Q1. A student investigated the rate of reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid. (aq) + H 2

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1 Q. A student investigated the rate of reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid. The student used an excess of marble. The reaction can be represented by this equation: CaCO 3 (s) + HCl(aq) CaCl (aq) + H O(l) + CO (g) The student used the apparatus shown in the diagram. The student measured the mass of the flask and contents for ten minutes. The results are shown on the graph. Use the graph to answer the questions. (a) (i) Complete the graph by drawing a line of best fit. () Use the graph to find the mass of the flask and contents after.8 minutes.... grams () Page of 54

2 (iii) The rate of reaction can be measured by the steepness of the graph line. Describe, as fully as you can, how the rate of reaction changes with time in this experiment () (b) The mass of the flask and contents decreased during the experiment. Use the equation for this reaction to help you explain why () (c) A balance is used to measure the mass of the apparatus. (i) Which balance, A, B, or C, has the highest resolution? Balance A Balance B Balance C The balance with the highest resolution is balance () The balance used for this experiment should have a high resolution. Explain why () Page of 54

3 (d) The student repeated the experiment using powdered marble instead of marble chips. The rate of reaction between the marble and hydrochloric acid particles was much faster with the powder. Explain why () (Total marks) Q. Many indigestion tablets contain calcium carbonate as their only active ingredient. Calcium carbonate neutralises some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Two different indigestion tablets, X and Y, were separately reacted with excess hydrochloric acid. The volume of gas given off in each reaction was measured every minute. The results are shown in the graph. Page 3 of 54

4 Zn + HCl ZnC + H () (i) Which tablet, X or Y, contained most calcium carbonate?... Explain the reason for your answer () Which tablet, X or Y, reacted faster with hydrochloric acid?... Explain the reason for your answer () (iii) Explain the shape of the graph for tablet X between 3 and 5 minutes () (Total 3 marks) Q3. Zinc powder normally reacts slowly with hydrochloric acid. (a) Balance the symbol equation for the reaction. Page 4 of 54

5 The graph shows the results from a reaction of.0 g of zinc powder with 0 cm 3 of dilute hydrochloric acid. It gives off a gas and forms zinc chloride, ZnCl. Some unreacted zinc is left at the end. (b) Copper powder is a good catalyst for the reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid. (i) A mixture of 0 cm 3 of the same dilute hydrochloric acid and.0 g of copper powder was added to.0 g of zinc powder. What is the maximum volume of gas which could be given off?... cm 3 () (iii) Draw a graph, on the axes above, for an experiment where 0 cm 3 of the same dilute hydrochloric acid was added to.0 g of copper powder mixed with.0 g of zinc powder. Give two other ways the reaction described in part (i) could be made to go faster () () (c) Copper powder can be formed by adding copper sulphate solution to the mixture of zinc powder and acid. (i) Why does zinc react with copper sulphate solution to produce copper? () Page 5 of 54

6 Write the word equation for the reaction. () (Total 8 marks) Q4. The graph shows the volume of gas given off during an experiment using hydrogen peroxide solution and manganese oxide. Draw, on the axes above, a graph to show the result you would expect if the volume of hydrogen peroxide solution had been the same, but it was twice as concentrated. (Total 3 marks) Page 6 of 54

7 Q5. The diagram represents the particles in a piece of reactive metal. The piece of reactive metal is added to dilute hydrochloric acid. (a) (i) Which particle will probably react first? Choose from: a particle inside the piece; a particle at the centre of a face; a particle on one of the corners. () Explain the reason for your choice. () (b) The reaction can be speeded up by making changes to the hydrochloric acid or the solid. (i) State two ways to speed up the reaction by changing the hydrochloric acid. In each case explain in terms of particles why the reaction is faster..... ().... () Page 7 of 54

8 What change can you make to the piece of solid to speed up the reaction? Explain in terms of the particles why the reaction is able to speed up. () (Total 8 marks) Q6. Some students were investigating how fast hydrogen gas is released in the reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid. To begin with they used 0. g of magnesium ribbon. Next, they repeated the experiment using 0. g of magnesium powder. In each case, they used enough acid to react with all the metal. (a) Their results are shown on the graph below. Hydrogen is produced in both the reactions. Use the information on the graph to describe two other ways in which the two reactions are similar () Page 8 of 54

