# Logical Inference and Mathematical Proof

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1 Logical Inference and Mathematical Proof CSE 191, Class Note 03: Logical Inference and Mathematical Proof Computer Sci & Eng Dept SUNY Buffalo c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 1 / 66 Need for inference Why do we study propositional and predicate logic? We want to use them to solve problems. To solve a problem by using logic, we often need to start from some premises and obtain a certain conclusion using inference rules. Computer scientists often need to verify the correctness of a program. One possible approach is to prove the program is correct. So one can start from the program and the semantics of the used programming language (i.e., the premise), and use logic inference to obtain a conclusion that the program does the right job. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 3 / 66

2 What is a inference rule? Definition: P 1 P 2 Q is a inference rule if (P 1 P 2 ) Q is a tautology. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 4 / 66 Implication rule The first (and simplest) rule is: Modus Ponens (MP) Rule: P P Q Q This rule is called Modus Ponens (MP). Intuitively, if we have the condition of an implication, then we can obtain its consequence. P P Q Q means: there is a storm. means: if there is a storm, then the office is closed. means: the office is closed. Exercise: Show [P (P Q)] Q T. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 5 / 66

3 Another implication rule Recall that P Q P Q Q P Q P. The MP rule just studied above tells us that: Q Q P P If we replace the Q P in the above with the logically equivalent proposition P Q, then we get another implication rule: Modus Tonens (MT) Rule: Q P Q P Exercise: Show [ Q (P Q)] P T. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 6 / 66 Logical equivalence vs. inference By using inference rules, we can prove the conclusion follows from the premises. In inference, we can always replace a logic formula with another one that is logically equivalent, just as we have seen for the implication rule. Suppose we have: P (Q R) and Q R. Use inference to show P. First, we note Q R ( Q R) (Q R). So we have the following inference: (1) P (Q R) Premise (2) Q R Premise (3) (Q R) Logically equivalent to (2) (4) P Applying the second implication rule (Modus Tonens) to (1) and (3) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 7 / 66

4 Yet another implication rule Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) P Q Q R P R Intuitively, if P implies Q and Q implies R, then we can get that P implies R. P Q means if there is a storm, then the office is closed. Q R means if the office is closed, then I don t go to work. P R means if there is a storm, then I don t go to work. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 8 / 66 Conjunction and Simplification Rules Conjunction rule P Q P Q Intuitively, this means when you have P and Q both being true, then P Q is also true. Simplification Rule P Q P Intuitively, this means when you have P Q being true, clearly P is also true. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 9 / 66

5 Disjunction rules Disjunctive Syllogism (DS) P Q P Q Addition Rule: P P Q c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 10 / 66 Third disjunction rule Resolution Rule P Q P R Q R This rule plays an important role in AI systems. Intuitively, it means: if P implies R and P implies Q (why? Where do we get these implications?), then we must have either Q or R. Clearly, this is true since one of P and P must be true. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 11 / 66

6 Other rules We have: P Q P R Q S R S Intuitively it means we can do inference in each of two cases (P or Q) independently. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 12 / 66 Inference Rules Table: Rules of Inference Rule of Inference Tautology Name p p q (p (p q)) q Modus ponens (MP) q q p q ( q (p q)) p Modus tonens (MT) p p q q r ((p q) (q r)) (p r) Hypothetical syllogism (HS) p r p q p ((p q) p) q Disjunctive syllogism (DS) q p p q p (p q) Addition p q p (p q) p Simplification p q ((p) (q)) (p q) Conjunction p q p q p r q r ((p q) ( p r)) (q r) Resolution c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 13 / 66

