Meiosis & Genetics Unit Review Guide YMartinez

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1 Meiosis & Genetics Unit Review Guide 2011 YMartinez

2 MEIOSIS 1. Chromosome:

3 1. Chromosome threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN

4 2. Homologous Chromosome:

5 2. Homologous Chromosome: chromosomes that each have a matching chromosome; one was from mom and other from dad

6 3. Diploid:

7 3. Diploid: a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes (2n)

8 4. Haploid:

9 4. Haploid: a cell that contains only a single set of genes (n)

10 5. Gamete:

11 5. Gamete: Is a sex cell. An egg or sperm. (n)

12 6. Meiosis:

13 6. Meiosis: form of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes when forming gametes

14 7. Which cells undergo Meiosis?

15 7. Which cells undergo Meiosis? gametes

16 8. Describe what is occurring in the diagram to the right.

17 8. Describe what is occurring in the diagram to the right. Segregation And Recombination

18 9. What is the difference between somatic cells and sex cells?

19 9. What is the difference between somatic cells and sex cells? Somatic cells ALL cells except sex cells. Sex Cells sperm sperm and egg.

20 10. Describe the process of fertilization (include number of chromosomes and cell types involved).

21 10. Describe the process of fertilization (include number of chromosomes and cell types involved). n + n = 2n or = 46

22 KARYOTYPES ad Sex Chromosomes 11. Autosome:

23 11. Autosome chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

24 12. How many total chromosomes are found in a human diploid body cell?

25 12. How many total chromosomes are found in a human diploid body cell? 2n=46

26 13. How many chromosomes are found in a human haploid cell?

27 13. How many chromosomes are found in a human haploid cell? n=23

28 14. How many sex chromosomes are found in human body cells? In gametes?

29 15. How pairs of autosomes are found in FEMALE body/somatic cells? What are the sex chromosomes?

30 15. How pairs of autosomes are found in FEMALE body/somatic cells? 22 What are the sex chromosomes? XX

31 16. How pairs of autosomes are found in MALE body/somatic cells? What are the sex chromosomes?

32 16. How pairs of autosomes are found in MALE body/somatic cells? 22 What are the sex chromosomes? XY

33 17. Which parent determines the gender of their baby, why? Father. Sperm has an X or Y chromosome.

34 17. Which parent determines the gender of their baby, why?

35 17. Which parent determines the gender of their baby, why? Father. His Sperm have an X or Y Chromosome.

36 18. The diagram below is called a

37 18. The diagram below is called a Karyotype

38 19. Draw a circle around the sex chromosomes in the diagram above.

39 19. Draw a circle around the sex chromosomes in the diagram above.

40 20. Draw squares around the autosomes in the diagram.

41 20. Draw squares around the autosomes in the diagram.

42 21. Is the diagram from a male or a female?

43 21. Is the diagram from a male or a female? GUY=XY

44 22. What is another name for Trisomy 21 in a karyotype?? What causes it?

45 22. What is another name for Trisomy 21 in a karyotype?? What causes it? Down s s Syndrome Caused by Nondisjunction: when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis

46 Mendelian Genetics 23. Genetics:

47 23. Genetics: scientific study of heredity

48 24. Heredity:

49 24. Heredity: Is the passing of traits to offspring

50 Mendelian Genetics 25. Gene:

51 25. Gene: Segments of DNA that code for a protein and determine a trait

52 26. Allele:

53 26. Allele: a different form of a gene

54 27. Genotype:

55 27. Genotype: Genetic makeup of an individual

56 28. Homozygous:

57 28. Homozygous: an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait Ex RR or rr

58 29. Dominant:

59 29. Dominant: An allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. ex RR or Rr

60 30. Hybrid:

61 30. Hybrid: offspring of crosses between parents with different traits Ex Rr

62 31. Phenotype:

63 31. Phenotype: Physical characteristic of an individual

64 32. Heterozygous:

65 32. Heterozygous: an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait Ex Rr

66 33. Recessive:

67 33. Recessive: An allele for a particular form of a trait will exhibit that form only when the dominant allele for the trait is not present. ex rr

68 34. Pure-breed:

69 34. Pure-breed: term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves Ex RR or rr

70 35. Sex-linked

71 35. Sex-linked: Genes on the X and Y chromosomes

72 36. If curly hair is dominant over straight hair. Draw a Punnett Square showing a cross between a homozygous dominant father and a heterozygous mother. Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring, including the percentages of each.

