Energy in Ireland. Key Statistics 2014

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1 Energy in Ireland Key Statistics 2014

2 Energy in Ireland Key Statistics 2014 Report prepared by Martin Howley, Mary Holland and Dr Denis Dineen December 2014 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Reproduction of the contents is permissible provided the source is acknowledged

3 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 1 Table of Contents Introduction...3 Ireland Key Facts...4 Energy Flow Overall Energy Flow Transport Energy Flow Thermal Uses Energy Flow Electricity Generation CO 2 Emissions by Mode...9 Primary Energy and CO 2 Emissions per Capita...9 Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector Total Primary Energy Requirement by Fuel Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector...11 Total Primary Energy Requirement by Fuel...11 Primary Energy Related CO 2 by Sector Non-Emissions Trading Energy Related CO Primary Energy Related CO 2 by Sector...13 Non-Emissions Trading Scheme Energy Related CO 2 ( excl. ETS Industry)...13 Energy Balance Total Final Consumption by Sector Total Final Consumption by Fuel Total Final Consumption by Sector...17 Total Final Consumption by Fuel...17 CO 2 Emissions per kwh and Efficiency of Electrical Supply Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation Electricity Supply Efficiency and CO 2 Intensity Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation Indigenous Energy Production Imported Energy by Fuel Indigenous Production and Import Dependency Imported Energy by Fuel Renewable Energy Contribution to GFC Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Energy Renewable Electricity Contribution to GEC Renewable Energy Contribution to Thermal Energy (RES-H) Renewable Energy as a proportion of (petrol & diesel) Transport (RES-T) Progress towards Renewable Energy Targets Energy Efficiency in Ireland Industry, Transport and Households Energy Efficiency Indices Private Cars per 1,000 of Population Specific CO 2 Emissions of New Cars (2014 est) Calorific Values Emission Factors... 29

4 2 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland has a mission to play a leading role in transforming Ireland into a society based on sustainable energy structures, technologies and practices. To fulfil this mission SEAI aims to provide well-timed and informed advice to Government, and deliver a range of programmes efficiently and effectively, while engaging and motivating a wide range of stakeholders and showing continuing flexibility and innovation in all activities. SEAI s actions will help advance Ireland to the vanguard of the global green technology movement, so that Ireland is recognised as a pioneer in the move to decarbonised energy systems. Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit SEAI has a lead role in developing and maintaining comprehensive national and sectoral statistics for energy production, transformation and end use. This data is a vital input in meeting international reporting obligations, for advising policy makers and informing investment decisions. Based in Cork, EPSSU is SEAI s specialist statistics team. Its core functions are to: Collect, process and publish energy statistics to support policy analysis and development in line with national needs and international obligations; Conduct statistical and economic analyses of energy services sectors and sustainable energy options; Contribute to the development and promulgation of appropriate sustainability indicators.

5 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 3 Introduction This booklet presents a summary of the key points from a number of Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland s Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit reports. It is intended to provide a snapshot of key energy and energy related facts and figures for the period 1990 to 2013 with a particular focus on The full list of SEAI/ EPSSU reports is available from This booklet also examines energy trends between 2005 and 2013, using 2005 as a reference year. This acknowledges the policy context, aligning with the timescales in the EU Effort Sharing Decision 406/2009/EC on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which requires Ireland to achieve a 20% reduction, relative to 2005 levels, by 2020 in GHG emissions for sectors of the economy not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Directive (i.e. non-ets GHG emissions). This booklet is based on data, compiled by SEAI s Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit, which is used to generate the annual energy balance and to fulfil Ireland s legal obligations under the EU Energy Statistics Regulation and reporting requirements to the International Energy Agency. The authors are grateful to the relevant Government Departments and Agencies, energy suppliers and distributors for the provision of this data. Energy balance data analysed in this report were frozen on 11 th November Balance data are updated whenever more accurate information is known. To obtain the most up-to-date balance figures, please visit the statistics publications section on the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland s website. To obtain the most up-to-date balance figures, visit the statistics publications section of the SEAI website (www.seai.ie/energy-data-portal/energy%20 Data%20Publications/). A new Data Portal on this website links to interactive energy statistics, forecasts and other data developed by SEAI. An energy data service is also available at follow the links for Energy Statistics Databank. This service is hosted by the Central Statistics Office with data provided by SEAI.

