15.3 Biomes Bell Ringer

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1 Bell Ringer Study for Vocabulary Quiz, Pass bell ringers to the front!

2 KEY CONCEPT Biomes are land-based, global communities of organisms.

3 Earth has six major biomes. Can be divided into specific zones Ex. A grassland can be tropical or temperate A biome is a major community of organisms. Similar biome tend to have similar pant & animal species.

4 Tropical rain forest biomes produce lush forests. warm temperature abundant precipitation all year Source: World Meteorological Organization

5 Tropical rain forests Canopy completely shades the forest floor <1% of sunlight make it through to the ground Soil is very thin & lacks nutrients Most life inhabit upper canopy Epiphytes are plants that grow on branches Limiting factor is light

6 Grassland biomes are where the primary plant life is grass. Rapid City, South Dakota Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

7 Grassland biomes are where the primary plant life is grass. Temperate grasslands are dry and warm during the summer; most precipitation falls as snow. Fires are common Some plant require fire for germination inches of rain per year

8 Tropical grasslands are warm through the year, with definite dry and rainy seasons. Ex. Savannas Tall grasses, scattered trees & shrubs Limiting factor is rainfall 4 inches/month

9 Desert biomes are characterized by a very arid climate. very low amount of precipitation four types: hot, semiarid, coastal, and cold Tucson, Arizona Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

10 Less than 10 inches of rain/year Hot deserts: Long dry summers easily 100 degrees Ex. Arizona desert Semi-arid deserts: Long dry summers Rarely exceeds 100 degrees

11 Bell Ringer 1-Predict how might stopping fires change a temperate grassland? 2-Refer to the climatograms on page 464 and tell me how do rainfall amounts differ in deserts and in tropical rain forests?

12 Cold deserts: 50 degree summers Ex. Western United States Coastal deserts: Long warm summers 95 degree summers

13 Adaptations: Reduced surface area of cacti Some desert plants have extremely long root systems Heat & drought resistant seeds

14 What are some similarities & differences between deserts & tropical rainforests?

15 Temperate forest biomes include deciduous forests and rain forests. Temperate deciduous forests have hot summers and cold winters. Burlington, Vermont Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

16 Deciduous trees are the dominant plant species. Drop leaves & go dormant Ex. Oak, Maple trees Temperate deciduous forests have hot summers and cold winters in/yr

17 The temperate rain forests have a long wet season and relatively dry summer. 98 in/yr Fog during summer for moisture Ferns and moss cover the forest floor. Coniferous trees retain there needles all year Ex. Conifers, Spruce

18 The taiga biome is located in cooler northern climates. boreal forest long winters and short summers small amount of precipitation in/yr Banff, Canada Source: Environment Canada

19 Winter temperature average below freezing to 70 degrees during summer. Coniferous forest abundant

20 The tundra biome is found in the far northern latitudes with long winters. winter lasts 10 months limited precipitation 5 in/yr permafrost Barrow, Alaska Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

21 Ground below surface is always frozen Holds moisture Lack of plants Mosses & somes shrubs the only low-lying plant

22 Minor biomes, such as chaparral, occur globally on a smaller scale. A.k.a Mediterranean shrub land

23 Dominant plants are small leaved evergreen shrubs Temperature averages 50 degrees in winter to 104 in summer in rain/year Has many desert type plants Needs fire

24 Polar ice caps and mountains are not considered biomes. Polar ice caps have no soil, therefore no plant community. Greenland, part of Artic Ocean & Antarctica

25 Few plants or fungi can survive Some mosses & lichens have been found in Antartica Polar bear & penguins The climate and organisms found on mountains change as the elevation changes. Mountains are rich with life At different elevations you can find communities similar to different biomes around the world.

26 Explain why neither polar ice caps nor mountains are considered biomes.

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