CS103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 2: Solutions

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1 CS103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 2: Solutions Due February 1, 2008 Exercise 1 (10 Points). Prove or give a counterexample for the following: Use the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic to prove that for n N, n is irrational unless n is a perfect square, that is, unless there exists a N for which n = a 2. Solution: We will prove the statement by contradiction. Assume n N is not a perfect square, yet its square root is a rational number p for coprime integers p, q, q where q 0. So n = p or n = ( p q q )2. Without loss of generality, we can assume both p and q are non-negative. If p = 0, then n = 0 which is a perfect square, contradicting our assumption. So we can assume both p and q are positive. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, we can uniquely write both p and q as products of primes, say p = p 1 p 2... p m and q = q 1 q 2... q n. Since p and q are coprime, they have no common factors, so p i q j for all 1 i m, 1 j n. We have: and p 2 = (p 1 p 2... p m ) 2 = p 2 1p p 2 m q 2 = (q 1 q 2... q n ) 2 = q 2 1q q 2 n Now p 2 andq 2 cannot have any common factors > 1 if they did have a common factor d > 1, any prime factor f of d (and there must be at least one such) must also be a common prime factor of p 2 and q 2 (transitivity of divisibility). By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, p 2 1p p 2 m is the unique prime factorization of p, so f must be one of the primes p 1, p 2,..., p m. Similarly, f must also be one of the primes q 1, q 2,..., q n. But this contradicts our statement that no p i = q j. So p 2 and q 2 are coprime. A ratio of natural numbers in lowest terms is itself a natural number if and only if its denominator is 1. Since n N, we must have q 2 = 1, which implies q = 1. But then n must be the perfect square p 2, which contradicts our assumption. The statement is thus proved by contradiction. Exercise 2 (20 Points). Prove or disprove, for integers a, b, c and d: (a) If a b and a c, then a (b + c). (b) If a bc and gcd(a, b) = 1, then a c. (c) If a and b are perfect squares and a b, then a b. 1

2 (d) If ab cd, then a c or a d. Solution: (a) If a b then b = ma for some integer m and if a c then c = na for some integer n. Thus, (b + c) = ma + na = (m + n)a. Since m + n is an integer, a (b + c) (b) The proof is essentially identical to that of Theorem a. Since gcd(a, b) = 1, there exist integers u, v with au + bv = 1. Multiply both sides by c to get c = auc + bcv (by the result of the first part of this exercise). We know that a bc so a bcv and of course a auc, so a (auc + bcv). Thus a c. (c) Proof by contradiction: Assume b is not divisible by a. Consider the prime factorizations of a and b - there must be some prime p that appears m times in the prime factorization of a and n times in the prime factorization of b with m > n. The prime factorizations of perfect squares include every element of their square roots factorization twice, so p must occur 2m times in the prime factorization of a and 2n times in the prime factorization of b. But 2m > 2n, which implies that b is not divisible by a, a contradiction. Therefore a b. (d) False. One possible counterexample is a = 10, b = 1, c = 4, d = 25. Exercise 3 (25 Points). On Euclids algorithm: (a) Write the algorithm in pseudo-code. (10 points) (b) Prove that Euclids Algorithm correctly finds the GCD of a and b in a finite number of steps. (10 points) (c) Use the algorithm to calculate gcd(1247, 899). Write out the complete sequence of derivations. (5 points) Solution: (a) Procedure GCD-Euclid Input: Integers a, b, not both 0. i. a = a, b = b ii. If b > a then swap a and b first iii. If b = 0, then return a iv. q = ba/bc (Quotient) v. r = a q b (Remainder) vi. If r = 0, then return b vii. Return GCD-Euclid(b, r) 2

3 The first three lines are needed only for the recursive call and can be factored out with a second procedure. The following nonrecursive version also works: Procedure GCD-Euclid-Nonrecursive Input: Integers a, b, not both 0. i. a = a, b = b ii. If b > a then swap a and b iii. If b = 0, then return a iv. Do v. q = ba/bc (Quotient) vi. r = a q b (Remainder) vii. If r = 0, then return b viii. a = b ix. b = r x. Loop (b) Theorem. Euclid s Algorithm correctly finds the GCD of a and b in a finite number of steps. Proof. We will prove the correctness of the algorithm in the context of the recursive listing above. The proof for the non-recursive version is identical except that it is slightly more difficult to phrase correctly. The first couple of lemmas help to justify the assumption a > b > 0 in the lecture notes. Lemma 1. d a if and only if d a. Proof. First we show that if d x, then d x. By the Division Algorithm, x = qd for some integer q, so x = qd = ( q)d. Since q is obviously integral since q is (and the Division Algorithm guarantees that this is an unique representation given x, d), d divides x. So if d a, then a is either a, which is trivially divisible by d, or a, which by the above reasoning is also divisible by d. Similarly, if d a, then a is either a or a, both of which are divisible by d as above. This proves the result. Lemma 2. gcd(a, b) = gcd( a, b ) = gcd( b, a ) Proof. Let d = gcd(a, b). Since d = gcd(a, b), d a and d b, so by Lemma 1, d a and d b, i.e. d is a common divisor of a and b. Now we prove by contradiction that d is the greatest such divisor. Assume there is some c > d such that c a and c b. Then by Lemma 1, c a and c b. So c is a common divisor of a and b strictly greater than the GCD of a and b, which contradicts the definition of the GCD. Therefore we must have gcd(a, b) = gcd( a, b ). Also, the definition of gcd(x, y) is clearly symmetric in x and y, so gcd( a, b ) = gcd( b, a ). Hence proved. 3

