# Chapter 16 Two Dimensional Rotational Kinematics

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1 Chapter 16 Two Dimensional Rotational Kinematics 16.1 Introduction Fixed Axis Rotation: Rotational Kinematics Fixed Axis Rotation Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration Sign Convention: Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration Tangential Velocity and Tangential Acceleration... 4 Example 16.1 Turntable Rotational Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia Rotational Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia of a Rod of Uniform Mass Density... 7 Example 16. Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Disc Parallel Axis Theorem Parallel Axis Theorem Applied to a Uniform Rod Example 16.3 Rotational Kinetic Energy of Disk Conservation of Energy for Fixed Axis Rotation... 1 Example 16.4 Energy and Pulley System... 1 Example 16.5 Physical Pendulum Appendix 16A: Proof of the Parallel Axis Theorem... 18

2 Chapter 16 Two Dimensional Rotational Kinematics Most galaxies exhibit rising rotational velocities at the largest measured velocity; only for the very largest galaxies are the rotation curves flat. Thus the smallest SC s (i.e. lowest luminosity) exhibit the same lack of Keplerian velocity decrease at large R as do the high-luminosity spirals. The form for the rotation curves implies that the mass is not centrally condensed, but that significant mass is located at large R. The integral mass is increasing at least as fast as R. The mass is not converging to a limiting mass at the edge of the optical image. The conclusion is inescapable than nonluminous matter exists beyond the optical galaxy Introduction Vera Rubin The physical objects that we encounter in the world consist of collections of atoms that are bound together to form systems of particles. When forces are applied, the shape of the body may be stretched or compressed like a spring, or sheared like jello. In some systems the constituent particles are very loosely bound to each other as in fluids and gasses, and the distances between the constituent particles will vary. We shall begin by restricting ourselves to an ideal category of objects, rigid bodies, which do not stretch, compress, or shear. A body is called a rigid body if the distance between any two points in the body does not change in time. Rigid bodies, unlike point masses, can have forces applied at different points in the body. Let s start by considering the simplest example of rigid body motion, rotation about a fixed axis. 16. Fixed Axis Rotation: Rotational Kinematics Fixed Axis Rotation A simple example of rotation about a fixed axis is the motion of a compact disc in a CD player, which is driven by a motor inside the player. In a simplified model of this motion, the motor produces angular acceleration, causing the disc to spin. As the disc is set in motion, resistive forces oppose the motion until the disc no longer has any angular acceleration, and the disc now spins at a constant angular velocity. Throughout this process, the CD rotates about an axis passing through the center of the disc, and is perpendicular to the plane of the disc (see Figure 16.1). This type of motion is called fixed-axis rotation. 1 V.C. Rubin, W.K. Jr. Ford, N Thonnard, Rotational properties of 1 SC galaxies with a large range of luminosities and radii, from NGC 4605 /R = 4kpc/ to UGC 885 /R = 1 kpc/, Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 38, June 1, 1980, p

3 Figure 16.1 Rotation of a compact disc about a fixed axis. When we ride a bicycle forward, the wheels rotate about an axis passing through the center of each wheel and perpendicular to the plane of the wheel (Figure 16.). As long as the bicycle does not turn, this axis keeps pointing in the same direction. This motion is more complicated than our spinning CD because the wheel is both moving (translating) with some center of mass velocity, v cm, and rotating with an angular speed ω. Figure 16. Fixed axis rotation and center of mass translation for a bicycle wheel. When we turn the bicycle s handlebars, we change the bike s trajectory and the axis of rotation of each wheel changes direction. Other examples of non-fixed axis rotation are the motion of a spinning top, or a gyroscope, or even the change in the direction of the earth s rotation axis. This type of motion is much harder to analyze, so we will restrict ourselves in this chapter to considering fixed axis rotation, with or without translation Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration For a rigid body undergoing fixed-axis rotation, we can divide the body up into small volume elements with mass Δ m. Each of these volume elements is moving in a circle of radius r i about the axis of rotation (Figure 16.3). i 16-

