1 Anders Eugensson, Director Governmental Affairs Volvo Car Corporation
2 We all know the picture: 1.2 million deaths annually worldwide Disables 50 million people annually Exceedance of pollution levels for ambient air quality standards Increasingly high CO 2 emissions Congestion problems Transportation is the backbone of modern society
3 Our Heritage Cars are driven by people. The guiding principle behind everything we make at Volvo, therefore, is and must remain - safety. Assar Gabrielsson & Gustaf Larson, the founders of Volvo
4 Our Vision is that no one is killed or injured in a Volvo by 2020 Our Future
5 Vision 2020 Can it be done? How? What will be necessary? What will be the obstacles? What will help to make this happen?
6 Our Vision is that no one is killed or injured in a Volvo in the year / The Challenges of the vision Only 11 years of development left Two vehicle generations We are facing a step learning curve in the development of preventative safety systems Further development still needed for protective safety Is it possible to find solutions in time? Will our technical knowledge be enough? We cannot solve this on our own -> co-operations necessary!
7 / Need for interpretations What do we mean by no deaths or injuries? For what accidents? For what categories? What are the boundary conditions? What will be the likely development of the environment surrounding the vehicles? Replacement/ development of the vehicle fleet Changes in the infrastructure Developments of the legal requirements Driver behaviours Differences depending on markets
8 / What is necessary? Establish strategies/ approaches A new outlook on the roles of the stakeholders Drivers/ vehicles/ infrastructure Governments/ industry/ academia/ insurance companies Increased knowledge through, e.g. research Requirements for broader knowledge than before Requires research across more disciplines Co-operations essential Agreement on co-operation with SRA Support from incentives and other drivers necessary in order to create better possibilities for penetration of new technologies.
9 Volvo/ Swedish Road Administration Letter of Intent on Co-operation Establish interfaces and boundaries for: Vehicles and Infrastructure Vehicles and legislation Vehicles and road safety stakeholders Identify criteria and levels of quality in order ti improve the functionality interaction vehicles and infrastructure. Basic requirements and expectations on driver performance and driver limitations. Basic requirements on the driver s area of responsibility. Areas of technology and criteria and support for implementation for the safe use of the technologies. The passive level of protection of the road, e.g. protective railings and side areas and the design of intersection in relation to vehicle speeds. Generic design of streets and adjacent areas The location and design of road markings and street signs. Intelligent transfer of data betwee the vehicles and infrastructure. Standards for use of roads, e.g road friction.
10 Volvo/ Swedish Road Administration Letter of Intent on Co-operation Follow-up on results for improvements vehicles/ Infrastructure. Learning process Interchange on data on quality at the interfaces vehicles/ Infrastructure Together with other stakeholders actively support the goal achieving a safe use of the road transport system. Contribute to the aim that all driving is done within the boundaries of the system. Any standards for technologies must support: Sober driving Driving within the legal framework Any requirements on driver performance must be well ommunicated and understood. Issue of anual status report stating achievements within the co-operation. Co-operation necessary also with other manufacturers/ manufacturers of heavy vehicles. Creation of a governing group and a set of working groups linked to the interst areas..
11 Vision 2020 will require Shared responsibilities of all road safety stakeholders. Substantially increased knowledge through research Co-operations industry governments academia Support by offers, e.g tax incentives, insurance premium discounts and consumer information in order to have rapid penetration of new advanced safety systems.
12 Modern View on the Role of Car Companies Brand image more important More focus on corporate social responsibilities (CSR) Prepared for open public statements Market willingness for safety Car companies are now willing to take a larger responsibility
13 To Reach the Visions we need - Co-operation between different stakeholders: Vehicle manufacturers Governments/ authorities Standardization organizations Interest organizations Researchers
14 Co-operation Between Different Stakeholders: Shared view on the strategies forward Agreements on division of responsibilities Shared view on interfaces between car safety systems and infrastructure Data sharing Standards for interfaces and communication systems
15 Division of Responsibilities Car manufacturers, governments and local authorities need a common view on the division of responsibilities.