6 4 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Ireland Key Facts The estimated population of Ireland in 2011 was million persons (CSO). Gross domestic product in Ireland in 2013 was 174,791m in current prices (CSO). Ireland s economy grew by 0.2% in Primary energy demand fell by 1.2% to 13.3 Mtoe and energy-related CO 2 emissions decreased by 3.8% to 35 Mt. Energy-related CO 2 emissions in 2013 were 17% above 1990 levels. Since 2007, Ireland s economy has contracted by 6.7%, reaching 2005/2006 levels in Energy demand has fallen by 18% to 1999 levels and associated CO 2 emissions have fallen by 22% to 1997 levels. Ireland s import dependence in 2013 was 89%, down from a peak of 90% in 2006 but up from the 85% recorded in Electricity generated from renewable energy (normalised) reached 20.9% of gross electricity consumption (RES-E) in Ireland s target for 2020 is 40%. Renewable energy contribution to thermal energy (RES-H) was 5.7% in Ireland s RES-H target for 2020 is 12%. Renewable energy in transport (RES-T) reached 2.8% in 2012, or 4.9% when weightings are applied to biofuels from waste and second generation biofuels. Ireland s target for 2020 is 10%. In 2013, renewable energy grew by 6.9% to 911 ktoe, representing 7.8% of Ireland s gross final energy use. Ireland s target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive is to achieve a 16% renewable energy penetration by Energy-related CO 2 emissions in 2013 in sectors not included in EU emissions trading (non-ets) were 20% below 2005 levels. Ireland s target is to achieve a 20% reduction in total non-ets GHG emissions by The average specific emissions from new passenger cars purchased in Ireland in 2013 were g CO 2 /km, down from 164 g CO 2 /km in This has already met the target of 130 g CO 2 /km set by the EU Directive (443/2009) for 2015.

7 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 5 Energy Flow Overall 2013 Wind 391 ktoe Oil 6,262 ktoe Natural Gas 3,865 ktoe Hydro 50 ktoe Biomass, Other Renewables Natural Gas & Wastes 528 ktoe own use /loss 65 ktoe Electricity Imports (net) 182 ktoe Briquetting 16 ktoe Total Primary Energy Requirement 13,332 ktoe Coal 1,324 ktoe Peat 723 ktoe Agriculture & Fisheries 249 ktoe Note: Some statistical differences exist between inputs and outputs Total Final Consumption 10,825 ktoe Oil Refining 64 ktoe Electricity Transformation & Transmission Losses 2,266 ktoe Transport 4,279 ktoe Residential 2,763 ktoe Industry 2,235 ktoe Services 1,300 ktoe The above sankey diagram shows the energy balance for Ireland in 2013 as a flow diagram. This illustrates clearly the significance of each of the fuel inputs as well as showing how much energy is lost in transformation. The main points are as follows: Overall primary energy use fell by 1.2% in The only energy sources that showed growth in 2013 were oil, renewables, wastes and electricity imports. Oil continues to be the dominant energy source, increasing from a share of 47% in 1990 to a peak of 60% in 1999, but falling to 47% in Consumption of oil, in absolute terms, increased by 0.3% in 2013 to 6,262 ktoe. Natural gas use fell in 2013 by 3.7% to 3,872 ktoe and its share of TPER was 29%. Over the period , natural gas use has increased by 11% (1.4% per annum). Coal use fell by 11.3% and its share fell back to 9.9% in 2013 from 11.3% in Over the eight years , coal demand fell by 30% (4.3% per annum). Peat use fell by 9.8% and its share of overall energy use was 5.4% in Total renewable energy increased by 6.9% during 2012 to 911 ktoe. Hydro production fell by 28% in 2013 compared with Wind energy increased by 13.2%, biomass by 8.3% and other renewables by 5.9%. The overall share of renewables in primary energy stood at 6.8% in Electricity imports (net) increased by 413% to 182 ktoe in 2013 as a result of the interconnector to the UK coming on stream.