9 (b) Describe one way in which the reactions are different () (Total 3 marks) Q7. Marble chips (calcium carbonate) react with dilute hydrochloric acid. calcium + hydrochloric calcium + carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide A student wanted to find out if the size of the marble chips made a difference to how fast the reaction took place. (a) What readings should she take? () (b) She repeated the experiment but this time used the same mass (0g) of large marble chips. In both experiments there was some marble left in the flask when the reaction stopped. These are the results of the two experiments. TIME (minutes) Loss in mass (g), using small chips Loss in mass (g), using large chips Page 9 of 54

10 (i) Explain the loss in mass in the two experiments. () What difference does the size of the chips make? () (c) A chemical reaction occurs when reacting particles collide with sufficient energy. The reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid is faster if the acid is at a higher temperature. Explain why (3) (Total 7 marks) Page 0 of 54

11 Q8. A student does an experiment to examine the rate of reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid. She adds 5 cm³ of the acid to a weighed amount of the metal. The reaction produces hydrogen gas. Magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium + hydrogen chloride She collects the gas and measures the volume collected at one minute intervals. All the metal reacted but there was some acid left unreacted. Her results are shown on the graph. (a) The diagram shows part of the apparatus she used for the experiment. Complete the diagram to show how the student could collect the hydrogen produced and measure the volume after each minute. () Page of 54

12 (b) (i) When is the rate of reaction at its fastest? () State one way in which she could increase the rate of reaction. () (c) (i) What is the total volume of hydrogen collected in the experiment?... cm³ () State one way in which she could increase the final volume of hydrogen collected. () (Total 6 marks) Q9. The following steps show how to use a type of glue. Step Measure out equal amounts of the liquids from tubes A and B. Step Mix the liquids to make the glue. Put a thin layer of the glue onto each of the surfaces to be joined. Step 3 Assemble the pieces to be joined and then hold them together with tape. Step 4 Leave the glue to set. Page of 54

13 (a) When liquids A and B are mixed a chemical reaction takes place. (i) This reaction is exothermic. State how the temperature of the mixture will change as the glue is mixed. () When the glue sets it forms a giant covalent structure. Explain why substances with giant covalent structures have high melting points. () (b) The time taken for the glue to set at different temperatures is given in the table below. Temperature in C Time taken for the glue to set 0 3 days 60 6 hours 90 hour Explain, in terms of particles, why increasing the temperature changes the rate of the reaction which causes the glue to set () (Total 5 marks) Page 3 of 54

14 Q0. Sodium thiosulfate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid. As the reaction takes place the solution slowly turns cloudy. The diagram shows a method of measuring the rate of this reaction. A student used this method to investigate how changing the concentration of the sodium thiosulfate solution affects the rate of this reaction. The student used different concentrations of sodium thiosulfate solution. All the other variables were kept the same. The results are shown on the graph below. (a) (i) Draw a line of best fit on the graph. () Page 4 of 54

15 Suggest two reasons why all of the points do not lie on the line of best fit () (b) (i) In a conclusion to the investigation the student stated that: The rate of this reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the sodium thiosulfate solution. How does the graph support this conclusion? () Explain, in terms of particles, why the rate of reaction increases when the concentration of sodium thiosulfate is increased. () (Total 6 marks) Q. The flow diagram shows some stages in the manufacture of the fertiliser ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ). Page 5 of 54

16 (a) The elements needed to make ammonia (NH 3 ) are obtained from natural gas and air. Which element is obtained from the air?... () (b) The word equation for the formation of nitrogen monoxide is: ammonia + oxygen nitrogen monoxide + water The platinum catalyst needs to be heated only at the start of the reaction. Suggest why () (c) Name the liquid A that reacts with nitrogen dioxide (NO ) to produce nitric acid (HNO 3 ).... () (d) Describe how ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) can be made from two of the products shown in the flow diagram () (Total 5 marks) Q. Hydrogen peroxide slowly decomposes into water and oxygen. hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen The reaction can be speeded up by adding manganese dioxide. (a) (i) What do we call a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed itself? () Give two other ways of increasing the rate of this reaction () Page 6 of 54

17 (b) The diagram shows how the rate of this reaction can be measured. As the hydrogen peroxide decomposes, the mass of the flask and its contents decreases. Why does this decrease in mass take place? () (Total 4 marks) Page 7 of 54