16 Division of Responsibilities/ Boundary Conditions 80 Head-on 40 Pedestrians 70 Side 40 Rear-end 110 Large animals
17 Division of Responsibilities/ Boundary Conditions Example: traffic separation for avoiding head-on collisions > 80 km/h < 80 km/h +80 km/h
18 Our brand pyramid
19 The Base An In-Depth Knowledge of Real-World Safety Real world data Production Safety requirements Circle of Life Verification Production development Prototypes
20 Knowledge-driven performance Injury rate % Model Year MAIS 2+ injury rate by model year 25,449 belted drivers in all crash types
21 Crash distribution 39,186 Fatal Crashes 43,443 Fatalities in US 1,820,000 Injury Crashes 4,300,000 Property Damage Only 1,200,000 Fatalities world wide 6,160,000 Police Reported Crashes >10,000,000 Crashes Sources: NHTSA, NCSA 2005, WHO
22 Protective to Preventive Safety Driving Scenarios: Rear end Collisions Rear-end 29% Off-Road way 23% Lane change 9% Keep safe distance Reduce workload reduce distractions Make driver aware of potential conflicts Warn driver if potential conflict Prepare for a potential collision Reduce impact severity Reduce injury risks * Source: 2002 GES 6,304,000 police-reported crashes Distribution by Crash Type
23 The collision is a fact
24 N How could the accident have been avoided?
25 Drive towards Zero Injuries, Fatalities and Emissions Technologies for meeting the goal of zero injuries and fatalities are basically known today it is a matter of how to apply, finance, distribute and activate.
26 What Causes Accidents? Human error The four D s: Distraction Drowsiness Driving while intoxicated Driver capabilities Traffic environment Vehicle Source: Virginia Transportation Institute
27 Any system which depends on human reliability is unreliable. Gilb s Second Law of Unreliability
28 When setting the targets for the drive towards zero injuries and fatalities, no condition for further restricting the access to the the transportation sector will be acceptable
29 The Haddon Matrix People Vehicle Infrastructure Avoiding Accidents Before Protect from Injuries During Reduce Effects After
30 The Haddon Matrix in the Future People Vehicle Infrastructure Before No Driver Dependance During Accidents Eliminated After
31 To Reach the Visions We depend upon - Vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure communication
32 Important First Steps towards Zero injuries and Fatalities: Actions for: Speed management Intelligent speed adaptation Support systems for assisting drivers Increased belt usage Belt reminders Preventing Driving While Intoxicated Alcohol interlocks
33 Speed Management Kinetic energy (speed) is the problem! People are blind to kinetic energy! Humans have not been programmed to understand risk with speed.
34 Speed Management Requirements for speed limitation of vehicles Advantages: Reduced weights Reduced rating of tires Reduced engine performance Cinderella key Technologies exist Youth/ Restricted key Cinderella key Programmable speed Intelligent Speed Adaptation ISA Speed Sign Recognition systems
35 Increased Seat Belt use In August 2009, 50 year anniversary of factory installed 3-p belt Continues to be the single most efficient safety device Substantially improved over the years: Pre-tensioners Load limiters Improved comfort and convinience Belt reminders efficient to convince occupants of buckling up
36 Preventing Driving While Intoxicated Alcohol related fatalities represent one third to 40% of all road traffic fatalities. Issue is taken seriously within the industry Technologies are being developed for restricting DWI Goal: Systems that are: Totally transparent Reliable Long calibration intervals Inexpensive Comfortable
37 Preventing Driving While Intoxicated
38 Future Safety Offer The Development is ongoing Injury risk (%) Model year
39 Future Safety Offer The Development is Ongoing Injury risk (%) Model year
40 Future Safety Offer The Development is Ongoing Injury risk (%) Model year
41 Future Safety Offer The Development is Ongoing Injury risk (%) Model year
42 Future Safety Offer The Development is Ongoing Injury risk (%) Model year
43 Development and Penetration of New Advanced Safety Systems 100% Potential Adaptive protection systems Compability Collision avoidance Side impact air-bags systems Side impact protection systems Communication vehicle to vehicle Advanced safety belts Active steering Driver alert Lane departure warning Front air-bag Head restraints Active chassis Crumple zones Brake support Electronic roll stability control Adaptive cruise control Safety belt Electronic stability and traction control Safety cage ABS Traction control Protective safety Preventive safety
44 Holisitic View on Safety State of the driver State of the situation Driver unable to avoid Car still able to control Time Preventative Impact Dynamic Avoidance Mitigation Post-crash Driver and car unable to avoid Reduce severity Prepare to crash Non-conflict Conflict Imminent-crash Crash Post-crash
45 Strategy for Holistic Safety Preventative Dynamic Avoidance/Mitigation Impact Post-crash
46 Development of New Advanced Safety Systems Bilder fr presskit s60c
47 Autonomous Braking Systems: Low Speed
48 Autonomous Braking Systems: High Speed
49 Lane Departure Warning (LDW) Why? About 33% of all accidents involve an initial road departure. Of these, 75% occur on roads with speed limits of 70 km/h and above. Many of these accidents are connected to serious personal injuries. How? Warns the driver when the vehicle crosses a lane marker while the turn indicator is not used. Active above 65 km/h. Information displayed in the trip computer. On/off via a button located in the centre stack. Camera mounted on the inside of the windscreen.