7 Valid Arguments A mathematical proof is always like: If q 1 and q 2... and q k are true, then q is true. The propositions q 1,..., q k are called the premises. The proposition q is called the conclusion. The mathematical proof is really to show that (q 1 q 2... q k ) q is a tautology. To do this, we can either: Directly prove (q 1 q 2... q k ) q T by using logic equivalence rules, (which will be very long); or Present a valid argument, by using logic inference rules, defined in the following slide. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 14 / 66 How to build a valid argument? A valid argument is a sequence of propositions P 1, P 2,..., P n such that: P n is the conclusion q. Each P i (1 i n) is: either a premise (namely some q j ); or a proposition that can be obtained from previous propositions by using a rule of inference; or a proposition that is logically equivalent to a previous proposition. Or a tautology. Remark: If P 1, P 2,..., P n, Q is a valid argument, then we can always show: [q 1 q 2 q k ] q T (1) by using logic equivalence rules. So a valid argument is just a shorter way to prove (1) is a tautology by using logic equivalence rules. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 15 / 66

8 Inference example Consider the following propositions: p: It s sunny this afternoon. q: It s colder than yesterday. r: We will go swimming. s: We will take a canoe trip. t: We will be home by sunset. Premises: a. It s not sunny and it s colder than yesterday p q b. We will go swimming only if it s sunny. r p c. If we don t go swimming then we will take canoe trip. r s d. If we take a canoe trip, then we will be home by sunset. s t Conclusion: We will be home by sunset. t. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 16 / 66 Inference example (1) p q Premise (2) p Simplification rule using (1) (3) r p Premise (4) r MT using (2) (3) (5) r s Premise (6) s MP using (4) (5) (7) s t Premise (8) t MP using (6) (7) This is a valid argument showing that from the premises (a), (b), (c) and (d), we can prove the conclusion t. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 17 / 66

9 Inference example Suppose P Q; P R; Q S. Prove that R S. (1) P Q Premise (2) P Q Logically equivalent to (1) (3) P R Premise (4) P R Logically equivalent to (3) (5) Q R Apply resolution rule to (2)(4) (6) R Q Logically equivalent to (5) (7) Q S Premise (8) R S Apply HS rule to (6)(7) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 18 / 66 A more concrete example Suppose: (1) If it is Saturday today, then we play soccer or basketball. (2) If the soccer field is occupied, we dont play soccer. (3) It is Saturday today, and the soccer field is occupied. Prove: we play basketball or volleyball. First we formalize the problem: P: It is Saturday today. Q: We play soccer. R: We play basketball. S: The soccer field is occupied. T: We play volleyball. Premise: P (Q R), S Q, P, S Need to prove: R T. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 19 / 66

10 A more concrete example (1) P (Q R) Premise (2) P Premise (3) Q R Apply MP rule to (1)(2) (4) S Q Premise (5) S Premise (6) Q Apply MP rule to (4)(5) (7) R Apply DS rule to (3)(6) (8) R T Apply Addition rule to (7) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 20 / 66 Solving a murder case The following is a murder case solved by Sherlock Holmes, in A Study in Scarlet (a detective mystery novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle). Quote from A Study in Scarlet And now we come to the great question as to the reason why. Robbery has not been the object of the murder, for nothing was taken. Was it politics, then, or was it a woman? That is the question which confronted me. I was inclined from the first to the latter supposition. Political assassins are only too glad to do their work and fly. This murder had, on the contrary, been done most deliberately, and the perpetrator has left his tracks all over the room, showing he had been there all the time. From these, Sherlock Holmes concluded: It was a woman. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 21 / 66

11 Solving a murder case Known premises: 1 If it s a robbery, something would have been taken. 2 Nothing was taken. 3 If it s not a robbery, it must be politics or a woman. 4 It it s politics, the assassin would have left immediately. 5 If assassin left tracks all over the room, he cannot have left immediately. 6 The assassin left tracks all over the room. Show the conclusion: It was a woman. We will discuss this example in class. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 22 / 66 Inference with quantifiers Many inferences in Math and CS involve quantifiers. Example 1: All computer science majors must take CSE 191. CSE 191 students study discrete structures. So, all computer science majors must study discrete structures. Example 2: The definition of limit in Calculus: lim x a f (x) = b if and only if ɛ > 0 δ > 0 x ( x a δ) ( f (x) b < ɛ) Question: How do you show lim x a f (x) b? c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 24 / 66

