Geological Evolution. Mrs. Pittaluga 8 th Grade Science

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Geological Evolution. Mrs. Pittaluga 8 th Grade Science"

Transcription

1 Geological Evolution Mrs. Pittaluga 8 th Grade Science

2 The Birth of a Science James Hutton Father of Modern Geology Helped developed theories related to geologic time, otherwise known as deep time. Principle of Uniformitarianism Hutton said that the history of the earth can be determined by understanding the processes that work in the present day, such as erosion and sedimentation.

3 How Age is Determined Relative Dating Allows a researcher to determine if a sample is older or younger than a reference sample. Geologists use methods such as the law of superposition, intrusions, and unconformities to determine relative age. Absolute Dating Allows a researcher to determine a more accurate age of a sample in years. Radioactive dating and tree rings are forms of absolute dating.

4 Principles of Geology Science of stratigraphy branch of geology that studies rock layers for relative dating. A series of laws formulated by Nicholas Steno in the late 1600s The Law of Original Horizontality The Law of Superposition The Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships

5 Original Horizontality States that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers that are parallel to the surface on which they were deposited.

6 Superposition In a sequence of sedimentary rock layers, the oldest layer is at the bottom and the youngest layer is at the top.

7 Cross-Cutting Relationships Any sediment or lava flow that is cut by a fault, another igneous body, or an erosional surface is older than the crosscutting feature.

8 Sedimentary rocks in a quarry near Decorah, IA demonstrating the law of original horizontality AND the law of superposition. These rock layers have remained in the same orientation since the sediment was first deposited some 450 million years ago. Darker shale-rich layers near the base are older than the lighter carbonate layers overlying them.

9 The Rock Sequence Which is the proper sequence of the illustrated rock layers from oldest to youngest? a) F E D C B A b) A B C D E F c) F E C D B A d) D E F C B A

10 Other Geologic Features Extrusion Occurs when magma flows onto the surface and then hardens, often into basalt. Intrusion Occurs when magma pushes into bodies of rocks, then hardens in a mass of igneous rock Faults A break in Earth s crust Unconformities Shows where some rock layers may have been lost due to erosion or weathering.

11 Extrusions Intrusions

12 Faults Unconformities

13 Weathering Chemical Weathering The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. Examples of chemical weathering include: water dissolving certain minerals in rock, exposure to oxygen from the air reacting with chemicals in the rock, exposure to carbon dioxide from the air reacting with chemicals in the rock, or acids from plants or acid rain reacting with the chemicals in the rock.

14 Chemical Weathering

15 Weathering Mechanical Weathering Weathering that occurs when rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces. This could include: trees growing into a rock and splitting it, ice freezing in cracks and causing the cracks to expand, abrasion from smaller particles and water, pressure being applied on top of or underneath the rock.

16 Mechanical Weathering

17 Radioactive Dating During radioactive decay, the atoms of one element break down to form atoms of another element. The rate of decay is the element s half-life, or the time it takes for half of the radioactive element to break down. Parent isotope is the main element; The daughter isotope is what the parent decays into. Isotopes are different versions of the same element Carbon-14 (Decays to Nitrogen-14) Most often used for dating plants and animals Has a half-life of 5,730 years Uranium-235 (Decays to Lead-207) Often used for dating rocks since it decays into lead Has a half-life of 713 million years

18 Potassium-40 Decays to Argon-40 Has a half-life of 1.25 billion years

19 The Birth of a Theory Alfred Wegener proposed the continental drift theory in the early 20 th century Observed the puzzle-like shape of the continents. Learned of fossils of similar species being found on continents now separated by great distances. Climate studies revealed that glaciers covered large areas of land now separated by great distances. Theory was later disproved because he couldn t adequately explain HOW the plates moved. Discarded until after World War II when naval ships created detailed maps of the sea floor and the midocean ridge was discovered. Today it is known as the Theory of Plate Tectonics.

20 Plate Tectonics About 200 million years ago, there was a supercontinent that Wegener called Pangaea (meaning all the land in Greek). Started to break up about 130 mya into two large continents that were called Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Fossil record supports this theory Pangaea Animation Around 65 mya the continents as we know them today began to take shape.