8 6 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Energy Flow Transport 2013 Kerosene 610 ktoe Diesel 2,385 ktoe Biofuels 102 ktoe Electricity Generation & Refining Losses 48 ktoe Fuel Tourism 250 ktoe Unspecified 430 ktoe Transport Final Consumption 4,279 ktoe Petrol 1,207 ktoe Electricity Fuel Inputs 9 ktoe LPG 1 ktoe Rail 42 ktoe Navigation 57 ktoe Note: Some statistical differences exist between inputs and outputs Public Passenger 151 ktoe Road Freight 581 ktoe Light Goods Vehicle 319 ktoe Aviation 607 ktoe Road (Private Car) 1,842 ktoe Ireland s transport sector energy balance for 2013 is presented above as an energy flow diagram. The main points are as follows: Transport energy demand, which was responsible for a third of total energy use in Ireland, grew by 2.9% in Over half of all transport energy consists of diesel (55%). Biofuels in use transport in 2013 amounted to 102 ktoe. Renewable energy in transport (RES-T) reached 2.8% in 2013, or 4.9% when weightings are applied to biofuels from waste and second generation biofuels. Ireland s target was 3% by 2010 and is 10% by Petrol consumption in transport was at 1.2 Mtoe in 2013, a fall of 5.8% on the previous year. Diesel consumption in transport was 2.4 Mtoe in 2013, an increase of 6.4% on the previous year. Diesel consumption grew by 251% between 1990 and Road transport accounted for 68% of transport final energy consumption in 2013 (84%) if unspecified and fuel tourism is included).

9 Total Primary Energy 4,533 ktoe Total Final Energy 4,469 ktoe Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 7 Energy Flow Thermal Uses 2013 Renewables 256 ktoe Wastes 35 ktoe Oil 1,993 ktoe Own Use/Refining loss 64 ktoe Residential 2,079 ktoe Natural Gas 1,660 ktoe Coal 355 ktoe Peat 234 ktoe Agriculture 201 ktoe Note: Some statistical differences and rounding errors exist between inputs and outputs. Services 753 ktoe Industry 1,436 ktoe The above presents Ireland s thermal energy balance for 2013 as an energy flow diagram. Thermal energy here is defined as energy used for space, process and water heating and also for cooking etc. It is calculated as the residual energy requirement when energy use from transport and electricity generation are subtracted from the total. The main points are as follows: Energy use for thermal purposes accounted for 34% of total primary energy supply in 2013 and 41% of final energy demand. Oil is the dominant fuel accounting for 44% of fuel inputs in Renewable energy contribution to thermal energy (RES-H) was 5.7% in Ireland s target for 2010 was 5%. On the right of it can be seen that the residential sector accounts for the largest share of final thermal energy usage (47%) in 2013, followed by industry (32%), services (17%) and agriculture (4%). Final energy use in buildings, the bulk of which is thermal energy, increased by 0.1% in 2013 and accounted for 38% of final demand. When corrected for weather, there was a 1.2% increase in 2013.

10 8 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Energy Flow Electricity Generation 2013 Electricity Imports 182 ktoe Natural Gas 2,098 ktoe Wind 391 ktoe Hydro 50 ktoe Landfill Gas, Biomass, Biogas & Wastes 141 ktoe Primary Energy Input 4,382 ktoe Transformation, Own Use and Transmission Losses 2,266 ktoe Final Consumption 2,081 ktoe Coal 970 ktoe Fuel Oil Peat Gasoil & 33 ktoe 507 ktoe Refinery Gas Transport 10 ktoe 4 ktoe Agriculture 48 ktoe Note: Some statistical differences and rounding errors exist between inputs and outputs Own Use / Transmission Loss 262 ktoe Electricity Transformation Loss 2,004 ktoe Industry 799 ktoe Residential 684 ktoe Services 547 ktoe The above shows graphically the flow of energy in electricity generation for Primary fuel inputs on the left totalled 4,382 ktoe, 33% of total primary energy supply in Consumption of electricity by final consumers accounted for less than one fifth (19%) of total final energy demand. The relative size of the useful final electricity consumption to the energy lost in transformation and transmission is striking. These losses represent 52% of the energy inputs. Natural gas was the dominant fuel in 2013 responsible for 48% of total primary input to electricity generation, followed by coal, accounting for 22% of the fuel mix. In 2013, renewables accounted for 12.7% of the energy inputs to generate electricity with wind contributing 8.9% of total inputs. Wind generation grew by 13.2% in The industry sector accounts for the largest share of electricity usage (38%) in 2013, followed by residential (33%) and services (26%), and agriculture (2.3%). Energy inputs to electricity generation fell by 5.2% in 2013 while at the same time final consumption of electricity increased by 0.2%. Electricity imports grew by 413% in 2013 to 182 ktoe. This was as a direct result of the East West Interconnector being operational for the full year.