4 Figure 16.3 Coordinate system for fixed-axis rotation. We will adopt the notation implied in Figure 16.3, and denote the vector from the axis to the point where the mass element is located as r i, with magnitude r i = r i. Suppose the fixed axis of rotation is the z -axis. Introduce a right-handed coordinate system for an angle θ in the plane of rotation and the choice of the positive z -direction perpendicular to that plane of rotation. Recall our definition of the angular velocity vector. The angular velocity vector is directed along the z -axis with z -component equal to the time derivative of the angle θ, ω = dθ dt ˆk = ω z ˆk. (16.1.1) The angular velocity vector for the mass element undergoing fixed axis rotation with ω z > 0 is shown in Figure Because the body is rigid, all the mass elements will have the same angular velocity ω and hence the same angular acceleration α. If the bodies did not have the same angular velocity, the mass elements would catch up to or pass each other, precluded by the rigid-body assumption. Figure 16.4 Angular velocity vector for a mass element for fixed axis rotation In a similar fashion, all points in the rigid body have the same angular acceleration, α = d θ dt ˆk = α z ˆk. (16.1.) 16-3

5 The angular acceleration vector is shown in Figure Figure 16.5 Angular acceleration vector for a rigid body rotating about the z -axis Sign Convention: Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration For rotational problems we shall always choose a right-handed cylindrical coordinate system. If the positive z -axis points up, then we choose θ to be increasing in the counterclockwise direction as shown in Figures 16.4 and If the rigid body rotates in the counterclockwise direction, then the z -component of the angular velocity is positive, ω z = dθ / dt > 0. The angular velocity vector then points in the + ˆk -direction as shown in Figure If the rigid body rotates in the clockwise direction, then the z -component of the angular velocity angular velocity is negative, ω z = dθ / dt < 0. The angular velocity vector then points in the ˆk -direction. If the rigid body increases its rate of rotation in the counterclockwise (positive) direction then the z -component of the angular acceleration is positive, α z d θ dt = dω z / dt > 0. The angular acceleration vector then points in the + ˆk - direction as shown in Figure If the rigid body decreases its rate of rotation in the counterclockwise (positive) direction then the z -component of the angular acceleration is negative, α z = d θ / dt = dω z / dt < 0. The angular acceleration vector then points in the ˆk -direction. To phrase this more generally, if α and ω point in the same direction, the body is speeding up, if in opposite directions, the body is slowing down. This general result is independent of the choice of positive direction of rotation. Note that in Figure 16.1, the CD has the angular velocity vector points downward (in the ˆk -direction) Tangential Velocity and Tangential Acceleration Because the small element of mass, Δ mi, is moving in a circle of radius r i with angular velocity ω = ω z ˆk, the element has a tangential velocity component v θ, i = r i ω z. (16.1.3) 16-4

6 If the magnitude of the tangential velocity is changing, the mass element undergoes a tangential acceleration given by a θ, i = r i α z. (16.1.4) Recall that the mass element is always accelerating inward with radial component given by Example 16.1 Turntable a r, i = v θ, i r i = r i ω z. (16.1.5) 1 A turntable is a uniform disc of mass 1. kg and a radius cm. The turntable is spinning initially in a counterclockwise direction when seen from above at a constant rate 1 of f 0 = 33 cycles min (33 rpm ). The motor is turned off and the turntable slows to a stop in 8.0 s. Assume that the angular acceleration is constant. (a) What is the initial angular velocity of the turntable? (b) What is the angular acceleration of the turntable? Solution: (a) Choose a coordinate system shown in Figure Figure 16.6 Coordinate system for turntable Initially, the disc is spinning with a frequency f 0 cycles 1min = = = min 60 s cycles s 0.55 Hz, (16.1.6) so the initial angular velocity has magnitude radian cycles ω0 = π f0 = π 0.55 = 3.5 rad s cycle s 1. (16.1.7) The angular velocity vector points in the + ˆk -direction as shown above. 16-5

7 (b) The final angular velocity is zero, so the component of the angular acceleration is α z = Δω z Δt = ω f ω 0 t f t 0 = 3.5 rad s s = rad s. (16.1.8) The z -component of the angular acceleration is negative, the disc is slowing down and so the angular acceleration vector then points in the ˆk -direction as shown in Figure Figure 16.7 Angular acceleration vector for turntable 16.3 Rotational Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia Rotational Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia We have already defined translational kinetic energy for a point object as K = (1/ )mv ; we now define the rotational kinetic energy for a rigid body about its center of mass. Figure 16.8 Volume element undergoing fixed-axis rotation about the z -axis that passes through the center of mass. Choose the z -axis to lie along the axis of rotation passing through the center of mass. As in Section 16.., divide the body into volume elements of mass Δ m (Figure 16.8). Each individual mass element Δ undergoes circular motion about the center of mass with z - mi i 16-6

