Brazil Energy efficiency report

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1 Brazil Energy efficiency report Objectives: 19 TWh of electricity savings by 23 Overview (% / year) Primary intensity (EU=) % -- CO 2 intensity (EU=) % - CO 2 emissions per capita (in tco 2 / cap) Power generation (% / year) Efficiency of thermal power plants (in %) % ++ Rate of electricity T&D losses (in %) % -- CO 2 emissions per kwh generated (in gco 2 / kwh) % ++ Industry 29* 2-29* (% / year) Energy intensity (EU=) % -- Unit consumption of steel (in toe / t) % - *28 and 2-28 for steel ++ Among best countries + Better than the EU average 1 - Below the EU average 1 -- Among countries with lowest performances Latest update: February The European Union, as the best-performing region, is used as the benchmark. 1 Brazil Country reports Trends in global energy efficiency 211

2 1. Overview 1.1. Policies: 19 TWh of electricity savings by 23 In December 28 Brazil s president signed the National Climate Change Plan (PNMC). The plan largely focuses on reducing deforestation. The Plan also contains provisions regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy. It seeks to increase energy efficiency across various sectors of the economy in line with best practices, and to maintain the high renewable energy mix in Brazil s transport and electricity sectors. A national energy efficiency action plan is foreseen to fall within the framework of the PNMC. It will involve a reduction in electricity consumption of around 1 percent by 23 compared with a reference scenario (equivalent to savings of 16 TWh), which would avoid 3 million tons of CO 2 emissions that same year. The plan also involves the replacement of one million old refrigerators per year for 1 years. Lastly, the plan aims to improve energy efficiency in industry, transport and buildings. In December 29, Brazil announced it would decrease its total greenhouse gas emissions by percent by 22 compared with a business as usual scenario; although the largest part would be achieved through a reduction in deforestation and land use changes, percent of the reduction would come from energy uses Energy consumption trends: rapid increase At 1.2 toe, Brazil s per capita consumption is 31 percent lower than the world average of 1.8 toe. Figure 1: Total and final energy consumption trends Mtoe Primary consumption Final consumption Industry plays an important role in final energy consumption (46 percent, including non-energy uses). The transport sector is also a large consumer: it absorbs one-third of final consumption and is a large consumer of biomass (alcohol consumption accounts for 2 percent of transport consumption). The households, services and agriculture sector accounts for just 22 percent of final energy consumption (29). The distribution of final energy consumption by sector is relatively stable. Figure 2: Distribution of final energy consumption by sector Total energy consumption increased at the rapid pace of 3 percent / year between 199 and 28. In 29 it decreased as a consequence of the global economic crisis. Final consumption followed the same trend as total energy consumption. Oil is the main source of energy, accounting for 4 percent of the country s overall consumption. Non-commercial energy sources (wood, bagasse) come second with 32 percent, followed by hydroelectricity (14 percent), gas (7 percent), coal (5 percent) and nuclear power (3 percent). % 8 % 4 2 Households - Services - Agriculture Transport Industry (including non energy uses) The country s electricity consumption per capita is 16 percent lower than the world average, but 45 percent higher than the average of non-oecd countries (2, kwh in 29, compared with 2, kwh world average). It is still more than three times lower than the average of OECD countries. Total electricity consumption increased at the steady pace of 3.5 percent / year between 199 and 29, except in 21 / 22 Trends in global energy efficiency 211 Country reports Brazil 2

3 Brazil Energy efficiency report when it decreased by 7 percent because of a low level of hydro production linked to a severe drought. Electricity represents 18 percent of final energy consumption, and its market share is increasing slightly (16 percent in 199). Sectoral shares have remained roughly stable over the last decade. Industry absorbs nearly half of the consumption (25 percent for services and 24 percent for the households sector). Figure 3: Electricity consumption trends by sector TWh Industry Others 1.3. Energy efficiency and CO 2 trends: overall energy efficiency improvements since 2 Total energy consumption per unit of GDP (primary energy intensity), measured at purchasing power parity, is about 31 percent lower than the world average Total energy intensity has been decreasing at a moderate pace since 2 (less than.5 percent per year between 2 and 29), and more slowly than the world average (1.3 percent / year). The reduction in final energy intensity (final energy consumption per unit of GDP) was slightly faster over the same period. Figure 4: Energy and CO 2 intensity trends %/year.5%. -.5% % % Primary energy intensity Final energy intensity CO 2 intensity 2. Power generation 2.1. Policies: promotion of power production from renewable energies In 22, a program was launched to encourage the development of renewable energies (PROINFA) and to raise the share of renewables in primary consumption to 1 percent by 22. The program contributed to Brazil becoming the largest wind producer in Latin America, with a capacity of 61 MW at the end of 29. In 28, the decision was made to award new contracts through competitive bidding. In 29, tax exemptions for the wind energy industry were extended until January 212. Brazil s wind capacity is expected to increase rapidly resulting from projects submitted to the first wind power auction in 29 totaling 13 GW followed in 21 by further tenders for 3 GW. Since 1998 the Brazilian energy regulator, ANEEL, has imposed obligations on electric power distribution companies to make investments that reduce electric waste, including the taking of energy efficiency measures. Since 2, CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP (CO 2 intensity) have decreased more rapidly than total energy intensity (almost 2 percent per year), thanks to fuel switches to CO 2 -free fuels and, in particular, to the declining market share of oil (47 percent in 2 compared with 4 percent in 29) Power generation trends by source: large share of hydroelectricity Brazil is the world s second-largest hydroelectricity producer after China, with a production of 39 TWh in 29, and the country has one of the world s largest shares of hydroelectricity production: 84 percent in 29, while 5 percent of electricity is generated from biomass. Over 13 percent of electricity production comes from thermal plants and 3 percent from nuclear power. CO 2 -free electricity generation represents almost 92 percent of total power generation; it has fallen slightly since 199 when it was around 94 percent (hydroelectricity accounted for about 93 percent of that amount). 3 Brazil Country reports Trends in global energy efficiency 211