11 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 9 CO 2 Emissions by Mode Mt CO Transport Electricity Thermal From 1990 to 2013, total energy-related CO 2 emissions increased by 16% (0.7% per annum on average). Transport recorded the largest increase at 109% (3.2% per annum) over the period. Transport share of energy-related CO 2 emissions was 35% in Primary Energy and CO 2 Emissions per Capita MWh/capita Primary Energy per Capita 45 (MWh/capita) tonnes CO₂/capita Over the period 1990 to 2013 primary energy per capita increased by 7.3% to 34 MWh while energy-related CO 2 emissions per capita fell by 9.4% to 7.9 tonnes. This reflects the switch from the use of solid fuels to oil, gas and renewable energy. tonnes CO 2 /capita

12 10 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector Agriculture Commercial/Public Services Residential Transport Industry Mtoe Over the period primary energy increased by 40% while the economy grew by 159%. Since 2005, primary energy decreased by 16% to 1999 levels while the economy returned to 2006 levels. In 2013 Ireland s primary energy requirement fell by 1.2% to 13.3 Mtoe. Total Primary Energy Requirement by Fuel Net Electricity Import/Export Renewables Natural Gas Oil Peat Coal Mtoe Coal peat and gas use fell by 11.3%, 9.8% and 3.9% respectively while renewables grew by 6.9%. Electricity imports grew by 413%, from a small base, to 182 ktoe

13 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 11 Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector Total Primary Energy Requirement (ktoe) Shares % Industry 2,524 3,768 3,608 3,264 3,157 3,196 3, Transport 2,054 4,161 5,179 4,660 4,457 4,204 4, Residential 2,995 3,522 3,920 4,239 3,660 3,610 3, Services 1,504 2,228 2,641 2,268 1,974 2,009 1, Agri/Fishery Total 9,497 13,780 15,828 14,755 13,814 13,496 13,332 Transport primary energy use fell for the first time during 2008, by 4.6%, as a result of the economic downturn. Transport energy use continued to fall until 2012 by 27% cumulatively since the start of the recession in Transport primary energy grew by 2.9% in 2013 compared with Industry primary energy use fell by 1.7% in Industry s share of primary energy was 24% in Overall, primary energy use in buildings increased by 22% since 1990 and in 2013 it fell by 2.6%. Total Primary Energy Requirement by Fuel Total Primary Energy Requirement (ktoe) Shares % Coal 2,085 1,815 1,886 1,241 1,238 1,493 1, Peat 1, Oil 4,422 7,859 9,130 7,294 6,789 6,246 6, Natural Gas 1,446 3,059 3,477 4,692 4,125 4,023 3, Renewables Wastes Elect. Imp Total 9,497 13,780 15,828 14,755 13,814 13,496 13,332 Oil continues to be the dominant energy source. The share of oil in primary energy in 2013 was 47%. Consumption of oil, in absolute terms, increased by 0.3% in 2013 following reduced use in the previous five years.

14 12 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Primary Energy Related CO 2 by Sector Mt CO Agriculture Services Residential Transport Industry Energy-related CO 2 emissions in 2013 were 17% higher than 1990 levels. Energy-related CO 2 emissions (excluding aviation) fell by 3.8% in 2013 compared with Non-Emissions Trading Energy Related CO Target: 20% below 2005 level Mt CO Industry non-ets (2005 on) Agriculture Services Residential Transport Target Non-Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) sectors (including non-ets industry) energy-related CO 2 emissions fell by 1.4% per annum between 2005 and 2010, fell by 4.7% per annum between 2010 and 2013 and fell by 0.2% in 2013.