18 Q3. A student investigated the rate of reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid. The student used an excess of marble. The reaction can be represented by this equation. CaCO 3 (s) + HC (aq) CaC (aq) + H O (l) + CO (g) The student used the apparatus shown in the diagram. The student measured the mass of the flask and contents every half minute for ten minutes. The results are shown on the graph. Use the graph to answer the questions. (a) (b) Complete the graph opposite by drawing a line of best fit. Why did the mass of the flask and contents decrease with time? () () Page 8 of 54

19 (c) After how many minutes had all the acid been used up?... minutes () (d) The student repeated the experiment at a higher temperature. All other variables were kept the same as in the first experiment. The rate of reaction was much faster. (i) Draw a line on the graph to show what the results for this second experiment might look like. Why does an increase in temperature increase the rate of reaction? () (3) (Total 8 marks) Q4. Solutions A and B are colourless. When they are mixed, they react and turn blue after a period of time. A student investigated how temperature affected the rate of reaction between solutions A and B. The rate was measured by timing how long the mixture took to turn blue. The results are shown in the table. Temperature in C Time taken to turn blue, in seconds Page 9 of 54

20 (a) (i) Draw a graph for these results. (3) Use your graph to find how long it takes the solution to turn blue at 40 C. Time =... s () (b) (i) How does the rate of reaction change as the temperature is increased? () Page 0 of 54

21 Explain, in terms of particles, why temperature has this effect on the rate of reaction. To gain full marks in this question you should write your ideas in good English. Put them into a sensible order and use the correct scientific words. (3) (c) State one variable that must be kept constant to make this experiment a fair test.... () (Total 9 marks) Q5. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured the volume of carbon dioxide produced in the experiment. The results are shown on the graph. Page of 54

22 (a) After how many minutes had all the acid been used up?... minutes () (b) The student wrote this conclusion for the experiment: The reaction gets slower and slower as the time increases. Explain why the reaction gets slower. Your answer should be in terms of particles () (c) A second experiment was carried out at a higher temperature. All other factors were the same. Draw a line on the graph above to show the results that you would expect. () (Total 5 marks) Q6. (a) Indigestion tablets called antacids can be taken to react with excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. A student investigated two different antacid tablets labelled X and Y. (i) Both tablets, X and Y, contained calcium carbonate. Give the chemical symbol for each of the three elements in calcium carbonate. (3) Name the gas formed when calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid. () (b) The student first reacted tablet X and then tablet Y, with 00 cm 3 of a hydrochloric acid solution. The student measured the volume of gas produced during the first five minutes. The results are shown in the table. Time in minutes Volume of gas in cm 3 Tablet X Volume of gas in cm 3 Tablet Y Page of 54

23 (i) Draw a graph of the results for tablet Y. (A graph of the results for tablet X has been drawn for you.) (3) Tablet X contains less calcium carbonate than tablet Y. How do the results show this? () (iii) Explain why the rate of reaction slows down for both tablets. () (Total 0 marks) Q7. Hydrogen peroxide, H O, is often used as a bleach. It decomposes forming water and oxygen. (a) (i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. (3) Page 3 of 54

24 Give a test for oxygen. Test... Result of test... () (b) The rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at room temperature is very slow. Manganese oxide is a catalyst which can be used to speed up the decomposition. Complete the sentence. A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst is... () (c) Two experiments were carried out to test if the amount of manganese oxide, MnO affected the rate at which the hydrogen peroxide decomposed. (i) Complete the diagram to show how you could measure the volume of oxygen formed during the decomposition. () Page 4 of 54

25 The results are shown in the table. Time in minutes Volume of gas in cm 3 using 0.5 g MnO Volume of gas in cm 3 using.5 g MnO Draw a graph of these results. The graph for 0.5 g MnO has been drawn for you. (3) (iii) Explain why the slopes of the graphs become less steep during the reaction () Page 5 of 54

26 (iv) The same volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution was used for both experiments. What two other factors must be kept the same to make it a fair test? () (Total 5 marks) Q8. A student studied the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The student mixed 50 cm 3 of a sodium thiosulphate solution and 5 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid in a flask. The flask was placed over a cross. The student timed how long after mixing the cross could no longer be seen. (a) (i) Balance the chemical equation for this reaction. Na S O 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H O(l) + SO (g) + S(s) () What causes the cross to be seen no longer? () Page 6 of 54