4 Figure 5: Power generation by source Figure 7: Thermal electricity capacity, by technology 3 TWh Other* Wind Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil Coal-Lignite GW Steam Combined cycles *Including biomass, geothermal and solar 2.3. Efficiency of the power sector: high efficiency thanks to hydro Thanks to the large share of hydroelectricity, the efficiency of power generation is high compared with international standards. In 29 the average efficiency of thermal power generation was equal to 42 percent, which is 7 points higher than the world average, thanks to the deployment of new gas combined cycle power plants since 2. The rate of T&D losses in the Brazilian grid is above 16 percent of the distributed volumes, ie, higher than the world average (9 percent). Those losses have increased slightly over time (13 percent in 199). The PNMC aims to decrease non-technical losses in electricity distribution at a rate of 1, GWh per year for the next 1 years. Figure 8: Electric T&D losses Figure 6: Efficiency of power generation and thermal power plants % 14 % 7 Total power generation Thermal power plants Thanks to the large share of hydropower, the average CO 2 emission factor for power generation is almost 1 times lower than the world average at just 56 gco 2 / kwh in 29, and remains relatively stable. Trends in global energy efficiency 211 Country reports Brazil 4

5 Brazil Energy efficiency report Figure 9: CO 2 emission factor for power generation gco 2 / kwh The share of energy-intensive industries in industrial energy consumption has fallen slightly since 199, now accounting for about half of that consumption. The steel industry s share of energy consumption in particular has decreased steadily and is now just above 2 percent. The share of the chemical industry has also declined, while the non-metallic minerals (cement, ceramics, etc.) and paper industries have maintained their shares over the period. 2 1 Figure 11: Energy consumption of industry, by source % 9 3. Industry 3.1. Policies There is no specific policy for the industrial sector Energy consumption trends: decrease due to global crisis Industrial energy consumption increased at the steady pace of 3.5 percent / year between 199 and 28. The global crisis had a significant impact, since industrial energy consumption dropped by 6.3 percent in % % Figure 12: Energy consumption of industry, by branch % Biomass Electricity Gas Oil Coal/Lignite Figure 1: Industrial energy consumption % % 4 3 Other Paper Non metallic minerals Chemical Steel Mtoe Biomass represents a high share of industrial energy consumption, with more than 43 percent. It has increased slightly since 199 (4 percent). In 29 electricity accounted for 21 percent of that consumption, oil for 16 percent and coal for 1 percent. The use of natural gas has increased over time, but accounted for just 9 percent in Brazil Country reports Trends in global energy efficiency 211

6 3.3. Energy intensity trends: no reduction in intensity Over the period , consumption per unit of industrial value added (energy intensity) increased by.4 percent / year. However, in certain branches energy efficiency improvements gained momentum; in the cement and steel industries, for instance, energy consumption per ton produced decreased by 2 percent / year and.6 percent / year, respectively. Figure 13: Trends in the energy intensity of industrial branches 4% 3% 2% 1% %/year -1% -2% -3% -4% -5% *Including construction and mining **Non metallic minerals Total* Steel Chemical Cement** Paper Copyright notices Trends in global energy efficiency 211 is based on data and information provided by Enerdata and the Economist Intelligence Unit. The data and information is published with the consent of Enerdata and the Economist Intelligence Unit. All information or data provided by Enerdata, in any form, is the property of Enerdata and is protected in each country by national laws governing intellectual property. All information or data provided by Enerdata is copyright protected, inclusive of material appearing in a hard copy format or electronically. Data provided by Enerdata are based on compilation and analysis of the best sources in the industry. Enerdata has agreements with those providers to use and publish this data. All pictures Copyright ABB Trends in global energy efficiency 211 Country reports Brazil 6

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