Ancient Rome 509 BC 476 AD. Chapter 6 Western Civilizations I - G

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1 Ancient Rome 509 BC 476 AD Chapter 6 Western Civilizations I - G

2 The Roman World Takes Shape Chapter 6, Section 1

3 Geography of Italy Boot-shaped peninsula in the central Mediterranean Rome is located in the center of Italy, which helped with trade and expansion Few barriers made unification easier Good farmland

4 Early People of Italy Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans all settled in Italy and eventually the Latins took control Early Romans adapted the Latin language from the Etruscan and Greek language The Romans borrowed many new building techniques and religious ideas

5 The Roman Republic Republic a government where officials are chosen by the people Two types of citizens: Patricians wealthy, landholding upper class, very involved in the government Plebeians poor/middle class, small landholders, majority of the population but less of a government role

6 Parts of the Government The Senate 300 patricians who made the laws Consuls 2 elected leaders who ran the government and led the military Dictator led Rome only during times of crisis for a 6 month term Tribunes officials who worked to protect rights of plebeians Over time, plebeians gained a larger role in the government Twelve Tables laws of Rome that applied to all

7 Roman Society The head male had absolute power over his family Women played more of a role in society than in Greece Most women ran the home, though some ran businesses Overtime, women gained more rights

8 Education & Religion All boys and girls learned to read and write Tutors were hired to teach upper class children Roman gods were based on the Greeks Many feast days and celebrations honored the gods and brought people together Temples were built to honor the gods

9 Expansion in Italy Romans controlled all of Italy by 270 BC Military was divided into 5000 man units called Legions very well trained, unpaid soldiers Conquered people were usually well treated if they paid taxes and provided soldiers

10 From Republic to Empire Chapter 6, Section 2

11 The Punic Wars Rome and Carthage went to war to see who would control trade in the Mediterranean Three wars fought between BC Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy and caused much destruction before being defeated Rome won all three wars and gained land throughout the region The city of Carthage was completely destroyed by the Romans to prevent more wars

12 The Punic Wars

13 Roman Expansion Lands gained from the Punic Wars: Islands: Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia Spain Northern Africa Other lands conquered by the Romans: Macedonia Greece Asia Minor Egypt

14 Social & Economic Effects Rome become very rich with new trade routes The wealthy built large estates (farms) called Latifundia, where slaves did the work Overuse of slaves made it hard for lower class people to find work The cities become overcrowded with poor, homeless, unemployed people who began to riot The wealthy people became corrupt and greedy

15 Gracchus Brothers Patricians who tried to help the lower classes Wanted to give land and grain to the poor Their changes upset the Senate and they were killed

16 Decline of the Republic Differences between the rich and poor led to civil wars The government argued over who should be in charge the Senate or individual leaders Slave revolts and uprisings became common Soldiers were loyal to their commanders instead of to Rome and armies fought one another

17 Julius Caesar Military leader who conquered Gaul (France) Became popular among the plebeians the Senate was fearful of his power and ordered him to disband his army he refused After civil war, he won and became Dictator of Rome in 49 BC

18 Caesar s reforms Made many changes to Rome: Public works/building projects to give work to the unemployed Gave public land to the poor Reorganized the government Gave citizenship to more people Created a new calendar added the month of July, basis for our calendar today

19 Caesar s assassination Senators were scared of his power and killed him on March 15, 44 BC Rome fell into Civil War again Assassins were killed Caesar s friend Mark Antony and nephew Octavian fought for control of Rome

20 Beginning of the Empire Octavian defeated Mark Antony and was named Augustus (meaning Exalted One ) He had absolute power and got to choose his heir The Roman Republic was over and leaders would no longer be elected

21 Reign of Augustus Gave government jobs to qualified people of all social classes Gave provinces some self-government Ordered a census to fix the tax system Made a postal system, new money, and had new roads and temples built

22 Later Emperors Emperors after Augustus were both good and bad Bad Emperors: Caligula made his horse a consul Nero blamed Christians for destroying Rome in a fire Good Emperors: Hadrian fixed Roman law and built a defensive wall in Britain Marcus Aurelius philosopher-king who was very committed to duty

23 Pax Romana The 200 year period between 27 BC 180 AD (Augustus to Marcus Aurelius) Generally a peaceful, prosperous time for Rome Extended territory from Spain to Iraq Trade flourished with Africa and Asia People spread many new ideas around the empire

24 Roman Growth

25 Entertainment Chariot Racing at the Circus Maximus Gladiator contests Emperors and politicians provided the entertainment for free to keep the people happy

26 The Roman Achievement Chapter 6, Section 3

27 Greco-Roman Civilization Romans borrowed many ideas from the Greeks Art Literature Philosophy Science Greco-Roman = the blending together of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions Trade, travel, and war helped spread these ideas

28 Writings Poetry epic poems explained the origins of the Romans, other poems made fun of Roman society History they honored Roman successes and described cultures the Romans were in contact with Philosophy stressed the importance of duty and accepting your fate, concerned with the well-being of all people