12 Universal quantification rules Consider the following two formulas: xp(x). P(c) for an arbitrary c. Starting from either of them we can obtain the other. Everybody has a nose. C has a nose (where C can be anybody). c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 25 / 66 Universal quantification rules Universal instantiation rule: x P(x) P(c) for an arbitrary c Universal generalization rule: P(c) for an arbitrary c x P(x) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 26 / 66

13 Existential quantification rules Consider the following two formulas: x P(x). P(c) for some c. Starting from either of them we can obtain the other. There is a student living in Amherst. John lives in Amherst. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 27 / 66 Existential quantification rules Existential instantiation rule: x P(x) P(c) for some c Existential generalization rule: P(c) for some c x P(x) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 28 / 66

14 Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Table: Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Rule of Inference xp(x) p(c) for an arbitrary element c P(c) for an arbitrary element c xp(x) xp(x) p(c) for some element c P(c) for some element c xp(x) Name Universal Instantiation Universal generalization Existential Instantiation Existential generalization c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 29 / 66 Inference example Premises: 1 A student in this class has not read the book. 2 Everyone in this class passed the first exam. Conclusion: Someone who passed the first exam has not read the book. Then: C(x): x is in this class. B(x): x has read the book. P(x): x has passed the first exam. 1 x(c(x) B(x)). 2 x(c(x) P(x)). Conclusion: x(p(x) B(x)). We will show the inference in class. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 30 / 66

15 An arithmetic example Suppose: all natural numbers are integers; there exists a natural number; Prove that there exists an integer. We can formalize this problem as follows. (Let the universe of discourse be all real numbers.) N(x): x is a natural number. I(x): x is an integer. Premise: x (N(x) I(x)), x N(x) Need to prove: x I(x) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 31 / 66 An arithmetic example (1) x N(x) Premise (2) N(c) Apply existential instantiation rule to (1) (3) x (N(x) I(x)) Premise (4) N(c) I(c) Apply universal instantiation rule to (3) (5) I(c) Apply MP rule to (2)(4) (6) x I(x) Apply existential generalization rule to (5) c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 32 / 66

16 From Inference to Proof In fact, the process of logical inference is also the process of giving a formal proof. In mathematics, we need to do a lot of proofs. However, formal proofs are too long, since in each step we can only apply a simple inference rule. Formal proofs are also too hard to follow since we can be easily buried in details and thus miss bigger pictures. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 34 / 66 (Informal) mathematical proof A mathematical proof is usually informal. (Compared to logical inferences we just studied. But still much more formal than everyday language.) More than one rule may be used in a step. Steps may be skipped. Axioms may be assumed. Rules for inference may not be explicitly stated. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 35 / 66

17 Some terminology Theorem: statement that can be shown true. Proposition: less important theorem. Lemma: less important theorem used to prove other theorems. Corollary: theorem that trivially follows another theorem. Conjecture: statement that is proposed to be true, but has not been proved. Axiom: statement assumed to be true (i.e., true statement that does not need a proof). c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 36 / 66 Convention on universal quantifier Many mathematical theorems are about a property of elements in a domain, and hence need universal quantifiers. However, many such universal quantifiers are omitted. If a > b, then a b > 0. This actually means, for all real numbers a and b, if a > b, then a b > 0. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 37 / 66

18 Proof method: direct proof Definition A direct proof for p q starts by assuming p and finishes by establishing q. In the proof, we can use axioms, previously proven theorems, and inference rules. Example of direct proof: Prove that if n is an odd integer, then n 2 is also odd. Proof: Since n is an odd integer, there exists integer k such that n = 2k + 1. Hence: n 2 = (2k + 1) 2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2 (2k 2 + 2k) + 1. Since k is an integer, 2k 2 + 2k is also an integer. So 2 (2k 2 + 2k) is even. Therefore, n 2 is an odd integer. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 38 / 66 Proof by contraposition Another method for proof is proof by contraposition. Note that p q is logically equivalent to q p. Definition A proof by contraposition for p q is actually a direct proof for q p. It starts by assuming q, and finishes by establishing p. In the proof, we can also use axioms, previously proven theorems, and inference rules. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 39 / 66