27 (b) A graph of the results is shown. (i) What effect does temperature have on the rate of this reaction? () Explain why temperature has this effect on the rate of reaction. () (Total 5 marks) Q9. Mountaineers can warm their food in self-heating, sealed containers. Page 7 of 54

28 (a) The water is allowed to react with the lime. The heat from the reaction warms the food. What type of reaction causes a rise in temperature?... () (b) Some students investigated the effect of adding different sized lumps of lime to water. The results of their investigation are shown. Temperature in C Time in minutes Large lumps of lime Small lumps of lime Powdered lime What do these results show? Give an explanation for your answer () (c) Suggest and explain one disadvantage of using powdered lime to heat food () (Total 5 marks) Page 8 of 54

29 H O... + O () Q0. This question is about rates of reaction. (a) Hydrogen peroxide (H O ) decomposes very slowly at room temperature. (i) Complete the balanced chemical equation for this reaction by writing in the formula of the missing product. The decomposition is much faster if manganese oxide is mixed with the hydrogen peroxide. Complete the sentence. Manganese oxide acts as a... for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. () (b) In an experiment g of manganese oxide was mixed with 50 cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide solution. The results show the volume of oxygen collected during six minutes. Time in minutes Volume of oxygen in cm Page 9 of 54

30 (i) Draw a graph of these results. (3) How long did it take for the decomposition to stop? () (iii) Why did the decomposition stop? () (c) In a second experiment water had been added to the hydrogen peroxide solution. Again 50 cm 3 of this hydrogen peroxide solution was mixed with g of manganese oxide. (i) For this second experiment, sketch, on the same grid, a graph line you would expect to get. In this second experiment, why would the rate of reaction be different to the first experiment? () () (Total 0 marks) Page 30 of 54

31 Q. Calcium tablets are taken to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. (a) These tablets react with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. CaCO 3 ( ) + HCl(aq) CaCl ( ) + H O( ) + CO ( ) (i) Add all these missing state symbols to the balanced chemical equation. () The calcium salt that is formed is absorbed during digestion. What is the name of the calcium salt? () (b) The volume of carbon dioxide produced by one calcium tablet in the stomach can be found as shown. The volume of carbon dioxide was recorded every 30 seconds until the reaction stopped. Time in seconds Volume of gas in cm Page 3 of 54

32 (i) Complete the graph of these results. (3) Describe one way in which this reaction can be made to go faster. () (iii) A calculation, using the mass of this tablet, showed that 80 cm 3 of carbon dioxide would be produced if the tablet was pure calcium carbonate. What do the results show about the purity of the tablet? Explain your answer by calculating the purity of this tablet. (3) (Total 0 marks) Page 3 of 54

33 Q. Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid as shown in the equation below. CaCO 3 (s) + HCl(aq) CaCl (aq) + H O(l) + CO (g) The rate at which this reaction takes place can be studied by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced. The graph below shows the results of four experiments, to 4. In each experiment the amount of calcium carbonate, the volume of acid and the concentration of the acid were kept the same but the temperature of the acid was changed each time. The calcium carbonate was in the form of small lumps of marble. (a) Apart from altering the temperature, suggest two ways in which the reaction of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid could be speeded up () (b) Which graph, to 4, shows the results of the experiment in which the acid had the highest temperature? Experiment... Explain fully how you know () Page 33 of 54

34 (c) (i) In experiment, how does the rate of reaction after one minute compare with the rate of reaction after two minutes? () Explain, as fully as you can, why the reaction rate changes during experiment. () (Total 7 marks) Q3. Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. The word equation for this reaction is: sodium carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide (a) The diagram shows apparatus used by student X to investigate this reaction. (i) Name the piece of apparatus labelled A.. () NaCO 3 NaCl Na CO 3 Na Cl Use the Data Sheet to help you choose the correct formula from the list for: sodium carbonate,... sodium chloride.... () Page 34 of 54

35 (b) The diagram below shows a different apparatus used by student Y to investigate the same reaction. (i) Name the pieces of apparatus labelled B and C. B... C... () Both students X and Y used the same volume of acid concentration of acid temperature mass of sodium carbonate Use information from the diagrams to explain why the reaction that student Y carried out was faster.... () Page 35 of 54

36 (c) The results obtained by student Y were plotted as shown below. (i) Student Y repeated the experiment exactly as before but used warmer acid. This made the reaction faster. On the graph draw a line for this faster reaction. Explain, in terms of particles, why the rate of the reaction is faster when warmer acid is used... (). (3) (Total marks) Page 36 of 54

