Chapter 37. Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Go to Section:

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1 Chapter 37 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

2 Inquiry Activity Section 37-1 What Factors Affect Heart Rate? 1. While sitting still, measure your heart rate. To do this, find the pulse in one of your wrists (or the side of your neck) using the first two fingers of your other hand. **DO NOT USE YOUR THUMB** 2. Count the number of beats you feel in 15 seconds and multiply the number by 4. This will give you the number of beats per minute. 3. What do you think would happen if you stood up? Would your heart rate decrease, increase, or stay the same? 4. Stand up and measure your heart rate again. Compare to your prediction. 5. What do you think will happen to your heart rate if you are very active? How many beats per minute will you have? Make a prediction. 6. When I tell you, be active (jumping jacks, running in place, push-ups) for 1 minute. When I tell you to stop, immediately measure your heart rate again and compare to your prediction.

3 Section Outline Section The Circulatory System A. Functions of the Circulatory System B. The Heart 1. Circulation Through the Body a. Systemic circulation b. Pulmonary circulation 2. Circulation Through the Heart a. Atria b. Ventricles c. Septum d. Valves 3. Heartbeat a. Stimulation 1. Sinoatrial node 2. Atrioventricular node

4 Section 37-1 Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System Capillaries of head and arms Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Pulmonary vein Capillaries of left lung Inferior vena cava Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs

5 Section Outline Section The Circulatory System A. Functions of the Circulatory System B. The Heart 1. Circulation Through the Body a. Systemic circulation b. Pulmonary circulation 2. Circulation Through the Heart a. Atria b. Ventricles c. Septum d. Valves 3. Heartbeat a. Stimulation 1. Sinoatrial node 2. Atrioventricular node

6 Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart Section 37-1 Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium Right Ventricle Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs Left Atrium Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle Left Ventricle Septum

7 Section Outline Section The Circulatory System A. Functions of the Circulatory System B. The Heart 1. Circulation Through the Body a. Systemic circulation b. Pulmonary circulation 2. Circulation Through the Heart a. Atria b. Ventricles c. Septum d. Valves 3. Heartbeat a. Stimulation 1. Sinoatrial node 2. Atrioventricular node

8 The Sinoatrial Node Section 37-1 Contraction of Atria Contraction of Ventricles Sinoatrial (SA) node Conducting fibers Atrioventricular (AV) node

9 Section Outline Section The Circulatory System C. Blood Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Veins D. Blood Pressure 1. Systolic 2. Diastolic E. Diseases of the Circulatory System 1. High Blood Pressure 2. Consequences of Atherosclerosis 3. Circulatory System Health

10 Figure 37-5 The Three Types of Blood Vessels Section 37-1 Artery Vein Endothelium Capillary Arteriole Venule Connective tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Valve Smooth muscle Endothelium

11 Section Outline Section The Circulatory System C. Blood Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Veins D. Blood Pressure 1. Systolic 2. Diastolic E. Diseases of the Circulatory System 1. High Blood Pressure 2. Consequences of Atherosclerosis 3. Circulatory System Health Sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure

12 Blood Pressure Numbers Section 37-1 Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (measured in millimeters of mercury, or mmhg) The ranges in the table apply to most adults (aged 18 and older) who don't have short-term serious illnesses. Category Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Normal Less than 120 And Less than 80 Prehypertension Or High blood pressure Stage Or Stage or higher Or 100 or higher

13 Blood Pressure Numbers Section 37-1

14 Section 37-1 Atherosclerosis Narrowing of the Arteries

15 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System A. Blood Plasma **transfusion** 1. Contents of plasma 2. Proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogens B. Blood Cells 1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) **centrifuge** 2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes) **types** a. neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes b. Granulocytes & agranulocytes 3. Platelets and Blood Clotting **diagram** Thromboplastin, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin C. The Lymphatic System **pathways**

16 Blood Transfusions Section 37-2 Blood Type of Donor Blood Type of Recipient A B AB O A B AB O Unsuccessful transfusion Successful transfusion

17 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System A. Blood Plasma **transfusion** 1. Contents of plasma 2. Proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogens B. Blood Cells 1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) **centrifuge** 2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes) **types** a. neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes b. Granulocytes & agranulocytes 3. Platelets and Blood Clotting **diagram** Thromboplastin, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin C. The Lymphatic System **pathways**

18 Figure 37-7 Blood Section 37-2 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

19 Figure 37-7 Blood Section 37-2 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

20 Figure 37-7 Blood Section 37-2 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

21 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System A. Blood Plasma **transfusion** 1. Contents of plasma 2. Proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogens B. Blood Cells 1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) **centrifuge** 2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes) **types** a. neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes b. Granulocytes & agranulocytes 3. Platelets and Blood Clotting **diagram** Thromboplastin, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin C. The Lymphatic System **pathways**

22 Types of White Blood Cells Section 37-2 Cell Type Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Function Engulf and destroy small bacteria and foreign substances Attack parasites; limit inflammation associated with allergic reactions Release histamines that cause inflammation; release anticoagulants, which prevent blood clots Monocytes Lymphocytes Give rise to leukocytes that engulf and destroy large bacteria and substances Some destroy foreign cells by causing their membranes to rupture; some develop into cells that produce antibodies, which target specific foreign substances

23 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System A. Blood Plasma **transfusion** 1. Contents of plasma 2. Proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogens B. Blood Cells 1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) **centrifuge** 2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes) **types** a. neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes b. Granulocytes & agranulocytes 3. Platelets and Blood Clotting **diagram** Thromboplastin, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin C. The Lymphatic System **pathways**

24 Figure Blood Clotting Section 37-2 Break in Capillary Wall Blood vessels injured. Clumping of Platelets Platelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin.. Clot Forms Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood..