19 Example for proof by contraposition Prove that if n is an integer and 3n + 2 is odd, then n is odd. P roof: We prove it by contraposition. Suppose n is not odd. Then it is even. So there exists an integer k such that n = 2k. Hence: 3n + 2 = 3(2k) + 2 = 6k + 2 = 2(3k + 1). Since k is an integer, 3k + 1 is also an integer. Therefore, 3n + 2 is even, i.e., 3n + 2 is not odd. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 40 / 66 Proof by contradiction Yet another method for proof is proof by contradiction. Note that p is logically equivalent to p (r r). Definition A proof by contradiction for p is actually a direct proof for p (r r). It starts by assuming p and finishes by establishing both r and r. In the proof, we can also use axioms, previously proven theorems, and inference rules. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 41 / 66

20 Example for proof by contradiction (1) Prove that there is no positive integer n such that n = 100. Proof: We prove it by contradiction. Suppose that there is a positive integer n such that n = 100. If n 4, then n = 65 < 100. Impossible. If n 5, then n = 126 > 100. Still impossible. Contradiction. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 42 / 66 Example for proof by contradiction (2) Prove that 2 is not a rational number. Proof (Hinted by Aristotle, BC): We prove it by contradiction. Suppose that r = 2 is a rational number. Then there exist integers a and b such that r = a/b. Further, we assume that a and b have no common divisors. (If they have common divisors, divide both a and b by their greatest common divisors.) Hence, 2 = r 2 = (a/b) 2 = a 2 /b 2. So we get that a 2 = 2 b 2, which is an even number. Therefore, a is even. Thus, there exists integer c such that a = 2c. This implies that (2c) 2 = a 2 = 2 b 2, i.e., 2c 2 = b 2. Hence, b 2 is even, which means b is also even. Since a and b are both even, they have a common divisor 2. Contradiction. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 43 / 66

21 Example for proof by contradiction (3) Definition A prime number is a positive integer whose only divisors are 1 and itself. The first few prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, At the beginning, the prime numbers are dense (i.e. there are many of them). For example, there are 168 prime numbers between 1 and When the number gets bigger, the prime numbers are sparse (i.e. there are few of them). How many prime numbers are there? Finite? or infinite? Theorem: There are infinitely many prime numbers. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 44 / 66 Example for proof by contradiction (3) Proof: (Euclid BC). We prove this by contradiction. Assume there are only finitely many primes: p 1, p 2,..., p n. Consider the number Q = p 1 p 2... p n + 1. We ask: Is Q a prime number? Because Q > p i for all 1 i n and p 1,..., p n are ALL prime numbers, Q IS NOT a prime. If Q is not a prime, it must have a prime factor. So one of p i (1 i n) must be a factor of Q. But Q divided by each p i has remainder 1. So none of p i (1 i n) is a divisor of Q. Hence Q IS a prime. A contradiction. It is the first proof in the book Proofs from THE BOOK, where THE BOOK refers to the imagined collection of the most elegant proofs that the famous mathematician Paul Erdös claimed is maintained by the God. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 45 / 66

22 Proof by cases Note that (p 1 p 2... p n ) q is logically equivalent to (p 1 q) (p 2 q)... (p n q). Definition: A proof by cases for (p 1 p 2... p n ) q is actually a direct proof for (p 1 q) (p 2 q)... (p n q). First, it lists n cases. In the ith case, it starts by assuming p i and finishes by establishing q. In the proof, we can also use axioms, previously proven theorems, and inference rules. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 46 / 66 Example for proof by cases (1) Prove that n > 3 n if n is a positive integer with 1 n 3. Proof: We prove it by cases. Case 1: n = 1. Then, n = 101 > 3 = 3 n. Case 2: n = 2. Then, n = 102 > 9 = 3 n. Case 3: n = 3. Then, n = 103 > 27 = 3 n. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 47 / 66