29 Art Based on Greek and Etruscan designs Realistic looking sculptures that showed emotions Nice homes were decorated with fresco paintings and mosaic floors

30 Architecture Buildings were meant to be large and imposing to symbolize the power of Rome Used the arch to make buildings taller Concrete was cheaper and stronger

31 Technology Engineers designed roads, walls, bridges, and aqueducts that lasted for centuries ROAD VIDEO - uk/learningzone/cli ps/map-of-romanroads/3682.html

32 Science Most advances were made by Greek scientists in Alexandria, Egypt Ptolemy taught the Earth was the center of the universe (believed until the 1500s) Galen studied medicine using experimentation Pliny the Elder wrote a scientific encyclopedia on a wide range of topics

33 Roman Law Rule of Law allowed for Rome to stay united and stable Civil Law laws that applied to citizens Law of Nations laws that applied to all people living under Roman rule Basic Ideas: Innocent until proven guilty Accused can face accuser and offer a defense Guilt had to be proven using evidence Judges could expand and interpret laws

34 The Rise of Christianity Chapter 6, Section 4

35 Religious Differences In the early part of the Roman Empire, some people: Believed in the Roman gods Were involved in secret cults and mystery religions The Roman government allowed people to practice whatever religion they wanted as long as they also honored the Roman gods and emperor.

36 Problems in Judea Judea = modern-day Israel Where most of the Jews lived Romans didn t force Jews to worship Roman gods and emperor since they believed in only one god Some Jews believed the Messiah was about to return to lead Jews to freedom After a Jewish revolt in 66 AD, the Temple was destroyed and many Jews left Judea

37 Life of Jesus Jesus was a Jew in Palestine born in 4 BC Began to preach to followers at age 30, many wanted to hear his messages and witness apparent miracles

38 Teachings of Jesus Based on Jewish teachings: Believe in one god Follow the Ten Commandments Some New Ideas: Jesus was the Son of God and the Messiah who was going to bring salvation and eternal life in heaven to any who believed in him

39 Death of Jesus Some people viewed him as dangerous because he caused people to challenge leadership and question their beliefs He was arrested by the Romans and sentenced to death by crucifixion After his death, some believed they saw him rise from the dead From there, Christianity began to spread

40 Spread of Christianity Followers began to teach Jesus message to other Jews Paul began to teach Christian ideas to non-jews This gave him a much bigger group of people to convert He traveled all over the Roman world and converted many people

41

42 Persecution The Roman government was not tolerant of early Christians and were suspicious of their secret gatherings When bad things happened in Rome, the Christians were often blamed and killed Many Christians were willing to die for their beliefs (martyrs)

43 Reasons Christianity Spread Both rich and poor liked the teachings that stressed equality and love for all The idea of Heaven was comforting Combined ideas of Greek philosophy Missionaries were good at converting people Some people respected martyrs

44 End of Persecution In 313 AD, Emperor Constantine ended Christian persecution with the Edict of Milan It gave Romans the right to legally practice any religion they wanted Christianity soon became the official religion of Rome

45 Early church Structure Only men had a role in the early Church Each community had a church with a priest Bishops oversaw several communities Certain bishops gained more power the most powerful was the bishop of Rome, eventually he became the Pope (head of the Church)

46 The Long Decline Chapter 6, Section 5

47 The End of Pax Romana Struggles for Power Leaders fought with each other for power Assassinations of emperors was common Economic and Social Problems Very high taxes to run the government and military Farmland had been overused and now wasn t very productive Poor farmers left their land and began to work for rich landowners in return for protection

48 Emperor Diocletian Divided empire in half to make it easier to rule He led the Eastern half wealthier, more resources, better trade A co-emperor ruled the Western half but had to report to Diocletian He set prices for goods to keep them from rising too high He required sons to do the same job as their fathers

49 Emperor Constantine Continued Diocletian s reforms Granted religious freedom to Christians, which allowed for it to spread quickly Built new capital city Constantinople Put Rome s power in the eastern half Diocletian and Constantine s reforms had mixed results they slowed down the decline of Rome but did not stop it

50

51 Foreign Invasions Many barbarian groups lived near the Roman borders They lived peacefully together for a long time until the Huns - a nomadic, warlike group from Asia - moved into Europe The barbarian groups fled into Rome to escape the Huns Rome was unable to stop the invasions

52

53 Rome Defeated Constant pressure from different barbarian groups was too much for the Romans to handle Different groups spread all around the empire In 476 AD, the city of Rome was sacked and the Roman Empire was over

54 Causes for the Fall of Military Reasons Rome Army wasn t well trained or disciplined Government hired foreign soldiers (mercenaries) to fight they weren t loyal Political Reasons Government was very controlling and corrupt Frequent civil wars and leadership changes Eastern half didn t help the West

55 Causes for the Fall of Rome Economic Reasons Very high taxes Relied too much on slave labor Lower class grew and became more poor Social Reasons Less focus on duty and loyalty to Rome Lack of patriotic feelings Upper class more focused on wasting money

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