50 Driver Alert Control (DAC) Why? About 20 % of the fatal highway accidents are caused by driver fatigue. >100,000 accidents are caused by driver fatigue in the US every year, in which 1,500 people are killed and another 71,000 are injured. How? Analyses the driving behaviour. Driver alerted via an audible signal Time for a break is shown. Information displayed in the trip computer. Active when the vehicle speed passes 65 km/h. Camera mounted on the inside of the windscreen.
51 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Why? Helps the driver to keep distance, which enhances safety. ACC contributes to relaxed driving, even when the traffic flow is uneven. How? The system automatically adapts the speed to keep the distance. ACC is active between 30 and 200 km/h. ACC uses a radar sensor.
52 Distance Alert (DA) Why? 30% of all accidents are rear end collisions. Distance Alert (DA) helps keeping proper distance. Easier to keep local regulations compared to other methods (i.e. counting road markers). How? When the distance is too short, the middle segment of the Head-Up Display is lit. DA is active above 30 km/h and ACC is not active. DA uses the radar sensor.
53 Collision Warning with Auto Brake (CWAB) Why? 30 % of all accidents are rear-end collisions. In 50% of these accidents, the driver does not brake at all. 50 % of the rear-end collisions are towards stationary vehicles How? An intuitive audible and visual warning by flashing the Head Up Display. Prepares the brake system by precharging it. When a collision is unavoidable, Auto Brake will brake autonomously. CWAB uses a radar and a camera to monitor the area in front of the car.
54 City Safety avoid low-speed collisions City Safety will brake automatically just before a collision, and avoid collisions up to 15 km/h. It will also reduce the severity of collisions up to 30 km/h. Customer Benefit: Avoided collisions Reduction of insurance costs Partner Protection Whiplash Cost-efficient
55 Drowsiness Preventention Systems
56 Pedestrian Detection and Braking Systems
57 Pedestrian Detection and Full Autonomous Braking System Collision causes Inattention, was a contributing factor for 93 percent of the conflict with lead-vehicle crashes and minor collisions. * The inattention to the forward roadway.. may explain why almost half of the drivers (47 percent) had no avoidance reaction. * * The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, T. A. Dingus et al, NHTSA, DOT HS , April The study involved 100 cars, 241 drivers, and hours of data. 85 real collisions were recorded and analysed.