37 M. (a) (i) curve missing anomalous point answer in the range of to 00.5 (iii) reaction goes quickly at first accept reaction slows down reaction stops (b) because carbon dioxide is produced accept gas is produced carbon dioxide / gas escapes, therefore the mass of the flask and contents decreases (c) (i) balance B because during the experiment a gas / carbon dioxide escapes from the flask therefore the balance needs a high resolution to measure the small changes in the mass (d) the (marble) powder has a larger surface area than the (marble) chips therefore there would be more collisions with the acid particles (within the same amount of time) [] M. (i) (Y) more gas / carbon dioxide given off (X) curve / slope steeper accept rises more rapidly / only took 30 seconds Page 37 of 54

38 M3. (a) Zn + HC ZnC + H (iii) (flat) since calcium carbonate / substrate all used up accept the reaction has stopped / no more gas is being produced [3] (b) (i).5 (iii) steeper curve same volume of gas evolved do not credit two intersects of straight lines accept a sharp bend any two from: stir it accept mix it better heat it accept warm it use a more finely divided catalyst accept use a better catalyst or more finely divided zinc do not credit use acid of a higher (c) (i) any one from zinc is more reactive than copper accept zinc is above copper in the reactivity series zinc displaces copper accept it is higher than copper in the reactivity series zinc + copper sulphate copper + zinc sulphate ignore the presence of acid or water accept a balanced equation [8] Page 38 of 54

39 M4. graph steeper becomes horizontal reaches twice the height_, 40 cm 3 cm 3 [3] M5. (a) (i) corners accept an arrow to any corner more (surface) exposed accept can be attacked from more directions or more space around it (b) (i) any two pairs from more concentrated answers may be in either order do not accept more acid do not accept more powerful or stronger (but stronger is neutral) a reference to sulphuric acid is neutral more particles to hit the solid accept more collisions per second do not accept more collisions hotter solution or increasing temperature (faster) particles hit more often or harder accept particles have more energy or are more powerful or more successful collisions Page 39 of 54

40 3 stirring more surface area exposed or particles available accept more collisions per second do not accept more collisions cut it up or increase the surface area accept grind it up or powder it or flatten it do not accept make it smaller or use a smaller piece more particles are exposed or available or can react accept heat it and there are more successful collisions for both marks [8] ## (a) both reactions slow down with time; both reactions produce same volume of hydrogen each for mark (b) idea rate is faster with powder or idea rate is slower with ribbon (allow powder completed before ribbon) for mark [3] - M7. (a) ideas that ref to read the balance / read the mass / weight ref to read the stop clock / read the time readings taken at the beginning and end / at regular intervals for mark each (b) (i) loss of carbon dioxide (from the flask) } smaller chips give faster reaction / reaction } mark as a whole finishes quicker /dissolved faster [or reverse] } smaller chips have a larger surface area } any for mark each [Allow converse answers] Page 40 of 54

41 (c) ideas that heating increases the speed / energy / vibration of the (acid) particles / marble particles (acid) particles collide (with marble chips / (particles)) more frequently / more likely to collide reacting particles collide with greater energy / collide faster so particles more likely to react [do not accept react faster ] [Accept atoms, molecules or ions instead of particles in this question] any three for mark each 3 [7] M8. (a) (must be possible for the gas to enter and displace the water) or other suitable apparatus apparatus to collect the gas correctly assembled for mark calibrated collection vessel (award even if diagram is wrong) for mark (b) (i) at the start / in the first / minutes (or any time within this range) for mark increase the temperature / use smaller pieces of metal / use more metal / increase the surface area of the metal / add a catalyst / shake the flask / increase the concentration / strength of the acid for mark (c) (i) 48 for mark increase the amount of magnesium used for mark (do not allow increase the amount of acid used) [6] M9. (a) (i) increase (owtte) or gets hotter ignore gives out heat / takes in heat Page 4 of 54