15 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 13 Primary Energy Related CO 2 by Sector Energy-related CO 2 Emissions (ktco 2 ) Shares % Industry 7,899 11,378 10,519 8,730 8,236 8,401 7, Transport 6,043 12,335 15,293 13,567 13,030 12,331 12, Residential 10,764 11,156 11,843 12,125 10,476 10,355 9, Services 4,817 6,748 7,764 6,058 5,242 5,386 4, Agriculture 1,046 1,261 1, The most significant area of growth overall since 1990 was in the transport sector, where CO 2 emissions in 2013 were 109% higher than those in 1990 (3.2% average annual growth rate). Transport emissions in 2013 grew by 2.3%. Non-Emissions Trading Scheme Energy Related CO 2 ( excl. ETS Industry) Energy-related CO 2 Emissions (ktco 2 ) Transport 6,029 12,315 15,256 13,542 13,008 12,307 12,589 Residential 7,052 6,243 7,070 7,594 6,422 6,055 6,229 Services 2,311 2,440 2,385 2,259 2,060 2,062 1,912 Industry (excl ETS industry) : : 1,602 1, Agriculture Total 16,053 21,820 27,318 25,285 23,069 21,839 21,789 Non-ETS emissions are now 20% below 2005 levels. Under EU Decision 406/2009/EC there is a requirement on Ireland to achieve a 20% reduction in total non-ets emissions on 2005 levels by 2020.

16 14 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Energy Balance Units = ktoe COAL PEAT OIL Kerosene Fueloil Gasoline Indigenous Production 0 1, Imports 1,496-7,973 1, Exports , Marine Bunkers Stock Change Primary Energy Req ment 1, ,262 1, Transformation Input , Transformation Output , Exchanges & Transfers Own use & losses Total Final Consumption ,145 1, ,198 Industry Non-Energy Mining Food and beverages Textiles and textile products Wood and wood products Pulp, paper, etc Chemicals Rubber and plastic products Other non-metallic minerals Basic metals & fabr. metals Machinery and equip. n.e.c Electrical & optical equip Transport equipment Other manufacturing Transport - - 4, ,198 Road Freight Light Goods Vehicle (LGV) Road Private Car - - 1, Public Passenger Services Rail Domestic Aviation International Aviation Fuel Tourism Navigation Unspecified Residential Services Agricultural Fisheries Statistical Difference

17 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 15 Gasoil/ Other RENE- GAS Diesel Oil WABLES ELEC TOTAL Units = ktoe ,299 Indigenous Production 2,077 2,879 3, ,516 Imports ,264 Exports Marine Bunkers Stock Change 1,948 2,837 3, ,332 Primary Energy Req ment 4 2,650 2, ,918 Transformation Input 1, ,806 4,891 Transformation Output Exchanges & Transfers Own use & losses 3, , ,081 10,825 Total Final Consumption ,235 Industry Non-Energy Mining Food and beverages Textiles and textile products Wood and wood products Pulp, paper, etc Chemicals Rubber and plastic products Other non-metallic mineral Basic metals and fabricated Machinery & equip. n.e.c Electrical & optical equip Transport equipment Other manufacturing 2, ,279 Transport Road Freight Light Goods Vehicle (LGV) ,842 Road Private Car Public Passenger Services Rail Domestic Aviation International Aviation Fuel Tourism Navigation Unspecified ,763 Residential ,300 Services Agricultural Fisheries Statistical Difference

18 16 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Total Final Consumption by Sector Agriculture Commercial/Public Services Residential Transport Industry Mtoe Ireland s TFC in 2013 was 10.8 Mtoe, 1.1% higher than in 2012 and 49% above 1990 levels. Final energy use in transport grew in 2013 by 2.5% and industry final energy grew by 1.2%. These sectors energy use is closely coupled with economic growth. Residential final energy use grew by 1.3% in 2013 and services final energy fell by 2.4%. Total Final Consumption by Fuel Mtoe Wastes Renewables Electricity Natural Gas Oil Peat Coal