8 component of angular velocity ω cm in a circle of radius r cm, i. Therefore the velocity of each element is given by v cm, i = r cm, i ω cm ˆθ. The rotational kinetic energy is then K cm, i = 1 Δm v i cm, i = 1 Δm r ω i cm, i cm. (16..1) We now add up the kinetic energy for all the mass elements, K cm = lim i i=n K cm, i Δm i 0 i=1 = 1 body dmr dm = lim i i=n Δm i 0 i=1 ω cm, i 1 Δm r i cm, i ω cm (16..) where dm is an infinitesimal mass element undergoing a circular orbit of radius r dm about the axis passing through the center of mass. The quantity I cm = dmr dm. (16..3) is called the moment of inertia of the rigid body about a fixed axis passing through the center of mass, and is a physical property of the body. The SI units for moment of inertia are kg m. Thus K cm = 1 dmr dm ω cm 1 I ω. (16..4) cm cm Moment of Inertia of a Rod of Uniform Mass Density Consider a thin uniform rod of length L and mass m. In this problem, we will calculate the moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the rod that passes through the center of mass of the rod. A sketch of the rod, volume element, and axis is shown in Figure Choose Cartesian coordinates, with the origin at the center of mass of the rod, which is midway between the endpoints since the rod is uniform. Choose the x -axis to lie along the length of the rod, with the positive x -direction to the right, as in the figure. 16-7

9 Figure 16.9 Moment of inertia of a uniform rod about center of mass. Identify an infinitesimal mass element dm = λ dx, located at a displacement x from the center of the rod, where the mass per unit length λ = m / L is a constant, as we have assumed the rod to be uniform. When the rod rotates about an axis perpendicular to the rod that passes through the center of mass of the rod, the element traces out a circle of radius r dm = x. We add together the contributions from each infinitesimal element as we go from x = L to x = L. The integral is then L/ L/ I cm = r dm dm = λ (x ) dx = λ x3 L/ 3 L/ = m (L / ) 3 m ( L / ) 3 L 3 L 3 = 1 1 m L. (16..5) By using a constant mass per unit length along the rod, we need not consider variations in the mass density in any direction other than the x - axis. We also assume that the width is the rod is negligible. (Technically we should treat the rod as a cylinder or a rectangle in the x-y plane if the axis is along the z - axis. The calculation of the moment of inertia in these cases would be more complicated.) Example 16. Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Disc A thin uniform disc of mass M and radius R is mounted on an axle passing through the center of the disc, perpendicular to the plane of the disc. Calculate the moment of inertia about an axis that passes perpendicular to the disc through the center of mass of the disc Solution: As a starting point, consider the contribution to the moment of inertia from the mass element dm show in Figure Let r denote the distance form the center of mass of the disc to the mass element. Figure Infinitesimal mass element and coordinate system for disc. 16-8

10 Choose cylindrical coordinates with the coordinates (r,θ) in the plane and the z -axis perpendicular to the plane. The area element da = r dr dθ (16..6) may be thought of as the product of arc length r dθ and the radial width dr. Since the disc is uniform, the mass per unit area is a constant, σ = dm da = m total Area = M π R. (16..7) Therefore the mass in the infinitesimal area element as given in Equation (16..6), a distance r from the axis of rotation, is given by dm = σ r dr dθ = M r dr dθ. (16..8) π R When the disc rotates, the mass element traces out a circle of radius r dm = r ; that is, the distance from the center is the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation. The moment of inertia integral is now an integral in two dimensions; the angle θ varies from θ = 0 to θ = π, and the radial coordinate r varies from r = 0 to r = R. Thus the limits of the integral are I cm = r dm dm = M r = R θ =π r 3 dθ π R dr. (16..9) r =0 θ =0 The integral can now be explicitly calculated by first integrating the θ -coordinate I cm = M r = R θ =π dθ π R θ =0 r 3 dr = M r =0 π R r = R r =0 πr 3 dr = M R r = R r 3 dr (16..10) r =0 and then integrating the r -coordinate, I cm = M R r = R r =0 r 3 dr = M r 4 r = R = M R 4 R 4 r =0 R 4 = 1 MR. (16..11) Remark: Instead of taking the area element as a small patch da = r dr dθ, choose a ring of radius r and width dr. Then the area of this ring is given by da ring = π(r + dr) πr = πr + πr dr + π(dr) πr = πr dr + π(dr). (16..1) 16-9