4 Back to the original problem. Let P (n) be the following statement: Euclids Algorithm finds the correct GCD of a and b in a finite number of steps, for all 0 a, b n (a and b not both 0). We will prove P (n) holds for all positive integers n by induction. We assume a b: if not, the first couple of steps of the algorithm will take their absolute values and swap them if necessary so the relation holds, and by Lemma 2 the GCD of these two new values is precisely the same as the GCD of the original values. The base case, n = 1, has two possibilities: a = 1, b = 0, or a = 1, b = 1. In the first case, the third line of the algorithm returns the correct GCD 1, and in the second case r evaluates to 0 before any recursive calls, so the correct GCD b = 1 is returned, in a finite number of steps (no recursive calls, so at most 6 lines of pseudocode). Now assume P (n) is true and consider P (n + 1), where we allow the values of a and b to be at most n + 1. If b = 0, the third line returns the correct GCD, a. If b a, gcd(a, b) = b, which is the value returned by the algorithm since r evaluates to 0. Otherwise, the algorithm recursively computes and returns gcd(b, r). Now by Lemma in the lecture notes, gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, r). Also, since 0 r < b n + 1, r and b are both at most n (if b was n + 1, a would also be n + 1, which implies b a, which is a case we have already handled) and not both zero. Hence by the inductive hypothesis, Euclids Algorithm correctly computes gcd(b, r) in a finite number of steps, which implies that it also correctly computes gcd(a, b) in a finite number of steps, since the sequence of steps before the recursive call adds only a finite overhead. Hence P (n + 1) is true. This proves the claim by induction. The truth of P (n) for all n N + obviously implies the theorem. (c) The first step of the algorithm swaps 1247 and 899 so a = 1247, b = 899. We tabulate the values of a, b and r in each successive iteration until r = 0: Iteration a b r The value of b when r is zero is 29, so this is the GCD. Exercise 4 (20 Points) Some prime facts: (a) Prove that for every positive integer n, there exist at least n consecutive composite numbers. (10 points) 4

5 (b) Prove that if an integer n 2 is such that there is no prime p n that divides n, then n is a prime. (10 points) Solution: (a) Recall the definition n! = n for any positive integer n. Consider the consecutive positive integers (n + 1)! + 2, (n + 1)! + 3,... (n + 1)! + (n + 1). By definition of factorial, all integers from 2 to (n+1) divide (n+1)!, so 2 ((n+1)!+2), 3 ((n + 1)! + 3), and so on up to (n + 1) ((n + 1)! + (n + 1)) (remember the property of divisibility proved in Exercise 3a.) Thus all members of this sequence are composite, making n consecutive composite numbers. This sequence can be generated for any n, so for all n there exists at least n consecutive composite numbers. (b) Proof by contradiction: Assume n is not prime. By Theorem 5.1.2, n = p 1 p 2... p k for primes p 1 p 2... p k, and since n is not prime k 2. Since no prime less than or equal to n divides n, n < p 1 p 2. Then p 1 p 2 > n, so n = p 1 p 2... p k > n, a contradiction. Thus our assumption was false and n must be prime. Exercise 5 (25 Points) A fun game: To start with, there is a chart with numbers 1211 and 1729 written on it. Now you and I take turns and you go first. On each players turn, he or she must write a new positive integer on the board that is the difference of two numbers that are already there. The first person who cannot create a new number loses the game. For example, your first move must be = 518. Then I could play either = 693 or = 1211, and so forth. (a) Prove every number written on the chart is a multiple of 7 less than or equal to (10 points) (b) Prove that every positive multiple of 7 less than or equal to 1729 is on the chart at the end of the game. (10 points) (c) Can you predict the winner? What if I go first? (5 points) Solution. (a) We use induction. Let P(n) be the proposition that after n moves, every number on the board is a positive linear combination of 1729 and Base case. P(0) is true because 1729 and 1211 are trivial linear combinations of 1729 and Inductive step. Assume that after n moves, every number on the board is a positive linear combination of 1729 and The next number written on the board is also a positive linear combination, because: 5

6 The rules require the number to be positive. The new number must be a difference of two numbers already on the board, which are themselves linear combinations of 1729 and 1211 by assumption. And a difference of linear combinations is another linear combination: difference of linear combinations of x and y can be expressed as a 1 x + b1y a 2 x + b 2 y = (a 1 a 2 )x + (b1 b 2 )y which is again, a linear combination. By induction, every number on the board is a positive linear combination of 1729 and And every positive linear combination of 1729 and 1211 is a multiple of gcd(1729,1211)=7. (b) Let x be the smallest number on the board at the end of the game. By the Division Algorithm, there exist integers q and r such that 1729 = q x + r where 0 r < x. When no more moves are possible, 1729 x must already be on the board, and thus so must x,..., 1729 (q 1)x. However, 1729 qx = r can not be on the board, since r < x and x is defined to be the smallest number there. The only explanation is that r = 0, which implies that x By a symmmetric argument, x Therefore, x is a common divisor of 1729 and The only common divisors of 1729 and 1211 are 1 and 7, and x can not be 1 by the preceding part (a). Therefore, 7 is on the board at the end of the game. Since no more moves are possible, , ,..., 7, 0 must all be on the board as well. So every positive multiple of of 7 less than or equal to 1729 is on the board at the end of the game. (c) There are 1729/7 = 247 numbers on the board at the end of the game. Thus, there were = 245 moves. First player gets the last move, so whoever goes first wins. 6

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