19 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 17 Total Final Consumption by Sector Total Final Consumption (ktoe) Shares % Industry 1,720 2,503 2,198 2,261 2,230 2,208 2, Transport 2,019 5,444 4,863 4,597 4,422 4,172 4, Residential 2,258 3,149 3,086 3,270 2,841 2,726 2, Services 1,001 1,751 1,530 1,472 1,339 1,332 1, Agri./Fish Total 7,249 13,207 11,991 11,894 11,113 10,712 10,825 Energy use in transport grew in 2013 by 2.5% to 4.3 Mtoe. Final energy use in the residential sector grew by 1.3% in 2013 to 2.8 Mtoe. Total Final Consumption by Fuel Total Final Consumption (ktoe) Shares % Coal Peat Oil 3,952 8,389 7,393 7,162 6,554 6,094 6, Natural Gas 570 1,567 1,468 1,596 1,509 1,641 1, Renewables Wastes Electricity 1,021 2,294 2,173 2,186 2,139 2,078 2, Total 7,249 13,207 11,991 11,894 11,113 10,712 10,825 Final consumption of oil grew by 0.8% in 2013 to 6.1 Mtoe and its share of final energy consumption was 57%, down from 60% in Final consumption of coal increased by 8.2% in 2013 to 355 ktoe. Final consumption of renewables grew by 8.6% in 2013 to 357 ktoe. Energy from non-renewable waste increased by 37% from a low base to 35 ktoe.

20 18 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS CO 2 Emissions per kwh and Efficiency of Electrical Supply % kg CO 2 /kwh Electricity CO₂ per kwh 0.5 Efficiency of Electricity Supply (%) % 40% 35% 30% 25% The efficiency of electricity supply increased to 48.3% in 2013 from 46% in 2013 while emissions from electricity generation fell to 469 g CO 2 /kwh. Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation Mtoe Electricity (net imports) Renewables Natural Gas Gasoil Fuel Oil Peat Coal Natural gas remains the dominant fuel in electricity generation with its share at 48% in 2013, down from 55% in In 2013 there was a fall in all fossil fuel used for electricity generation falling by 10.5% in total. Electricity generated from wind increased by 13.2% in 2013.

21 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 19 Electricity Supply Efficiency and CO 2 Intensity Electricity Supply Increase % Per annum Efficiency 33.2% 44.8% 45.5% 44.5% 47.3% 45.6% 48.3% Intensity (g CO 2 /kwh) During 2013 the efficiency increased to 48.3% due increased wind (+13.2%, or 46 ktoe) and electricity imports (+413%, or 147 ktoe) on the system. Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation Fuels used in electricity generation (ktoe) Shares % Coal 1, , Peat Oil Natural Gas 843 2,811 2,759 3,025 2,498 2,269 2, Renewables Wastes Electricity Imports Total 3,094 5,115 4,774 4,929 4,505 4,623 4,382 Coal and peat both reduced their share in the electricity fuel mix from a combined 37% of fuel inputs in 2012 to 34% in Wind contribution to electricity generation grew by 13.2% in The contribution from hydro fell by 28% as a result of there being less rainfall in 2013 compared with Other renewables in the form of landfill gas, biogas and biomass made up the remainder of the contribution at 2.7% of fuel inputs. In 2013 there was a 6% increase in overall renewables contribution to the electricity fuel mix.

22 20 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Indigenous Energy Production Mtoe Renewables 3.5 Coal Peat 3.0 Gas Production of indigenous gas decreased by 92% over the period since Indigenous production of energy peaked in 1995 at 4.1 Mtoe and there was a 44% reduction since. Imported Energy by Fuel Electricity Gas Oil Coal Import Dependency 100% 80% Mtoe % 40% 20% 0% The decrease in indigenous production has coincided with the increase in imported energy. Over the period 1990 to 2013 there was an 73% increase of total net imports with a 31% increase in net imports of oil and as a result Ireland s overall import dependency was 89% in 2013.