11 In the limit that dr 0, the term proportional to (dr) can be ignored and the area is da = πrdr. This equivalent to first integrating the dθ variable Then the mass element is da ring = r dr θ =π θ =0 dθ = πr dr. (16..13) dm ring = σ da ring = M πr dr. (16..14) π R The moment of inertia integral is just an integral in the variable r, I cm = body (r ) dm = π M π R r = R r 3 dr = 1 MR. (16..15) r = Parallel Axis Theorem Consider a rigid body of mass m undergoing fixed-axis rotation. Consider two parallel axes. The first axis passes through the center of mass of the body, and the moment of inertia about this first axis is I cm. The second axis passes through some other point S in the body. Let d S,cm denote the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes (Figure 16.11). Figure Geometry of the parallel axis theorem. Then the moment of inertia I S about an axis passing through a point S is related to I cm by I = I + m d. (16..16) S cm S,cm 16-10

12 Parallel Axis Theorem Applied to a Uniform Rod Let point S be the left end of the rod of Figure Then the distance from the center of mass to the end of the rod is ds,cm = L /. The moment of inertia IS = Iend about an axis passing through the endpoint is related to the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the center of mass, Icm = (1/1) m L, according to Equation (16..16), I m L m L m L S = + =. (16..17) In this case it s easy and useful to check by direct calculation. Use Equation (16..5) but with the limits changed to x = 0 and x = L, where x = x + L /, body L Iend = r dm = λ x dx 3 L x m ( L) m (0) 1 = λ = = m L. 3 L 3 L 3 3 (16..18) Example 16.3 Rotational Kinetic Energy of Disk A disk with mass M and radius R is spinning with angular speed ω about an axis that passes through the rim of the disk perpendicular to its plane. The moment of inertia about cm is I = (1/ ) mr. What is the kinetic energy of the disk? cm Solution: The parallel axis theorem states the moment of inertia about an axis passing perpendicular to the plane of the disc and passing through a point on the edge of the disc is equal to I edge = I cm + mr. (16..19) The moment of inertia about an axis passing perpendicular to the plane of the disc and passing through the center of mass of the disc is equal to I = (1/ ) mr. Therefore cm The kinetic energy is then I edge = (3 / )mr. (16..0) K = (1 / )I edge ω = (3 / 4)mR ω. (16..1) 16-11

13 16.4 Conservation of Energy for Fixed Axis Rotation Consider a closed system ( ΔE system = 0 ) under action of only conservative internal forces. Then the change in the mechanical energy of the system is zero ΔE m = ΔU + ΔK = (U f + K f ) (U i + K i ) = 0. (16.3.1) For fixed axis rotation with a component of angular velocity ω about the fixed axis, the change in kinetic energy is given by ΔK K f K i = 1 I ω 1 S f I ω, (16.3.) S i where S is a point that lies on the fixed axis. Then conservation of energy implies that U f + 1 I ω = U S f i + 1 I ω S i (16.3.3) Example 16.4 Energy and Pulley System A wheel in the shape of a uniform disk of radius R and mass m p is mounted on a frictionless horizontal axis. The wheel has moment of inertia about the center of mass I = (1/ ) m R. A massless cord is wrapped around the wheel and one end of the cord is cm p attached to an object of mass m that can slide up or down a frictionless inclined plane. The other end of the cord is attached to a second object of mass m 1 that hangs over the edge of the inclined plane. The plane is inclined from the horizontal by an angle θ (Figure 16.1). Once the objects are released from rest, the cord moves without slipping around the disk. Calculate the speed of block as a function of distance that it moves down the inclined plane using energy techniques. Assume there are no energy losses due to friction and that the rope does not slip around the pulley Figure 16.1 Pulley and blocks Figure Coordinate system for pulley and blocks 16-1

