Scientific Issues in Motor Vehicle Cases

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2 Basic Concepts that Must Be Understood Delta V Acceleration/Deceleration Momentum Force Kinetic Energy Induced Damage Crush Energy Coefficient of Friction Skid Marks Yaw Principal Direction of Force Reference Point Critical Speed Perception/Reaction Drag Factor Newton Three Laws: 1. Inertia 2. Bodies subject to a constant force 3. Equal and opposite reactions Scientific Problem Solving Herman Gordon 1. Understand the problem What are the data? What are the unknowns? What are the scientific principles that apply? Can the problem be solved? 2. Assumptions What can you or need you assume? What shouldn t you assume? Have you made subconscious assumptions? 3. Devise a plan of attack Have you seen this or a related problem before? Have you seen a similar unknown before? If you can t solve this problem, can you solve a simpler problem or part of the problem? 4. Review Are you sure of the solution? Can you see it at a glance? Did you use all of the data? Can you get the same solution another way? Are there other valid solutions? 2

3 Crash Investigation Data Points 1. Human factors information a. Perception time b. Detection c. Identification d. Decision e. Response f. Reaction time g. Driver experience h. Driver general health condition including disabilities i. Driver alertness j. Driver distractions k. Visual acuity l. Field of vision m. Depth perception n. Contrast sensitivity o. Visual adaptation a. Alcohol or drugs 2. Vehicle a. Type passenger car, straight truck, tractor trailer, motorcycle, towing b. Number of axles c. Load d. Type of cargo e. Vehicles defects f. Headlights g. Steering h. Brakes i. Tires j. Suspension k. Windshield wipers l. Undercarriage 3. Visual obstructions a. Weather fog etc. b. Lighting conditions c. Ambient light d. Artificial illumination e. Headlights f. Alignment g. How clean h. Physical obstructions i. Dirt on windshield j. Background noise k. Visual distractions l. Glare 4. Scene a. Type of road surface b. Condition of roadway surface 1. Smooth, bumps, potholes etc. 2. dry, wet, snow, ice c. Alignment of roadway d. Pitch of roadway e. Markings on roadway, lines etc. f. Traffic control devices 1. traffic signal sequence 2. traffic detectors g. Gouge marks, scrapes, scratches h. Holes and grooves i. Tire marks j. Skid k. Yaw l. Sideslip m. Striation n. Scuff o. Bloodstain pattern (continued on next page) 3

4 5. Vehicle inspection a. Paint chips and paint transfers b. Marking on vehicles c. Impact damage d. Glass damage e. Hairs and fibers f. Blood stains g. Airbags deployed? h. Seat belt use i. Bulbs j. Reflectors k. Steering l. Tires 1. condition 2. inflation m. Wheel alignment n. Mirrors o. ECM p. Horn 6. Investigation a. Field sketches b. Scale plan drawings c. Total Station or other mapping d. Photos e. Aerial photos (including Google Maps and other images available on the internet f. Video cameras g. Statements of drivers, passengers and witnesses h. Physical evidence i. Vehicle damage and appraisal reports j. Vehicle examination reports k. Weather reports l. Information from injuries m. Location of injured person (driver, passenger, front seat, back seat, ejected, pedestrian etc.) 7. Injuries a. Size, shape, number and location b. Presence of foreign material such as oil or paint c. Nature and extent of internal injuries d. Interior contact points e. Safety restraint injuries 8. Pedestrians a. Clothing b. Primary point of impact c. Secondary point of impact 9. Conspicuity 10. Accuracy, Errors, Tolerances 11. Other areas with their own additional subsets a. Trucks b. c. Motorcycles Fires 4

5 Identifying the Problem Problem 1 Problem 2 Police report says all tire marks on road and median relate to bus except on mark on the extreme right of diagram at edge of center lane Final Rest Bus Schoolbus Bobtail Truck Final Rest Truck 5

6 Police Report Police Report Statement At that point, I m slowing down cause I know this isn t going to be good. The truck was pretty solid. Right there in the center lane and his brakes came on so he was slowing down, stepping on the brake and then what happened next is really hard for me to understand why, but I saw the bus turn towards the right. Deposition Lawyer: Witness: The truck never moved towards his lane, the truck stayed in his lane? The truck was solid, you know, on the center lane, slowed down. 6

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8 Problem 3 A crash is a series of events. Evidence in Traffic Crash Investigation and Reconstruction, R. W. Rivers

9 Problem 4 Driver unit #1 s story cannot be confirmed by accident reconstruction! 9

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Rick Galdos, Forensic Engineering 1

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\$ Completed Speed From Skids and Skid Mark Analysis Course by the University of California at Riverside (Riverside County Sheriff s Office),1996.

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