25 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System C. The Lymphatic System **pathways** 1. Collects plasma fluid 2. Returns to circulatory system at superior vena cava (flowing into right atrium) 3. Nodes along system filter out bacteria and other microorganisms a. During many infections you may experience swollen glands which are really your lymph nodes 4. Also absorbs fats & certain vitamins 5. Blocked lymph vessels leads to edema 6. Thymus & Spleen also instrumental

26 Figure The Lymphatic System Section 37-2 Superior vena cava Thymus Heart Thoracic duct Lymph nodes Spleen Lymph vessels

27 Section Outline Section Blood and the Lymphatic System C. The Lymphatic System **pathways** 1. Collects plasma fluid 2. Returns to circulatory system at superior vena cava (flowing into right atrium) 3. Nodes along system filter out bacteria and other microorganisms a. During many infections you may experience swollen glands which are really your lymph nodes 4. Also absorbs fats & certain vitamins 5. Blocked lymph vessels leads to edema 6. Thymus & Spleen also instrumental

28 Interest Grabber Section 37-3 Hold That Breath! Do not perform this activity if you have any breathing problems. Working with a partner, count the number of breaths you take in 15 seconds. Multiply that number by 4 for the number of breaths per minute. Your partner will act as the timer/recorder. Repeat the procedure three times and take an average. Now, take a deep breath and hold it for as long as you can. Have your partner record your time. Repeat the procedure three times and take an average. Switch roles with your partner and repeat the procedure. Exchange data with other groups and answer the following questions.

29 Interest Grabber continued Section What was the range of breathing rates? 2. Why are there differences in breathing rates among members of the class? 3. What was the average length of time classmates could hold their breath? 4. What factors might affect how long you could hold your breath? 5. A child having a tantrum declares she is going to hold her breath until I turn blue! Do you think this is possible? Explain your answer.

30 Section Outline Section The Respiratory System A. What Is Respiration? **video** B. The Human Respiratory System *pathways & closeups* C. Gas Exchange D. Breathing *mechanics* E. How Breathing Is Controlled F. Tobacco and the Respiratory System 1. Substances in Tobacco 2. Diseases Caused by Smoking 3. Smoking and the Nonsmoker 4. Dealing With Tobacco

31 Flowchart Section 37-3 Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide In and Out of the Respiratory System Oxygen-rich air from environment Nasal cavities Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchi Bronchioles Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at alveoli Alveoli Bronchioles Trachea Pharynx Nasal cavities Carbon dioxide-rich air to the environment

32 Figure The Respiratory System Section 37-3

33 Figure Gas Exchange in the Lungs Section 37-3 Alveoli Bronchiole Capillary

34 Figure The Mechanics of Breathing Section 37-3 Air inhaled Air exhaled Rib cage rises Rib cage lowers Diaphragm Diaphragm Inhalation Exhalation

35 Figure The Mechanics of Breathing Section 37-3 Air inhaled Air exhaled Rib cage rises Rib cage lowers Diaphragm Diaphragm Inhalation Exhalation

36 Videos Click a hyperlink to choose a video. Human Circulation Human Respiration

37 Video 1 Human Circulation Click the image to play the video segment.

38 Video 2 Human Respiration Click the image to play the video segment.

39 Go Online Career links on respiratory care practitioners Interactive test For links on the cardiovascular system, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn For links on blood cells, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-0372.

40 Interest Grabber Answers 1. Choose the longest vein you can see on the inner side of your wrist. Starting as close to your wrist as possible, press your thumb on the vein and slide it along the vein up your arm. Did the length of the vein remain blue? Yes 2. Repeat this process, but in the opposite direction, moving your thumb along the vein from the far end to the end closest to your wrist. Did the length of the vein remain blue? No 3. In which direction is your blood flowing in this vein? How can you tell? Can you tell where a valve is located? Explain your answer. Blood is flowing from the wrist up the arm to the heart. The vein was emptied of blood by the action of the thumb in step 2, and blood flow into the vein was stopped by the thumb s pressure on the wrist end. Backflow was prevented by the valve at the other end, so the vein no longer had blood between these two points.

41 Interest Grabber Answers 1. What characteristics would artificial blood need to take the place of real blood? Artificial blood would need to be a fluid that could carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and waste products. 2. Do you think that artificial blood could completely replace real blood? Explain your answer. No. Real blood contains living cells that combat disease. Also, real blood can form clots, preventing blood loss at cuts.

42 Interest Grabber Answers 1. What was the range of breathing rates? Most people breathe about 16 to 24 times per minute. 2. Why are there differences in breathing rates among members of the class? The difference among classmates might be a result of physical conditioning and individual metabolism. 3. What was the average length of time classmates could hold their breath? Most people can hold their breath for just under a minute. 4. What factors might affect how long you could hold your breath? Physical conditioning and metabolism might affect the length of time. 5. A child having a tantrum declares she is going to hold her breath until I turn blue! Do you think this is possible? Explain your answer. It is not possible. The child will begin to breathe again when levels of carbon dioxide reach a critical level.

43 This slide is intentionally blank.

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