14 Solution: Define a coordinate system as shown in Figure Choose the zero for the gravitational potential energy at a height equal to the center of the pulley. In Figure illustrates the energy diagrams for the initial state and a dynamic state at an arbitrary time when the blocks are sliding. Figure Energy diagrams for initial state and dynamic state at arbitrary time Then the initial mechanical energy is E i = U i = m 1 gy 1, i m gx,i sinθ. (16.3.4) The mechanical energy, when block has moved a distance is given by d = x x, i (16.3.5) E = U + K = m 1 gy 1 m gx sinθ + 1 m v m v + 1 I ω. (16.3.6) P The rope connects the two blocks, and so the blocks move at the same speed v v 1 = v. (16.3.7) The rope does not slip on the pulley; therefore as the rope moves around the pulley the tangential speed of the rope is equal to the speed of the blocks Eq. (16.3.6) can now be simplified v tan = Rω = v. (16.3.8) E = U + K = m 1 gy 1 m gx sinθ + 1 m + m + I P 1 R v. (16.3.9) Because we have assumed that there is no loss of mechanical energy, we can set E i = E and find that 16-13

15 m 1 gy 1, i m gx, i sinθ = m 1 gy 1 m gx sinθ + 1 m + m + I P 1 R v, ( ) which simplifies to m 1 g( y 1,0 y 1 ) + m g(x x,0 )sinθ = 1 m + m + I P 1 R v. ( ) We finally note that the movement of block 1 and block are constrained by the relationship d = x x, i = y 1, i y 1. (16.3.1) Then Eq. ( ) becomes gd( m 1 + m sinθ) = 1 m + m + I P 1 R v. ( ) We can now solve for the speed as a function of distance d = x x, i that block has traveled down the incline plane v = gd( m 1 + m sinθ) ( m 1 + m + (I P / R )). ( ) If we assume that the moment of inertial of the pulley is becomes v = Example 16.5 Physical Pendulum I cm = (1/ ) mpr, then the speed gd( m 1 + m sinθ) ( m 1 + m + (1/ )m P ). ( ) A physical pendulum consists of a uniform rod of mass m 1 pivoted at one end about the point S. The rod has length l 1 and moment of inertia I 1 about the pivot point. A disc of mass m and radius r with moment of inertia I cm about its center of mass is rigidly attached a distance l from the pivot point. The pendulum is initially displaced to an angle θ i and then released from rest. (a) What is the moment of inertia of the physical pendulum about the pivot point S? (b) How far from the pivot point is the center of mass of the system? (c) What is the angular speed of the pendulum when the pendulum is at the bottom of its swing? 16-14

16 Figure Rod and with fixed disc pivoted about the point S Solution: a) The moment of inertia about the pivot point is the sum of the moment of inertia of the rod, given as I 1, and the moment of inertia of the disc about the pivot point. The moment of inertia of the disc about the pivot point is found from the parallel axis theorem, I disc = I cm + m l. ( ) The moment of inertia of the system consisting of the rod and disc about the pivot point S is then I S = I 1 + I disc = I 1 + I cm + m l. ( ) The center of mass of the system is located a distance from the pivot point l cm = m 1 (l 1 / ) + m l m 1 + m. ( ) b) We can use conservation of mechanical energy, to find the angular speed of the pendulum at the bottom of its swing. Take the zero point of gravitational potential energy to be the point where the bottom of the rod is at its lowest point, that is, θ = 0. The initial state energy diagram for the rod is shown in Figure 16.16a and the initial state energy diagram for the disc is shown in Figure 16.16b

17 (a) (b) Figure (a) Initial state energy diagram for rod (b) Initial state energy diagram for disc The initial mechanical energy is then E i = U i = m 1 g (l 1 l 1 cosθ i ) + m g (l 1 l cosθ i ), ( ) At the bottom of the swing, θ f = 0, and the system has angular velocity ω f. The mechanical energy at the bottom of the swing is E f = U f + K f = m 1 g l 1 + m g(l l ) I ω, (16.3.0) S f with I S as found in Equation ( ). There are no non-conservative forces acting, so the mechanical energy is constant therefore equating the expressions in ( ) and (16.3.0) we get that m 1 g (l 1 l 1 cosθ ) + m g (l l cosθ ) = m g l 1 i 1 i 1 + m g(l l ) I ω, (16.3.1) S f This simplifies to m 1 l 1 + m l g (1 cosθ ) = 1 i I ω, (16.3.) S f We now solve for ω f (taking the positive square root to insure that we are calculating angular speed) 16-16