58 Pedestrian Detection and Full Autonomous Braking System The Pedestrian Safety Problem Sweden: 16 % of traffic fatalities. 11 % of seriously injured. Vägverket, 2008 (Swedish Road Authority) USA: 11 % of traffic fatalities (4,700 people). 3 % of seriously injured. (Traffic Safety Facts 2007, NHTSA, DOT HS ) Germany: 13 % of traffic fatalities. (2002 SAE paper )
59 Pedestrian Detection and Full Autonomous Braking System The radar and camera scan the area in front of the car If the situation becomes critical - red warning flashes on the windscreen If you don t react to that warning, the car activates full braking power automatically Pedestrian accidents can be avoided for vehicle speeds lower than 25 km/h For higher speeds, impact speed can be reduced by 25 km/h
60 Pedestrian Detection and Full Autonomous Braking System Vision Mid range Vision + Radar Fusion Long Range Radar New Radar Wider field of view Upgraded camera New control unit Upgraded Head up display
61 Pedestrian Detection and Full Autonomous Braking System Challenges during development Pedestrian detection of head, neck, legs or shoulder Weather, light and clothing influence image contrast and hence performace Physical limitations such as pedestrians running to cross the road but hidden by a parked lorry until the last moment Sitting pedestrian Pedestrian Crowd Rule of thumb - the camera is similar to the human eye what you as a driver cannot see, the camera cannot see either Odd shape
65 Preventing Distraction Monitoring of driver attention helps for car to decide on appropriate measures. Eye and field of view tracking
66 Platooning Estimation: 40% reduction in energy use and CO 2 emissions Increases safety and comfort and reduces risk for congestion SARTRE project: SAfe Road TRains for the Environment
67 Future - Collision Avoidance by Auto Steering Helps the driver prevent collisions with oncoming vehicles. Intervenes with steering to get back into safe lane when collision risk is detected. The driver can over-rule the intervention by steering resolutely. no action Intervention
68 Development challenges Low occurence of false alarms Low risk of missed alarms Minimal risk compensation Intuitive driver interface Robust to variation in driving style and environment High efficiency in real life
69 5 Star Vehicles on 5 Star Roads with 5 Star Usage Roads Cars Usage 5 star 5 star 5 star star 4 star 4 star star 3 star 3 star 80 2 star 2 star 2 star 70 1 star 1 star 1 star 60 Lowest rating sets limit
70 CO 2 -free transportation sector - Requires a broad technology strategy Engine Transmission Electrification Alternative Fuels Rolling resistance Weight Energy Losses Aerodynamics
71 CO 2 Legislation ACEA 160 g/km USA g CO 2 /km Voluntary agreement EU Decision-making legislation EU China Japan Proposed target 95 g/km Objective in line with 450 ppm ,7 L/100km petrol 2,5 L/100km diesel Aim g/km
74 Achieved through: Smaller engines Aerodynamic changes Software changes for drive trains Tires with low roll resistance Weight reductions Start and stop systems
75 Plug-in Hybrid Diesel or gasoline engine combined with electric engine Range on electricity 50 km appr. 5 hours charging <50 g/km CO 2-1,9 l/100km 124 mpg
76 Cost of Electrification of Passenger Cars 1000 Euro * According to EU cert cyclel Mikrohybrids Mild hybrids Full hybrids Plug-in hybrids Electric veh. CO 2 Reduction* ~ 5% ~10% 20-25% ~70% ~100%
77 Safety and Quality Issues
78 Pros and Cons for Electric Cars? Electric cars have a lot of advantages: low CO 2, low cost of fuel, efficient drive train. Battery perfomance and cost are the largest obstacles for a large scale market introduction. The customer wants the same performance in the electric car as in other cars even preferably better. Incentives and research support needed in order to get the market activated.
79 Evolution of U.S. Hydrocarbon Emission Standards Passenger Cars HC Reduced 96% 98% Additional Reduction 10 7 Mode FTP 100% 0.41 HC 50K mi) st Clean Air Act 80 Mode FTP C/H 110 Mode FTP 40% % 96% Base Tier I TLEV LEV/ LEVII 0.04 ULEV/ ULEVII 0.01 SULEV/ PZEV 04 PZEV s: 99,9% Overall or 1000 times higher HC emissions in the 60s
80 Vehicle tailpipe legislation historical view Eu Continuous improvement of Catalysts, engine-out emissions, engine control, Catalyst introduced
81 Drive towards Zero Injuries, Fatalities and Emissions No giant leaps but continue the steps forward. Car manufacturers are prepared and willing to take on more responsibility Co-operations and standards will be essential Incentives and good customer offers are needed. Technologies to gradually become cheaper and cascade into less expensive vehicles.
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