23 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 21 Indigenous Production and Import Dependency Indigenous Production (ktoe) Shares % Coal Peat 1, , Natural Gas 1, Renewables Wastes Total 3,471 1,557 1,456 1,832 1,701 1,317 2,299 Import Dependency % Import Dependency Increase % Per annum In 2013, overall indigenous energy production increased by 74% primarily due to the bumper harvest of peat. Peat production was up by 310% compared with Gas production fell by 17.6% while renewable energy production increased by 3% Imported Energy by Fuel Net Imported Energy (ktoe) Shares % Coal 1,992 1,608 1, ,415 1,338 1, Peat Briq Oil 4,912 9,221 7,947 7,712 7,209 6,494 6, Natural Gas - 4,174 4,037 4,487 3,963 3,846 3, Electricity Renewables Total 6,899 15,074 13,406 13,276 12,703 11,784 12,252 Net imported energy increased by 4.0% in 2013.

24 22 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Renewable Energy Contribution to GFC % 7.0% 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% Solar Geothermal Liquid Biofuels Biomass Biogas Landfill Gas Wind (normalised) Hydro (normalised) 0.0% The target for Ireland in the European Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) is 16% share of renewable energy in the final consumption by The share in 2013 was 7.8%, up from 7.3% in Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption 20% 15% Biomass Biogas Landfill Gas Wind (normalised) Hydro (normalised) 10% 5% 0% The contribution from renewable energy to gross electrical consumption (normalised) in 2013 was 20.9% (19.5% in 2012). The White Paper target for 2010 was 15%. Installed capacity of wind generation was 1,941 MW as of the end of 2013.

25 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 23 Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Energy Renewable Contribution to Gross Energy (ktoe) Shares % Hydro Wind Solid Biomass Landfill Gas Biogas Biofuels Solar Geothermal Total Share of GFC 2.3% 4.1% 5.1% 5.7% 6.6% 7.3% 7.8% Note that solid biomass refers to wood, wood wastes and other wastes (such as tallow). Solid biomass accounted for the largest share of renewable energy until 2008 when wind energy exceeded it becoming the dominant renewable energy source. Renewable Electricity Contribution to GEC Renewables electricity generated (GWh) Shares % Hydro* Wind* - 2,410 2,955 2,815 4,380 4,010 4, Solid Biomass Landfill Gas Biogas Total 753 3,587 4,108 3,731 5,425 5,256 5,601 Share of GEC 5.3% 11.1% 13.7% 14.9% 17.6% 19.6% 20.9% *Hydro and wind normalised for climatic variations The total renewable contribution to Ireland s gross electricity consumption increased by 831% over the period 1990 to 2013.

26 24 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Renewable Energy Contribution to Thermal Energy (RES-H) 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% Biomass Biogas Solar Geothermal Between 2000 and 2013 RES-H grew from 2.4 % to 5.7%. Renewable Energy as a proportion of (petrol & diesel) Transport (RES-T) 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% Biofuels Share (%) Weighted Biofuels Share (%) In absolute terms, biofuels in transport increased from 1 ktoe in 2005 (0.03%) to 102 ktoe in 2013 (2.8%). When double certification is taken into account the share of biofuels in transport was 4.9% in 2013.

27 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 25 Progress towards Renewable Energy Targets 2013 Biomass, Other Renewables & Wastes Wind 391 ktoe Hydro 528 ktoe Electricity Imports (net) 50 ktoe 182 ktoe Oil 6,262ktoe RE = 6.8% of TPER Total Primary Energy Requirement 13,332 ktoe Natural Gas 3,865 ktoe Coal 1,324 ktoe Peat 723 ktoe Note: Some statistical differences exist between inputs and outputs. RES-E Normalised wind and hydro. RES-T adjusted to account for double certificates Briquetting 16 ktoe Total Final Consumption 10,825 ktoe Natural Gas own use / loss 65 ktoe Oil Refining 64 ktoe Electricity Transformation 2,004 ktoe Aviation 603 ktoe RE Directive = 7.8% of GFC RES-E 20.9% Gross Electricity 2,399 ktoe RES-H 5.7% RES-T 4.9% Thermal 4,465 ktoe Transport (excl. Aviation) 3,675 ktoe Renewable energy accounted for 6.8% of total primary energy requirement in Total renewable energy amounted to 911 ktoe in Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) represented 20.9% (normalised) of gross electricity consumption in 2013 or 482 ktoe (5,601 GWh) in absolute terms. 5.7% of energy used for thermal purposes came from renewable energy in This was 255 ktoe in absolute terms. 2.8% of petrol and diesel use in transport came from renewable energy sources or 102 ktoe in absolute terms in When weightings are applied to biofuels from waste and second generation biofuels the renewable transport is 4.9%. Gross final consumption (Directive 2009/28/EC) of renewables in 2013 amounted to 858 ktoe (wind and hydro normalised) and represented 7.8% of gross final consumption.