42 any two from: bonds are strong accept hard to break a lot of energy needed to break bonds allow heat for energy all atoms are joined by (covalent bonds accept forms lattice a large number of bonds would need to be broken reference to ionic / metallic = mark intermolecular forces /forces between molecules = max mark ignore electrostatic many strong bonds need to be broken = marks accept double bonds as equivalent to bonds (b) any two from: particles have more energy ignore more vibrations particles move faster ignore move more particles collide more often or more collisions accept answers such as hit / bump more particles / particle collisions have the activation energy or more of the particles / particle collisions have enough energy to react or collisions are more energetic / harder (owtte) or more of the collisions are successful if electrons rather than particles stated then max mark there are more collisions and more of the collisions are successful = marks accept more collisions per second / unit of time for marks accept more successful collisions for mark [5] M0. (a) (i) a continuous straight line missing anomalous point allow a line which does not start at zero / origin Page 4 of 54

43 any two sensible errors eg timing errors and / or example(*) measurement errors and / or example(*) apparatus errors and / or example(*) human / experimental / random error and / or example or did not do it right (*) (*)could be two from same category eg two timing errors watch not started at the same time plus difficulty in deciding when the cross has disappeared. temperature fluctuation anomalous point accept outlier / wrong result results not recorded correctly plotting error rate calculated incorrectly ignore not repeated ignore systematic / zero error / weighing error or error unqualified (b) (i) straight line or as concentration increases the rate goes up or converse accept numerical example accept positive correlation accept same gradient ignore most points near / on line of best fit more collisions accept greater chance of collisions accept collide more successfully accept alternative versions of collide eg bump / hit ignore references to energy / speed of particles / surface area more particles (in each volume of solution)(i.e. an attempt at defining concentration) accept particles are closer together allow ions / atoms / molecules for particles ignore reactants accept greater frequency of collisions or greater number of collisions per second for marks [6] Page 43 of 54

44 M. (a) nitrogen accept N or N (b) the reaction is exothermic accept the reaction releases heat energy (c) water accept H O or hydrogen oxide (d) with ammonia and nitric acid neutralisation accept a correct description of reacting (ammonia and nitric acid) [5] M. (a) (i) catalyst / enzyme any two from do not accept increase volume of peroxide heat stir / shake increase concentration of peroxide / catalyst (b) oxygen lost do not allow incorrect gas [4] M3. (a) sensible line of best fit which goes through or close to all the points except the anomalous point allow wobbly / short double lines ± ½ square (b) loss of gas / loss of CO idea of gas produced / formed (c) 7 Page 44 of 54

45 (d) (i) steeper line from around the same starting point and left of the points allow crosses if they are fully correct for mark levelling off at 99 accept short level line at 99 ± ½ square any three from: particles / molecules / atoms/ ions have more energy allow given / gain / get energy move faster ignore move about more ignore vibrate more / faster collide more often or more chance of collisions or bump into each other more ignore collide quicker / faster collide with more force / energy or more particles have the activation energy or more collisions result in reaction or more collisions are successful 3 [8] M4. (a) (i) accurate plotting of points ( square) marks for all points mark for 3 or 4 points sensible smooth curve reasonable attempt do not accept double lines or dot to dot accurately read from their graph to square Page 45 of 54

46 (b) (i) (as temperature increases) rate increases accept speeds up, gets faster, gets quicker accept higher speed do not accept gets bigger / higher unqualified do not accept answers about time on its own Quality of Written Communication The answer to this question requires ideas in good English in a sensible order with correct use of scientific terms. Quality of written communication should be considered in crediting points in the mark scheme. maximum marks if ideas not expressed well any three from: for converse maximum marks particles have more energy higher kinetic energy particles move faster do not accept move more or vibrate more 3 more collisions accept greater rate of collisions more energetic / successful / harder collisions more particles have activation energy (c) concentration (of solutions) or volume (of solutions) accept how much of accept references to intensity of colour accept same endpoint accept rate of stirring / shaking do not accept reference to solids or catalysts etc ignore containers do not accept ph [9] M5. (a) 6 accept Page 46 of 54

47 (b) hydrochloric acid used up / reacted / combined / or fewer particles (of hydrochloric acid) or fewer hydrogen ions owtte accept reactants used up accept less calcium carbonate or smaller surface area of calcium carbonate accept lower concentration / less crowded do not accept atoms / molecules ignore references to energy do not accept references to atoms or molecules fewer collisions owtte independent mark (c) steeper curve initially independent marks levels out at same volume must indicate levelling out if line goes higher than 66 do not award this mark diagonal line only = 0 marks if steeper initially and then crosses the line and finishes correctly, then loses one [5] M6. (a) (i) must be chemical symbol Ca C CaCO 3 = marks O not O carbon dioxide must be name Page 47 of 54