23 Example for proof by cases (2) Prove that if n is an integer, then n 2 n. Proof: We prove it by cases. Case 1: n = 0. Then, n 2 = 0 = n. Case 2: n 1. Then, n > 0. So we can multiply both sides of inequality by n, and get n 2 n. Case 3: n 1. Hence, n 2 0 > 1 n. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 48 / 66 Notion of Without Loss of Generality In some proof by cases, there are too many cases. Some of the cases are similar to each other. To shorten the proof, we only give detailed proofs of some cases, but omit the proof of other cases. When we do this, we say Without Loss of Generality (often abbreviated as WLOG). c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 49 / 66

24 Example of Without Loss of Generality Prove that if x and y are integers and both x + y and x y are even, then both x and y are even. Proof: We will use: proof by contraposition, the notion of WLOG, and proof by cases. First suppose that x and y are not both even. That is we assume either x is odd, or y is odd (or both). WLOG, we assume x is odd. Case 1: y is even. Then x + y = odd + even = odd. This contradicts the assumption that x + y is even. Case 2: y is odd. Then x y = odd odd = odd. This contradicts the assumption that x y is even. In both cases, we get a contradiction. Hence both x and y must be even. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 50 / 66 Example of Without Loss of Generality In this example, when we say WLOG, we are saying the other case (that y is odd) can be proved by using similar method. When using WLOG, you must make sure the omitted cases are really similar to the proved cases. Otherwise, your proof is incomplete and could be wrong. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 51 / 66

25 Constructive proof Note that x P(x) is equivalent to P(c) is true for some c. Definition A constructive proof for x P(x) finds c such that P(c) is true. Hence, we can conclude that x P(x) is also true. Prove that there is a positive integer that can be written as the sum of cubes of positive integers in two different ways. Proof: We construct an example for such a positive integer: 1729 = = c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 52 / 66 Non-constructive proof To prove x P(x), we can just provide a specific c such that P(c) is true. But sometimes we cannot do this. It is still possible to argue such element exists, even though we cannot pin point the specific c. This is called non-constructive proof. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 53 / 66

26 Non-Constructive proof example Prove that there exist irrational numbers a and b such that a b is rational. Proof: We already know 2 is irrational. Consider the number 2 2. Case 1: If 2 2 is rational. Then let a = 2 and b = 2. Then a b is rational. Case 2: If 2 2 is not rational. Then let a = 2 2 and b = 2. Then a b = ( 2 2) 2 = 2 2 = 2 is rational. Note that, in this proof, we do not claim/know if 2 2 is a rational number or not. But in either case, we prove the proposition. Actually, 2 2 is irrational. But the proof requires high powered mathematical theory, far beyond our reach. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 54 / 66 Uniqueness proof In mathematics we often need to prove there exists a unique x such that P(x) is true. We often prove the following two things (which, when combined together, are logically equivalent to the original statement): There exists x such that P(x) is true. (Namely x P(x)). If P(x) and P(y) are both true, then x = y. (Namely x y (P(x) P(y)) (x = y). In some books, we use the symbol! for there exists a unique.... c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 55 / 66

27 Example for uniqueness proof Prove that if a and b are real numbers and a is not 0, then there is a unique real number r such that ar + b = 0. (In other words: There is a unique solution for the equation ax + b = 0. Proof: First, we show that there exists such an r. Let r = b/a. Then: ar + b = a( b/a) + b = b + b = 0 So this r satisfies the condition. Second, suppose that r and r both satisfy the condition. Then, r r = ((ar + b) (ar + b))/a = (0 0)/a = 0, which implies that r = r. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 56 / 66 Logic Dilemmas Definition A statement p is a dilemma if we cannot prove p T nor p F. Barber s dilemma Premise: The barber gives haircut to a person if and only if that person doesn t give haircut to himself. Statement p: The barber gives haircut to himself. Question: Is p true or false? If p is true: Then the premises states that he does not give haircut to himself. This implies p is false. If p is false: Then the premises states that he does give haircut to himself. This implies p is true. So we cannot say if p is true or false. And the statement is a dilemma. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 57 / 66

