Improving Driving Safety Through Automation

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1 Improving Driving Safety Through Automation Congressional Robotics Caucus John Maddox National Highway Traffic Safety Administration July 25, 2012

2 NHTSA s Missions Safety Save lives, prevent injuries and reduce economic costs due to road traffic and non-traffic crashes through education, research, safety standards and enforcement activity. Consumer Programs Increase fuel economy, damageability protection, and theft protection, reduce odometer tampering, and provide consumer information. Data Driven 2

3 The Problem! Safety 32,310 highway deaths in Million crashes/year Leading cause of death for ages 4 34 Mobility 4.8 Billion hours of travel delay * $101 Billion cost of urban congestion Environment 1.9 Billion gallons of wasted fuel * Texas Transportation Institute; 2011 Urban Mobility Report 3

4 Fatalities and Fatality Rate, by Year Fatality 60,000 33,186 32,310 Fatality Rate ,000 40, , ,000 10, Fatalities 4

5 Fatalities in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes 2009 Front 24% Side 12% Rear 3% Other 1% Pedestrian 12% Pedalcyclist 2% Multi-Vehicle 40% Non- Occupant 14% Single Vehicle Non-Rollover 24% Single Vehicle Rollover 22% Front 15% Side 5% Rear <1% Other 3% Passenger Car 8% Light Truck 12% Large Truck 1% All Other Vehicles 1% 5

6 Fatalities in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes 2009 Front 24% Side 12% Rear 3% Other 1% Pedestrian 12% Pedalcyclist 2% Multi-Vehicle 40% Non- Occupant 14% Single Vehicle Non-Rollover 24% Single Vehicle Rollover 22% Front 15% Side 5% Rear <1% Other 3% Passenger Car 8% Light Truck 12% Large Truck 1% All Other Vehicles 1% Human Error is Critical Reason (0 for 93% of Crashes 6

7 Crash Avoidance PRE CRASH CRASH EVENT Crashworthiness POST- CRASH

8 Crash Avoidance NORMAL DRIVING CRASH IMMINENT Crashworthiness CRASH EVENT POST- CRASH

9 Crash Avoidance NORMAL DRIVING CRASH IMMINENT Crashworthiness CRASH EVENT POST- CRASH PASSENGER CARS/TRUCKS Driver Distraction Driver Support Systems Blind Spot Detection Alcohol Detection Drowsy Driver Detection Lane Keeping Assist V2V & V2I HFCV Automation Forward Crash Warning Lane Departure Warning Automatic Braking Advanced Airbags V2V & V2I Dynamic Rollover Oblique/Off-set Frontal Adaptive Restraints Child Side Impact Elderly Occupants. Auto Crash Notification Advanced ACN Medical Outcome (CIREN) First Responder Safety HEAVY VEHICLES - Truck/Bus Driver Distraction Drowsy Driver Detection Enhanced Vision Systems Blind Spot Detection Lane Keeping Assist V2V & V2I HFCV Automation ESC/RSC Forward Collision Warning Lane Change Warning Automatic Braking Lane Keeping V2V & V2I Underride MOTORCYCLES Conspicuity Automation? ABS/CBS V2V Helmet Use Airbags ACN PEDESTRIANS Quiet Car Detection Lighting Systems for Peds Automation Pedestrian Warning Automatic Braking P2V GTR Hoods / Bumpers ACN

10 Crash Avoidance NORMAL DRIVING CRASH IMMINENT Crashworthiness CRASH EVENT POST- CRASH PASSENGER CARS/TRUCKS Driver Distraction Driver Support Systems Blind Spot Detection Alcohol Detection Drowsy Driver Detection Lane Keeping Assist V2V & V2I HFCV Automation Forward Crash Warning Lane Departure Warning Automatic Braking Advanced Airbags V2V & V2I Dynamic Rollover Oblique/Off-set Frontal Adaptive Restraints Child Side Impact Elderly Occupants. Auto Crash Notification Advanced ACN Medical Outcome (CIREN) First Responder Safety HEAVY VEHICLES - Truck/Bus Driver Distraction Drowsy Driver Detection Enhanced Vision Systems Blind Spot Detection Lane Keeping Assist V2V & V2I HFCV Automation ESC/RSC Forward Collision Warning Lane Change Warning Automatic Braking V2V & V2I Underride MOTORCYCLES Conspicuity Automation? ABS/CBS V2V Helmet Use Airbags ACN PEDESTRIANS Quiet Car Detection Lighting Systems for Peds Automation Pedestrian Warning Automatic Braking P2V GTR Hoods / Bumpers ACN

11 Evolution of Vehicle Electronics Crash Avoidance and Injury Mitigation Automated Vehicle Control Information 11

12 Focus on Safety Automation should be focused first on safety Not enough to be as safe as human drivers Automated car goal: crash-less Won t be driver-less until its crash-less 12

13 Autonomous Definitions are Important not subject to control from outside; independent * undertaken or carried on without outside control # Automated -or - automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human labor # Cooperative acting together for a common purpose or benefit * Sources: * # 13

14 DRAFT NHTSA Definitions Level 0 (Non-Automated): The human is in complete and sole fundamental control at all times Level 1 (Automation Assisted): The human has complete authority, but cedes limited fundamental control to the vehicle in certain normal driving or crash imminent situations. Examples: ESC, ACC, CIB or Lane Keeping (but not in combination) Level 2 (Monitored Automation): Shared authority, human cedes active primary control but still responsible for monitoring and safe operation. Human expected to be available at all times. Example: Combination of Lane Centering and Adaptive Cruise Control Level 3 (Conditionally Automated ): Human can cede full control authority under certain traffic and environmental conditions. Human expected to be available for occasional control. Level 4 (Fully Automated ): The human provides destination or nav input, but is not expected to be available for control. Responsibility for safe operation rests solely on the autonomous systems. 14

15 Building Blocks for Automated Operation Automated Operation Policy Considerations Infrastructure Changes? Active Driver Engagement? GPS/Maps for Positioning DSRC for Awareness Network for Cybersecurity AI for Decision- Making On-Board Data Collection Radar/Camera for Crash Avoidance Driver Information Systems Reliability Security HMI

16 Motor Vehicle Automation Research Roadmap Goals Goal: to improve motor vehicle safety by investigating the requirements for automated driving that is: Operational only to the extent granted by the driver Electronically Reliable and Secure Operationally intuitive for drivers Integrated with Connected Vehicle technology Focused on reducing crashes! 16

17 Automation Challenges Include: Technical Sensor Performance Artificial Intelligence Decision-Making Capability Electronic Control Systems Safety, Cybersecurity, Human Factors Testing and Evaluation Methodology Operating environment - operating in mixed traffic and on public roads? Infrastructure modifications? Regulatory Driver training Performance requirements Validation strategies Testing procedures and facilities Benefits Estimation Policy Driver responsibility Licensing and Insurance Accountability Liability Privacy 17

18 Automation Challenges Can be Met The goal is a worthy one Great potential for improving vehicle safety And other transportation goals NHTSA establishing a comprehensive research plan Will require collaboration product developers, insurers, academia, state and federal governments, and many others.. 18

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