48 (b) (i) points all correct marks one point incorrect mark two points incorrect 0 marks suitable line -narrow neat single curve (iii) not dot to dot reaction with X forms less gas must include X or Y do not penalise for H /O if (a) already penalised do not accept is finished in less time or slower/faster reaction or lower on graph any two from: concentration (of acid) decreases/less reacting particles/molecules not acid/caco 3 runs out/is used up surface area of calcium carbonate decreases not strength of acid decreases less collisions between reacting particles not smaller (amount of) CaCO 3 [0] M7. (a) (i) H O reactant correct ignore any state symbols H O + O products correct H O H O + O balanced accept correct multiple glowing splint relights accept bursts into flame do not accept a lighted splint burns brighter or faster (b) unchanged accept not used up or left (behind) Page 48 of 54

49 (c) (i) gas syringe or measuring cylinder either with scale drawn or labelled the apparatus as drawn would work correct plotting of points one mark to be deducted for each error best fit graph line drawn (single line drawn) (iii) concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases accept less particles of hydrogen peroxide to collide do not accept hydrogen peroxide gets used up rate of reaction decreases accept reaction gets slower (iv) any two from: temperature pressure division of catalyst or manganese oxide do not accept any other factors [5] M8. (a) (i) Na S O 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H O(l) + S(s) + SO (g) (formation of) sulphur accept precipitate or solid produced do not accept goes cloudy or milky (b) (i) heat temperature increased temperature increases (the rate of reaction) or decreased temperature decreases rate of reaction may be gained in part if stated and not implied Page 49 of 54

50 (these ideas may be given in (i)) particles have more kinetic energy accept particles move faster more collisions (so more reactions) more energetic collisions two marks [5] M9. (a) exothermic (reaction) (b) smaller lumps react faster or larger lumps react slower accept smaller lumps cause a more rapid rise in temperature or vice versa do not accept higher temperature or more heat unless linked to time smaller lumps have a larger surface (area) or larger lumps have a smaller surface (area) more water can react at the same time or so less water can react at the same time (c) heats up (too) rapidly accept temperature (too) high burning the food or the hands accept danger of container exploding or splitting or food overheating do not accept reference to handling of powder do not accept a lot of powder needed or powder getting into food or too hot to eat or food would not cook properly or heat through properly [5] M0. (a) (i) H O must be formula catalyst Page 50 of 54

51 (b) (i) correct plotting mark deducted per error to a maximum of do not accept a complete dot-to-dot line do not accept a bar chart if the (0,0) point is missing and line to one minute missing then maximum mark is best fit single line if curve correct but no obvious points award 3marks no units required (iii) all hydrogen peroxide had reacted accept all hydrogen peroxide had decomposed or been used up accept no hydrogen peroxide (particles) left (c) (i) remains lower than previous line do not accept bar chart line levels off lower than 60cm 3 correct points but no line drawn then maximum mark decrease of (hydrogen peroxide) concentration accept concentration is less accept fewer collisions (of particles) do not accept weaker solutions or dilute solutions [0] Page 5 of 54

52 M. (a) (i) (s) (aq) () (g) or 3 correct mark correct 0 marks calcium chloride (b) (i) points deduct mark for each error to a maximum of marks line accept a single line best fit curve accept reasonable attempt at curve increase temperature or heat accept increase surface area or increase concentration or description (iii) 75% or ¾ not pure mark only 60 cm 3 (instead of 80 cm 3 of gas) or 00 mark 3 [0] M. (a) increase concentration of acid; increase surface area of solid or grind up the solid; add a catalyst any two for mark each (b) ; it is the one that makes the gas fastest (steeper curve etc) (second part is dependant on first) for mark each (c) (i) faster after one minute, slower after minutes for mark Page 5 of 54

53 the reactants get used up; so concentration decreases/less chance of collision for mark each [7] M3. (a) (i) test tube / boiling tube for mark Na CO 3 NaCl each for mark (b) (i) flask measuring cylinder each for mark used smaller pieces gains mark but larger surface area for reaction gains marks (c) (i) steeper line straight line each for mark reaction occurs when particles collide higher temperature, higher speed of particles so harder collisions more frequent collisions any three for mark each 3 [] Page 53 of 54

54 Page 54 of 54

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