21

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

More information

USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS

USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY THREE USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS Introduction In order to interpret Earth history from

More information

Geologic time and dating. Geologic time refers to the ages relevant to Earth s history

Geologic time and dating. Geologic time refers to the ages relevant to Earth s history Geologic time and dating Most figures and tables contained here are from course text: Understanding Earth Fourth Edition by Frank Press, Raymond Siever, John Grotzinger, and Thomas H. Jordan Geologic time

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Principle of Original Horizontality. Relative Time. Absolute Time. Geologic Column

Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Principle of Original Horizontality. Relative Time. Absolute Time. Geologic Column Geologic Time Relative Time 5 Principles of Relative Dating Absolute Time Radiometric Dating Geologic Column Relative Dating principle of horizontality principle of superposition principle of cross-cutting

More information

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics. Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930.

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics. Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Science is self correcting. The Scientific Method The history

More information

Chapter 8: Geologic Time

Chapter 8: Geologic Time Chapter 8: Geologic Time 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Art of Time The History of Relative Time Geologic Time Numerical Time Rates of Change Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

More information

Geologic History Review

Geologic History Review 1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

More information

Worksheet: The geological time scale

Worksheet: The geological time scale Worksheet: The geological time scale Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of natural

More information

89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS

89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS NAME 89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS I. Introduction There are two types of geologic time, relative and absolute. In the case of relative time geologic events are arranged in

More information

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

More information

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes

6.E.2.2 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island

More information

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

More information

principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation

principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Relative Age Dating Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Stratigraphic tools biological succession of life:

More information

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core.

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core. Michelle Mindick The Evolution of Earth s Surface According to 21 st Century Astronomy, Earth originally formed as a result of gas and dust that rotated around a protostar - our sun- billions of years

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS Alfred Wegener 12-1 CONTINENTAL DRIFT AN IDEA BEFORE ITS TIME Alfred Wegener first proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 when he published The Origin of Continents

More information

Geologic Time Scale Notes

Geologic Time Scale Notes Name: Date: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Notes Essential Question: What is the geologic time scale? Vocabulary: Geology: the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 5 Planet Earth 1.0 Changes on the Earth s Surface Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core (Inner and Outer) Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface Scientist s use

More information

Ohio s State Tests PRACTICE TEST SPRING 2015 GRADE 8 SCIENCE PART 2. Student Name

Ohio s State Tests PRACTICE TEST SPRING 2015 GRADE 8 SCIENCE PART 2. Student Name Ohio s State Tests PRACTICE TEST SPRIG 2015 GRADE 8 SCIECE PART 2 Student ame The Ohio Department of Education does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, or

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Continents join together and split apart.

Continents join together and split apart. KEY CONCEPT Continents change position over time. BEFORE, you learned Earth s main layers are the core, the mantle, and the crust The lithosphere and asthenosphere are the topmost layers of Earth The lithosphere

More information

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation

Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Plate Tectonics: An Online Investigation Please visit mrges.com, click on the Labs link, and then on the Plate Tectonics Online Activity link. When you arrive at the module, begin by clicking the ENTER

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

What causes Earth s surface to change?

What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment. DUE: Mon. Sept. 18

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment. DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 Part I: Environments of Deposition Geologists can use various clues in sedimentary rocks to interpret their environment of deposition:

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Blizzard Bag Day 2 Here is the lesson that you need to complete for the first calamity day. I am attaching the notes along with the question to help you with the question. Please try your BEST and answer

More information

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics

Earth's Interior. Convection and the Mantle Section 2 Summary. Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme

More information

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass www.solpass.org SOL 5.7 Earth s Constantly Changing Surface The student will investigate and understand how Earth s surface is constantly

More information

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011)

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011) EAS 100 Study Guide to Textbook Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011) STUDY GUIDE 8/2010 The textbook for EAS 100, Foundations of Earth Science, by Lutgens and Tarbuck

More information

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment 1a. Fossils can be thought of as a record of the: a. past b. present c. future 1b. What do we look at when we want to see a record of past life

More information

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008)

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008) EAS 100 Study Guide to Textbook Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008) STUDY GUIDE 1/08 The textbook for EAS 100, Foundations of Earth Science, by Lutgens and Tarbuck is

More information

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events

More information

Stratigraphic Cross Sections Why study old rocks?