28 Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem. Definition: A logic inference system consists of a collection of rules of inferences and a collection of axioms. Definition: A logic inference system is consistent if for any proposition p, we can prove either p T, or p F, (or neither), but not both. An inconsistent logic inference system is useless, because we can prove p T for any proposition p in such a system. Definition: A logic inference system is complete if for any proposition p, we can prove either p T or p F, (or both). The logic inference system we have studied is incomplete because there are propositions that we cannot prove to be T or F. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 58 / 66 Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem. Question: It is unsettling that our logic inference system (the foundation of all mathematics, computer science...) is INCOMPLETE. Can we make it stronger by adding a few new rules of inferences? If these new rules can be derived from existing rules, we don t gain anything. If the new rules are too strong, they will make our inference system inconsistent. It would be ideal if we have a logic inference system that is both consistent and complete. Can this be done? c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 59 / 66

29 Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem. Unfortunately: Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem (1931) Any consistent logic inference system MUST BE incomplete. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 60 / 66 Hilbert s Problems In 1900, David Hilbert (one of the greatest mathematician of his time) presented 23 unsolved problems to the mathematicians of the 20th century. All these problems are extremely hard. Some of Hilbert s problems have been solved (either positively or negatively). Some are not. Hilbert s Second Problem: Prove that The logic inference system for arithmetic is complete. Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem is the negative answer to Hilbert s Second problem. We will mention Hilbert s first problem later (which remains unsolved). c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 61 / 66

30 Hilbert s Second Problem What is Hilbert 2nd problem really asking? Axioms of Arithmetic Basic objects: The set of natural numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4... Operations: +,,, Axioms: if a = b then b = a. i.e a b(a = b) (b = a). if a = b and b = c then a = c i.e a b c(a = b) (b = c) (a = c). a + 0 = a i.e a(a + 0 = a). a + b = b + a i.e a b(a + b = b + a). (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) i.e a b c(a + b) + c = a + (b + c).. plus all basic arithmetic laws you learned before the third grade. These axioms plus our table of inference rules constitute the logic inference system for arithmetic. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 62 / 66 Logic Inference System for Arithmetic This inference system looks really elementary (after all, you learned everything in it before the 3rd grade!) There cannot be hard problems in this system, right? Completely wrong! c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 63 / 66

31 Some hard arithmetic problems There are many integer solutions for the equation: x 2 + y 2 = z 2. For examples: = 5 2, = Are there positive integer solutions for the equation: x 3 + y 3 = z 3? Fermat s Last Theorem: For any integer n 3, there is no positive integer solution x, y, z for the equation x n + y n = z n Equivalently, we want to show the following proposition is T (the domain for n, x, y, z is all positive integers.) (n 3) x y z (x n + y n = z n ) This problem had been open for more than 350 years. It was proved by Andrew Wildes (a Math professor at Princeton University) in c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 64 / 66 Some hard arithmetic problems Goldbach s Conjecture: Every even integer n 2 is the sum of two prime numbers. 4=2+2; 6=3+3; 8=3+5;..., 20=3+17; 22 = 3+19= 11+11;.... Let E(x) be the proposition x is even; P(y) be the proposition y is a prime number. Then Goldbach s Conjecture is to prove the following proposition is T: x(e(x) ( y z (P(y) P(z) (x = y + z))) It has been verified that this conjecture is true for n up to British publisher Tony Faber offered a \$1,000,000 prize if a proof was submitted before April The prize was not claimed. It remains unsolved today. c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 65 / 66

32 Hilbert s 2nd Problem Hilbert imagined that all propositions (involving only integers and arithmetic operations) can be proved either T or F. These propositions would include the propositions for Fermat s Last Theorem and Goldbach s Conjecture (and many other unsolved hard problems). Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem says: this is a mission impossible! c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 66 / 66

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