73 36. If curly hair is dominant over straight hair. Draw a Punnett Square showing a cross between a homozygous dominant father and a heterozygous mother. Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring, including the percentages of each. CC x Cc Genotypes: CC and Cc Phenotypes: CC, Curly and Cc, Curly C C C c CC Cc CC Cc

74 37. A plant has a genotype of TtPp,, list all possible genetic combinations found in the gametes produced:

75 37. A plant has a genotype of TtPp,, list all possible genetic combinations found in the gametes produced: TP Tp tp tp

76 38. What is the probability that a couple will have a female child? A male child? Why?

77 38. What is the probability that a couple will have a female child? 1/2 or 50% A male child? 1/2 or 50% Why? -All human egg cells carry a single X chromosome. -Half of all sperm cells carry an X chromosome and half carry a Y chromosome.

78 39. Describe the genetic reason that explains why colorblindness would be found more commonly in males than in females?

79 39. Describe the genetic reason that explains why colorblindness would be found more commonly in males than in females? Since males have just one X chromosome, all X-linked X alleles are expressed in males. Girls need 2 copies.

80 40. Use your knowledge of genetics and colorblindness to describe the results of the Punnett Square below. X Y X C X X C X C Y X C X X C X C Y

81 40. Use your knowledge of genetics and colorblindness to describe the results of the Punnett Square below. -All daughters are carriers (heterozygous) -All sons are colorblind X Y X C X X C X C Y X C X X C X C Y

82 41. Describe incomplete dominance.. Give an example.

83 41. Describe incomplete dominance and co-dominance dominance.. Give an example. Incomplete Dominance: Where one allele is not completely dominant over another. The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous phenotypes.

84 42. Describe co-dominance dominance.. Give an example.

85 42. Describe co-dominance dominance.. Give an example. Co-dominance: Both dominant and recessive allele contribute to the phenotype ex Roan color in horses has a gene for red and white color-- --there are equal numbers of both colors evenly dispersed within the coat

86 43. Law of Segregation:

87 43. Law of Segregation: During gamete formation, alleles segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each gene.

88 44. Law of Independent Assortment:

89 44. Law of Independent Assortment: allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes, so they have no effect on the inheritance of each other.

90 45. Autosomal dominant disorder: (who will get it?)

91 45. Autosomal dominant disorder: (who will get it?) If you have one (Rr( Rr) ) or two dominant (RR) alleles for a genetic disorder, it will be expressed. ex Achondroplasia,, Huntington's disease (nervous system disorder), Marfan Syndrome

92 46. Autosomal recessive disorder: (who will get it?)

93 46. Autosomal recessive disorder: (who will get it?) If you have two recessive, rr,, alleles for a genetic disorder, it will be expressed. ex PKU, Tay-Sachs

94 Genetic Engineering 47. What is genetic engineering?

95 47. What is genetic engineering? process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

96 48. A strand of DNA formed by the splicing of DNA from two different species is called?

97 48. A strand of DNA formed by the splicing of DNA from two different species is called? Recombinant DNA

98 49. What is a restriction enzyme?

99 49. What is a restriction enzyme? enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

100 50. If you were to inject genetically engineered DNA into an animal, into which cells would you inject the DNA (genes)) for the best results?

101 50. If you were to inject genetically engineered DNA into an animal, into which cells would you inject the DNA (genes)) for the best results? Fertilized eggs

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