28 26 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Energy Efficiency in Ireland Index 1995 = Overall Energy Efficiency Index (Observed) Overall Energy Efficiency Index (Technical) Energy efficiency is defined as a ratio between an output of performance, service, goods or energy and an input of energy. Essentially improvements in energy efficiency enable achievement of the same result with less energy or achieving an improved performance with the same energy. For a more detailed discussion on energy efficiency in Ireland see the SEAI s Energy Efficiency in Ireland 2009 Report 1. The energy-efficiency indicators presented in this report are updated to 2011 figures. Two efficiency indicators for Ireland are presented for the period 1995 to The observed index shows that between 1995 and 2013 there was an 9% decrease, which indicates a 9% improvement in energy efficiency. To separate out the influence of behavioural factors, a technical index is calculated and used to better assess the technical energy-efficiency progress. Technical efficiency improved by 12% from 1995 to Technical efficiency gains arise from the use of more energy-efficient technologies whereas behavioural gains are the result of how technologies are used. The difference between the observed and technical indicators is the influence of behavioural effects, i.e. Ireland would have achieved the greater improvement in energy efficiency but for the increases in energy usage due to behaviour. It is important to note that behavioural effects can also be beneficial for example, the purchase of more efficient technologies or improvements in insulation Available from

29 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 27 Industry, Transport and Households Energy Efficiency Indices Index 1995 = Industry Transport Households The industry intensity at constant structure deteriorated by 30% between 1995 and The transport observed ODEX fell by 24% over the period The residential observed ODEX decreased by 40% over the period, indicating an improvement in energy efficiency. As the ODEX is a top-down energy efficiency indicator it provides a measurement for gross energy efficiency savings but cannot be linked directly to specific energy efficiency measures or programmes. In industry an index of intensity at constant structure is the preferred measure of energy efficiency in Ireland.

30 28 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS Private Cars per 1,000 of Population Cars Per 1, Private Cars Per 1,000 Population: EU 27 Average (2010) = 477 UK (2010) = 458 Source: Eurostat & DG TREN Ireland cars per 1,000 Population Ireland cars per 1,000 Adults Private car numbers grew by 1.5% in 2013 following a cumulative 1% between 2009 and This resulted in an increase in car density to 533 cars per 1000 adults, compared to an EU-27 average of 551 and a UK average of 578 (both in 2007). Specific CO 2 Emissions of New Cars (2014 est) 180 CO 2 g/km The average specific emissions from new passenger cars purchased in Ireland in 2013 were 121 g CO 2 /km, down from 164 g CO 2 /km in This has already met the target of 130 g CO 2 /km set by the EU Decision (443/2009) for 2015.

31 Energy in Ireland KEY STATISTICS 29 Calorific Values Fuel Net Calorific Value toe/t Net Calorific Value MJ/t Crude Oil ,814 Gasoline (petrol) ,589 Kerosene ,196 Jet Kerosene ,100 Gasoil / Diesel ,308 Residual Fuel Oil (heavy oil) ,236 Milled Peat ,787 Sod Peat ,105 Peat Briquettes ,548 Coal ,842 Liquefied Petroleum Gas ,156 Petroleum Coke ,084 Conversion Factor Conversion Factor Electricity 86 toe/gwh 3.6 TJ/GWh Emission Factors t CO 2 /TJ (NCV) g CO 2 /kwh (NCV) Motor Spirit (Gasoline) Jet Kerosene Other Kerosene Gas/Diesel Oil Residual Oil LPG Naphta Petroleum Coke Coal Milled Peat Sod Peat Peat Briquettes Natural Gas Electricity (2013)

32 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit Building 2100 Cork Airport Business Park Co. Cork Ireland t f e w Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Wilton Park House Wilton Place Dublin 2 Ireland t f e w The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland is partly financed by Ireland s EU Structural Funds Programme co-funded by the Irish Government and the European Union

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