Stratigraphic Cross Sections Why study old rocks? rom IRIS collection: Animations of eologic Processes www.iris.edu/educate/animations Stratigraphic ross Sections Why study old rocks? The earthquake potential of an area can be determined by studying the

More information

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth Overview Name Period 1. In the last chapter, you were asked about macroevolution. To begin this chapter, give some examples of macroevolution. Include at least one novel example not in your text. Concept

More information

Earth Science Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension. Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion

Earth Science Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension. Landforms, Weathering, and Erosion Reading Comprehension Name 1 How many people have been to the Rocky Mountains or the Grand Canyon? When people go to visit these natural wonders, they may not realize that it took millions of years for

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

Introduction to Plate Tectonic Theory, Geodesy, and VLBI

Introduction to Plate Tectonic Theory, Geodesy, and VLBI Introduction to Plate Tectonic Theory, Geodesy, and VLBI The plate tectonic theory is a relatively new, accepted only around 50 years ago. The following website contains a more detailed and lesson plans

More information

Geologic Time. This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015

Geologic Time. This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015 Page 1 of 16 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Geologic Time This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015 From the beginning of this course, we have stated that the Earth is

More information

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

More information

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment 1a. What is the center layer of the Earth called? a. crust b. core c. mantle d. middle 1b. Label each layer of the Earth. 1c. What are the Earth

More information

Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Species and Areas: History of Ideas. Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Earth History: Plate Tectonics

Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Species and Areas: History of Ideas. Earth History: Plate Tectonics. Earth History: Plate Tectonics Species and Areas: History of Ideas How do you choose between dispersalist and vicariance models? Two important scientific advances in the study of earth history and organismal history - revolutionized

More information

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth)

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth) Name: Date: 1. An extinct volcano is one that A. erupts only once. B. erupts once every 100 years. C. is expected to erupt soon. D. has not erupted in many years. 2. An acorn fell into a crack in a large

More information

Radiometric Dating Lab By Vicky Jordan

Radiometric Dating Lab By Vicky Jordan Science 8: The Deep Time Diaries Name Date Per Radiometric Dating Lab By Vicky Jordan Problem: How long will it take for 100 atoms of the radioactive parent Carbon-14 to completely decay to the stable

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates

Plate Tectonics. Introduction. Boundaries between crustal plates Plate Tectonics KEY WORDS: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, mid ocean ridge (MOR) system, spreading center, rise, divergent plate boundary, subduction zone, convergent plate boundary,

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Plate Tectonics Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Continental Drift Alfred Wegener proposed that continents were not always where

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment School Year 2013-2014 Directions for Grade 6 Post-Assessment The Grade 6 Post-Assessment is

More information

Making Fossil Imprints

Making Fossil Imprints Making Fossil Imprints Background: Fossils are formed in several different ways. The first way involves imprints, also known as impression fossils. Impression fossils usually contain footprints, plants,

More information

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Theory of Plate Tectonics Grade Level: Middle and High School Theory of Plate Tectonics Purpose: Theories concerning the development of landforms and the causes of geologic occurrences have developed through time. Individual ideas

More information

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

More information

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals.

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle a cycle that continuously forms and changes

More information

The mystery of the moving crust has puzzled people for thousands of years.

The mystery of the moving crust has puzzled people for thousands of years. Why does Earth's crust move? The mystery of the moving crust has puzzled people for thousands of years. During the past 25 years technology has been developed to provide clues to solve the mystery. Many

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

Round and Round the Rock Cycle

Round and Round the Rock Cycle Round and Round the Rock Cycle Objectives The student will identify the processes that cause the three different types of rocks to form and identify rock samples from each type. Suggested Grade Level Fifth

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B? NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

More information

Plate Tectonics Web-Quest

Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Part I: Earth s Structure. Use the following link to find these answers: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html 1. Label the layers of Earth in the diagram

More information

College of Science and Health ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & GEOGRAPHY Course Outline

College of Science and Health ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & GEOGRAPHY Course Outline College of Science and Health ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & GEOGRAPHY Course Outline 1. TITLE OF COURSE AND COURSE NUMBER: General Geology ENV 115, 4 credits 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: Includes the study

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface.

