion of the buffer, add 5 drops of 1.0 M NaOH, one drop at a time. Swirl the solution after each addition, and measure the ph. 6. Repeat steps #4 and 5, using 25 ml of freshly boiled deionized water instead of the buffer solution.

9 9 Acids, Bases, Buffers and ph Data Tables Part A. Solution ph Meter ph paper Universal Indicator Control (H 2 O) a. 0.1 M NH 3 b. 0.1 M NaOH Reading [H 3 O + ] color ph value color ph value c. 0.1 M H 3 BO 3 d. 0.1 M HCI Part B. Solution ph Meter Universal Indicator Control (H 2 O) a. 0.1 M Na 2 CO 3 Reading [H 3 O + ] color ph value b. 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 c. 0.1 M NaCl Part C. Solution Control (H 2 O) a. Acetic Acid ph Meter Reading b. Sodium Acetate c. Mixture of a & b

10 10 Part C. (continued) Solution ph Meter reading Solution ½ of mixture c the other ½ of mixture c (acetate buffer) (acetate buffer) d. + 1 drop of 1M HCl i. + 1 drop of 1M NaOH ph Meter reading e. + 2 drops of 1M HCl j. + 2 drops of 1M NaOH f. + 3 drops of 1M HCl k. + 3 drops of 1M NaOH g. + 4 drops of 1M HCl l. + 4 drops of 1M NaOH h. + 5 drops of 1M HCl m. + 5 drops of 1M NaOH Solution ph Meter reading Solution Boiled (but cooled) Boiled (but cooled) H 2 O H 2 O n. + 1 drop of 1M HCl s. + 1 drop of 1M NaOH ph Meter reading o. + 2 drops of 1M HCl t. + 2 drops of 1M NaOH p. + 3 drops of 1M HCl u. + 3 drops of 1M NaOH q. + 4 drops of 1M HCl v. + 4 drops of 1M NaOH r. + 5 drops of 1M HCl w. + 5 drops of 1M NaOH

11 11 Acids, Bases, Buffers and ph Post-laboratory Assignment 1. In Part A of this experiment, which base had a higher ph? Explain why. And which acid had a lower ph? Explain why. 2. In Part B, three salts were added to water. Write balanced chemical equations that show why the ph changed or did not change. (Again, see Examples 1 and 2 in the pre-lab reading.) Compare to your data. 3. In Part C, how did addition of HCl and NaOH affect the ph of the acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer? How did the additions affect the ph of water? What conclusions can you draw from these results? 4. A buffer solution is made by mixing Na 2 HPO 4 with NaH 2 PO 4. Which of these is the acid and which is the base? Write an equation for the primary equilibrium that exists in the buffer. a. Write an equation to show how the buffer neutralizes any added acid (H 3 O + ). How does the added acid affect the buffer equilibrium? b. Write an equation to show how the buffer neutralizes any added base (OH - ). How does the added base affect the buffer equilibrium? 5. Compare your ph values from the meter, the ph paper and the indicator solution. How well do they agree? Which do you think is most accurate? And least accurate? 6. Which of these mixtures can serve as a buffer solution? a. CH 3 NH 2 and CH 3 NH 3 + Cl - b. NaOH and NaCl c. HBr and KBr d. CH 3 CH 2 COOH and CH 3 CH 2 COO - K + Summarize your overall results.

12 12 1. A solution has a ph of 8.7. a. What is the poh of this solution? b. Is the solution acidic, basic or neutral? Acids, Bases, Buffers and ph Pre-laboratory Assignment 2. Solution A has a hydronium ion concentration of 3.8 x 10-8 M. Solution B has a hydronium ion concentration of 2.5 x 10-4 M. a. Which solution has the higher hydronium ion concentration? b. Which solution has the higher ph? c. Calculate the ph of the more acidic solution. Show all work. 3. Consider hydrolysis reactions and then predict whether the ph of an aqueous solution of each of the following compounds is greater than 7 (>7), less than 7 (<7), or about 7 (=7). If a prediction is not possible, write "need more info". KNO 2 b. CuBr 2 c. LiNO 3 last revised 6/18/2016 DN

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values increase or decrease? Q2: The range of values of the ph scale is: Q7: As bases become more alkaline, their ph values increase

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

More information

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance 1 Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance Read pp 142-155, 161-162, Chapter 10 and pp 163-173, Chapter 11, in LTOC. View the videos: 4.2 Extraction (Macroscale);

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 INTRODUCTION Titration is the volumetric measurement of a solution

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

ph Measurements of Common Substances

ph Measurements of Common Substances Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

More information

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ACIDS AND BASES Mild acids and bases are used in cooking (their reaction makes biscuits and bread rise). Acids such as those in our stomachs eat away at food or digest it. Strong acids and bases are used

More information

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow.

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Chem 121 Lab Clark College Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Content Goals: Increase understanding

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils I. Chemical units a. Moles and Avogadro s number The numbers of atoms, ions or molecules are important in chemical reactions because the number, rather than mass

More information

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Introduction The classic method of determining calcium and other suitable cations is titration with a standardized solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic

More information

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Road map of acid-base equilibria On first encounter, the study of acid-base equilibria is a little like a strange land with seemingly confusing trails that make passage

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS 5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS Sl. No. Contents Preamble 5.1 Aim 5.2 Introduction 5.2.1 Environmental Significance 5.3 Principle 5.4 Materials Required 5.4.1 Apparatus Required 5.4.2

More information

Direct ISE Method Method 8359 10 to 1000 mg/l Na + Sodium ISE

Direct ISE Method Method 8359 10 to 1000 mg/l Na + Sodium ISE Sodium DOC316.53.01240 Direct ISE Method Method 8359 10 to 1000 mg/l Na + Sodium ISE Scope and application: For drinking water and process water. Test preparation Instrument-specific information This procedure

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Acids and Bases Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids An acid base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen

More information

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1)

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1) NOTICE: This is a DRAFT of a TAPPI Standard in ballot. Although available for public viewing, it is still under TAPPI s copyright and may not be reproduced or distributed without permission of TAPPI. This

More information

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system?

