EuropEan Exploration

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1 European Exploration

2 John Cabot John Cabot (about ) was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator. In Italy, he is known as Giovanni Caboto (which is his original name).

3 Cabot was born in Italy but moved to England in Cabot sailed to Canada in 1497 in search of Asia. He commanded the small ship called "Matthew." He did not have maps. Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton Island (the exact spot is uncertain) on June 24, One of John Cabot's three sons, the explorer Sebastian Cabot, accompanied him on this trip. Cabot claimed the land for England.

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5 Vasco Nunez de Balboa Vasco Nunez de Balboa ( ) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who was the first European to see the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean (in 1513), crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

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7 Isthmus of Panama A narrow strip of land, linking Central America and South America, comprising the Republic of Panama. The name Isthmus of Panama sometimes is used to refer only to the region of the Panama Canal. The isthmus is said to have been discovered by Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1501, but the first exploration was made in 1502 by Christopher Columbus, who entered what is now Portobelo and established a colony there. The Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the isthmus to discover the Pacific Ocean on September 26, 1513.

8 Balboa went in search of new land for Spanish settlers to explore. He wanted to find a quick overland route to the Pacific Ocean. He sailed to Panama in Central America. He crossed the mountains and jungles of Panama. He was the first European to reach the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean.

9 Once Balboa Settled in South America, he married the daughter of a local Native American chief. Balboa and his men (including Francisco Pizarro) then traveled to the ocean and claimed it and all the land that touched it for Spain. They spent about a month fighting and conquering Native Americans along the Pacific coast and stealing their gold.

10 Balboa was charged with treason against Spain (although he was innocent and had been framed by a friend, Arias de Avila). Francisco Pizarro arrested Balboa. Balboa was found guilty and was publicly beheaded in Acla in January, 1519.

11 Juan Ponce de Leon Juan Ponce de Leon (1460?-1521) was a Spanish explorer and soldier who was the first European to set foot in Florida. He also established the oldest European settlement in Puerto Rico and discovered the Gulf Stream (a current in the Atlantic Ocean). Ponce de Leon was searching for the legendary fountain of youth and other riches such as gold.

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13 Ponce de Leon once sailed on Christopher Columbus' second expedition to the Americas in Ponce de Leon did not return to Spain with Columbus; he stayed in Santo Domingo (now called the Dominican Republic). Later, on his own expedition, in search of the fountain of youth, he reached the east coast of Florida (St. Augustine) in April Ponce de Leon named the land "Pascua de Florida" (feast of flowers) because they first spotted land on April 2, 1513, Palm Sunday. He then claimed the land for Spain.

14 His last expedition was another search for Bimini (in the Bahamas) in His force of 200 men landed on the west coast of Florida, but were met by Native American warriors, who wounded many of the men with arrows, including Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon later died in Havana, Cuba, from this wound (in July, 1521). He is buried in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

15 Henry Hudson ( ) was an English explorer and navigator who explored parts of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson.

16 Hudson went to find a Northwest Passage to Asia. On this trip in a ship called the Half Moon, Hudson sailed to Nova Scotia, and then sailed south. He found what is now called the Hudson River. Hudson is credited with discovering the location which is now New York City.

17 Kicked off his own ship! A trip through the Hudson Strait and into Hudson Bay ended in a mutiny. Hudson died in 1611 after his crew mutinied and left Hudson, his son, and seven crew members adrift in a small, open boat in Hudson Bay.

18 Jacques Cartier ( ) was a French explorer who led three expeditions to Canada, in 1534, 1535, and He was looking for a route to the Pacific through North America (a Northwest Passage) but did not find one. Cartier paved the way for French exploration of North America.

19 On his voyages, his sailors caught diseases. Cartier sailed inland, going 1,000 miles up the St. Lawrence River. He also tried to start a settlement in Quebec (in 1541), but it was abandoned after a terribly cold winter. They could not make it through the cold winter. Cartier named Canada; "Kanata" means village or settlement.

20 Christopher Columbus Early Life Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in He went to sea as a young man. He made trips down the western coast of Africa, and north to Iceland. According to legend, Columbus sailed with a fleet headed for England in While they were off the coast of Portugal, pirates attacked the ships, and Columbus's ship was sunk. He swam to shore at Libson. He and his brother Bartholomew opened a store in 1479 in Libson. They sold maps in the store. Columbus's interest in maps lead him to the conclusion that you could get to Asia by sailing west from Europe.

21 In the first voyage Columbus thought he could get to Japan by sailing west. He asked Queen Isabella pay for the voyage, but Spain was fighting a war and couldn't afford it. He waited for six years, and finally the war was over and she gave him three ships. The ships were called the Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria. He then and then he out for Japan. With no maps, the crew began to worry. They were used to seeing land, but now they could not even see rock. Even though the men got discouraged, Columbus kept telling them that land must be close. They sailed for thirtyseven days and finally, on the evening of October 11, they saw an island. Columbus told everyone to drop anchor. They were going to wait until morning to set foot on the land, but most of the men just stayed on the deck staring at the island on the horizon. In the morning they went to the island and claimed it for Spain and called it San Salvador.

22 Columbus left on his second voyage, on September 25, This time he sailed with a fleet of seventeen ships. The queen sent fifteen hundred men, to build a colony and search for gold. On this voyage, Columbus claimed forty-four new islands for Spain. When he reached the site of the fort they had built on Hispaniola, there was nothing there. When they went ashore, a local chief told Columbus that the Spaniards had been so cruel, that the natives had killed them all. Columbus started new colonies, and Spaniards continued to treat the local people in cruel ways. The Spanish settlers didn't like Columbus either, so they sent a ship back to complain to the queen. Columbus was forced to return to Spain to defend himself against the settler's charges. The queen only gave him a warning.

23 In 1498, Columbus once again set out for the new land he had. But Queen Isabella didn't trust Columbus as a governor, so she sent a new one. The governor didn't like having Columbus around, so he sent him home in chains. Columbus went on his fourth and final voyage in He reached the coast of South America, and was confused. Columbus thought the only continent in the area was China. He thought that maybe this new continent was the Garden of Eden. He continued to look for a strait, or at least one of the golden palaces he had always hoped to find. He never found either one.

24 Columbus returned to Spain in 1504, after his fourth voyage. He was fifty-four years old. Even though he was in poor health, he still wanted to go out to sea again. Unfortunately, Queen Isabella was dead, and he could not find anyone to finance another trip. By this time, many people believed that a new continent had been found. Columbus, however, had never stopped believing that he had been to Asia.

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26 Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria

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