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. 11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Photosynthesis, Cycling of Matter Through an Ecosystem

Photosynthesis, Cycling of Matter Through an Ecosystem Science 1. Cameron grew a snow pea plant from a seed at school. He brought the plant home in the hopes of getting some pea pods to eat. He forgot to water it for a whole week and the plant died. Based

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

Plate Tectonics. Learning Guide. Pacific Plate. Pacific Ocean. Divergent boundaries

Plate Tectonics. Learning Guide. Pacific Plate. Pacific Ocean. Divergent boundaries Plate Tectonics Learning Guide North American Plate Eurasian Plate Arabian Plate Pacific Plate Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Cocos Plate Nazca Plate South American Plate African Plate Convergent boundary

More information

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics. Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 1 Plate Tectonics Earth, 9 th edition Chapter 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Plate Tectonics: summary in haiku form Alfred Wegener gave us Continental Drift. Fifty years later... Continental Drift

More information

Plate Tectonic Boundaries

Plate Tectonic Boundaries Plate Tectonic Boundaries The Crust (The surface) The thin rigid outermost layer of the Earth is the crust. The thinnest crust (oceanic) is 3 miles and the thickest (continental) is 50 miles. The Mantle

More information

Tectonic plates have different boundaries.

Tectonic plates have different boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates move apart. BEFORE, you learned The continents join and break apart The sea floor provides evidence that tectonic plates move The theory of plate tectonics helps explain how the plates

More information

Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Science

Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Science Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Science Mission Statement The Mission of Science Education Is: 1) to nurture an active interest in science that continues throughout life.

More information

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries.

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

More information

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion Weathering, Erosion, and Soils 1 The Grand Canyon, a landscape shaped by weathering and erosion 2 Weathering vs. erosion Types of weathering Physical Chemical Rates of weathering and erosion Climate Rock

More information

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (pulses, intermittent, isotopes, chronicle, methane, tectonic plates, volcanism, configurations, land-locked, erratic); concepts (geological evidence and specific

More information

Radiometric Dating. This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012

Radiometric Dating. This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012 Page 1 of 14 EENS 2120 Tulane University Radiometric Dating This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Prior to 1905 the best and most accepted age of the Earth was that

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

GEL 113 Historical Geology

GEL 113 Historical Geology GEL 113 Historical Geology COURSE DESCRIPTION: Prerequisites: GEL 111 Corequisites: None This course covers the geological history of the earth and its life forms. Emphasis is placed on the study of rock

More information

Specimen Paper. Chemistry 1F. Time allowed! 60 minutes

Specimen Paper. Chemistry 1F. Time allowed! 60 minutes Centre Number Surname Candidate Number Specimen Paper For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier Question 1 Mark Science

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

1 Some theories suggest that the Earth s early atmosphere was like the atmosphere of Mars today.

1 Some theories suggest that the Earth s early atmosphere was like the atmosphere of Mars today. Changes in the Earth and its atmosphere 1 Some theories suggest that the Earth s early atmosphere was like the atmosphere of Mars today. The bar charts show the three most common gases in each atmosphere

More information

CHEMISTRY. c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink?

CHEMISTRY. c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink? OGT questions by topic PHYSICAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY 1. Properties of Matter a. What are mass, volume, and density? b. How are they measured? c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is

More information

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Objective: E 3.1A Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another. E 3.1B Explain the relationship

More information

STRATIGRAPHY. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information

STRATIGRAPHY. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information STRATIGRAPHY Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - What is stratigraphy? Lesson 2 - Correlation Activity Lesson 3 -Geologic Time Lesson 4 - Earth s History

More information

Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection

Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection Target Grade or Age Level Sixth grade science Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection Scientific Processes Addressed Defining operationally, formulating and testing hypotheses, constructing models

More information

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2

Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

More information