18 ω f = m l m l g (1 cosθ ) i, (16.3.3) I S Finally we substitute in Eq.( ) in to Eq. (16.3.3) and find ω f = m l m l g (1 cosθ ) i. (16.3.4) I 1 + I cm + m l Note that we can rewrite Eq. (16.3.), using Eq. ( ) for the distance between the center of mass and the pivot point, to get (m 1 + m )l cm g (1 cosθ i ) = 1 I ω, (16.3.5) S f We can interpret this equation as follows. Treat the system as a point particle of mass m 1 + m located at the center of mass l cm. Take the zero point of gravitational potential energy to be the point where the center of mass is at its lowest point, that is, θ = 0. Then E i = (m 1 + m )l cm g (1 cosθ i ), (16.3.6) E f = 1 I ω. (16.3.7) S f Thus conservation of energy reproduces Eq. (16.3.5)

19 Appendix 16A: Proof of the Parallel Axis Theorem Identify an infinitesimal volume element of mass dm. The vector from the point S to the mass element is r S, dm, the vector from the center of mass to the mass element is r dm, and the vector from the point S to the center of mass is r S,cm. Figure 16A.1 Geometry of the parallel axis theorem. From Figure 16A.1, we see that r S, dm = r S,cm + r dm. (16.A.1) The notation gets complicated at this point. The vector r dm has a component vector r, dm parallel to the axis through the center of mass and a component vector r, dm perpendicular to the axis through the center of mass. The magnitude of the perpendicular component vector is r cm,, dm = r, dm. (16.A.) The vector r S, dm has a component vector r S,, dm parallel to the axis through the point S and a component vector r S,, dm perpendicular to the axis through the point S. The magnitude of the perpendicular component vector is r = r. (16.A.3) S,, dm S,, dm The vector r S,cm has a component vector rs,,cm parallel to both axes and a perpendicular component vector r S,,cm that is perpendicular to both axes (the axes are parallel, of course). The magnitude of the perpendicular component vector is r S,,cm = ds,cm. (16.A.4) 16-18

20 Equation (16.A.1) is now expressed as two equations, r S,, dm = r S,,cm + r,dm r S,,dm = r S,,cm + r,dm. (16.A.5) At this point, note that if we had simply decided that the two parallel axes are parallel to the z -direction, we could have saved some steps and perhaps spared some of the notation with the triple subscripts. However, we want a more general result, one valid for cases where the axes are not fixed, or when different objects in the same problem have different axes. For example, consider the turning bicycle, for which the two wheel axes will not be parallel, or a spinning top that precesses (wobbles). Such cases will be considered in later on, and we will show the general case of the parallel axis theorem in anticipation of use for more general situations. The moment of inertia about the point S is From (16.A.5) we have I S = dm(r S,,dm ). (16.A.6) body (r S,,dm ) = r S,,dm r S,,dm = ( r S,,cm + r,dm ) ( r S,,cm + r,dm ) = d S,cm + (r, dm ) + r S,,cm r,dm. (16.A.7) Thus we have for the moment of inertia about S, I S = dm d S,cm + dm(r,dm ) + dm( r S,,cm r,dm ). (16.A.8) In the first integral in Equation (16.A.8), rs,,cm = ds,cm is the distance between the parallel axes and is a constant. Therefore we can rewrite the integral as d S,cm body dm = m d S,cm. (16.A.9) The second term in Equation (16.A.8) is the moment of inertia about the axis through the center of mass, I cm = dm (r,dm ). (16.A.10) 16-19

21 The third integral in Equation (16.A.8) is zero. To see this, note that the term constant and may be taken out of the integral, r S,,cm is a The integral dm ( r S,,cm r,dm ) = r S,,cm dm r,dm (16.A.11) dm r,dm is the perpendicular component of the position of the center of mass with respect to the center of mass, and hence 0, with the result that dm ( r S,,cm r,dm ) = 0. (16.A.1) Thus, the moment of inertia about S is just the sum of the first two integrals in Equation (16.A.8) I S = I cm + md S,cm, (16.A.13) proving the parallel axis theorem. 16-0

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