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system? Acids and Bases acid: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph less than 7 base: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph greater than 7 ph: the

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Lecture 1 Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 1 problems in textbook: chapter 1, pp. 23-24, #1,2,3,6,7,8,9, 10,11; practice problems at end

More information

Definition The property of exhibiting the qualities of a base

Definition The property of exhibiting the qualities of a base Acids and Bases Word Acidity Alkalinity Amphiprotic Amphoteric Arrhenius Acid Arrhenius Base Basicity Bronsted/Lowry Acid Bronsted/Lowry Base Buret Caustic Conjugate pair Corrosive Electrolyte Hydrolysis

More information

n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution)

n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution) 1. CONCENTRATION UNITS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances. If we have a solution made from a solid and a liquid, we say that the solid is dissolved in the liquid and

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES measure substances and solutions according to ph, solubility, and concentration KNOWLEDGE ph is the measure of the tendency

More information

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...

More information

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

More information

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators Chemistry 101 - H Acids and Bases This presentation was created by Professor Carl H. Snyder Chemistry Department University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 CSnyder@miami.edu Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases

More information

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid.

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid. INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF DRAIN CLEANER (Revised: 1-25-93) Many common household cleaners contain acids or bases. Acidic cleaners, such as toilet bowl cleaners, often contain hydrochloric acid or sodium

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V.

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V. Voltaic Cells Introduction In this lab you will first prepare a set of simple standard half-cells and then measure the voltage between the half-cells with a voltmeter. From this data you will be able to

More information

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept 44 Section 43 Questions 1 Define Avogadro s constant, and explain its significance in quantitative analysis 2 Distinguish between the terms atomic mass and molar mass 3 Calculate the mass of a molecule

More information

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method)

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Grace Analytical Lab 536 South Clark Street 10th Floor Chicago, IL 60605 April 15, 1994 Revision 2 Standard Operating Procedure

More information

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...

More information

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Formulas, Equations and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

More information

Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

More information

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets Cautions: 6 M hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Purpose: To colorimetrically determine the mass of iron present in commercial vitamin tablets using a prepared calibration curve. Introduction: Iron is considered

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Color, True and Apparent

Color, True and Apparent Color, True and Apparent DOC316.53.01037 Platinum-Cobalt Standard Method 1, 2, 3 Method 8025 15 to 500 color units Scope and application: For water, wastewater and seawater; equivalent to NCASI method

More information

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic

More information

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility Solubility of Salts - Ksp We now focus on another aqueous equilibrium system, slightly soluble salts. These salts have a Solubility Product Constant, K sp. (We saw this in 1B with the sodium tetraborate

More information

Acids and Bases 7. Have You Ever Wondered?

Acids and Bases 7. Have You Ever Wondered? Acids and Bases 7 Have You Ever Wondered? 1. Are all acids corrosive? 2. What is an amino acid? 3. Is vitamin C really an acid? Are all vitamins acids? 4. What is the difference between salt and sodium?

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7 Table of Contents Letter to the Student..................................... 5 Test-Taking Checklist.................................... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart...

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

PN 44-6033/rev. D December 2010. Theory and Practice of ph Measurement

PN 44-6033/rev. D December 2010. Theory and Practice of ph Measurement PN 44-6033/rev. D December 2010 Theory and Practice of ph Measurement THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ph MEASUREMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ph MEASUREMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

More information

1. What do you think is the definition of an acid? Of a base?

1. What do you think is the definition of an acid? Of a base? Concepts of ph Why? The level of acidity or basicity affects many important biological and environmental processes: enzymes function effectively only in narrowly defined ranges of ph; blood ph in part

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1. 96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Nomenclature and Household Items

Nomenclature and Household Items Nomenclature and Household Items NAME: DATE: PERIOD: Background: Many household items contain chemicals that are commonly used in everyday life. Some chemicals are edible while other compounds would be

More information

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Manual to experiment nr 10 Instructor: Dr Tomasz S. Pawłowski 1 Goal of the experiment The goal of the experiment is introduction of

More information

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

More information

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES 4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES Sl. No. Contents Preamble 4.1 Aim 4.2 Introduction 4.2.1 Environmental Significance 4.3 Principle 4.4 Materials Required 4.4.1 Apparatus Required 4.4.2 Chemicals

More information

Solutions and Dilutions

Solutions and Dilutions Learning Objectives Students should be able to: Content Design a procedure for making a particular solution and assess the advantages of different approaches. Choose the appropriate glassware to ensure

More information

TOPIC-1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM A MATTER OF BALANCE

TOPIC-1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM A MATTER OF BALANCE Chemistry 534 CHAPTER 6 Chemical Equilibrium The subject of any investigation is called a system. When the study involves experimentation, the system is said to be real. When the study involves ideas,

More information

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to:

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to: STOICHIOMETRY LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this unit students will be expected to: UNIT 1 THE MOLE AND MOLAR MASS define molar mass and perform mole-mass inter-conversions for pure substances explain

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5 Contents Getting the most from this book...4 About this book....5 Content Guidance Topic 1 Atomic structure and the periodic table...8 Topic 2 Bonding and structure...14 Topic 2A Bonding....14 Topic 2B

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information