Measuring volume of gas produced Measuring precipitation (because sulphur is produced) e.g. look for X to disappear Measure mass lost

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Measuring volume of gas produced Measuring precipitation (because sulphur is produced) e.g. look for X to disappear Measure mass lost"

Transcription

1 Introduction My investigation is about the rate of reaction. A rate of reaction is defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place. For example, the oxidation of iron under the atmosphere is a slow reaction which can take many years, but the combustion of butane in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second. For a reaction to take place particles must collide with sufficient energy; this is called activation energy. When temperature is increased the particles move faster and with more energy, therefore the collisions happen more often and with more force so the reaction is faster. Four Factors which affect Rates of Reaction: Surface Area - Surface area is the measure of how much exposed area a solid object has, expressed in square units. Temperature - Heating chemical substances can make the molecules separate and move around faster. This can increase the speed with which they mix with surrounding molecules from other chemical substances, thus speeding up a reaction. Concentration If solution contains high concentration of reactants, this means that more collisions would take place because there is more of a chance that the reactants would collide. On the other hand if a solution has low concentration, the chances of the reactants colliding is less, this increases the rate of reaction. Use of Catalyst If a catalyst is present then the reaction rate will increase due to the fact it replaces the amount of energy needed for the collision, allowing for more collisions to take place. Aim: We will be investigating the rates of reaction when we will mix together sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. I will carry out trial runs to decide which of the four factors that affect rates of reaction I will measure in my final run. I could do different experiments. The experiments I could do are: Measuring volume of gas produced Measuring precipitation (because sulphur is produced) e.g. look for X to disappear Measure mass lost The reaction of the experiment happens with this formula: Na 2 S 2 O 3 + HCl = 2NaCl + H 2 O + SO 2 + S The importance of running trial runs is to see whether any mistakes are made and to prevent them from happening in the final run. We carried out 2 trial runs, this is because we wanted to compare both the methods to find out which was most accurate out of both of them. Trial run 1 was most accurate. This is because there were more data recorded. Trial run 1 had a wider range however trial run 2 hadn t. 1

2 TRIAL RUN 1 How concentration of sodium thiosulphate affects rate In this experiment we did a trial run to familiarise ourselves with the experiment and the equipment. It also helps us what kind of patterns we expect to get. The concentration of sodium thiosulphate was changed by adding water. The solution was tested to see if it goes cloudy by observing an X. Fair Test: To make the investigation a fair test we should make sure: Use the same person to observe the reaction because different people have different eyesight so keeping the same person to observe the X disappear is better. Use the same X as a darker or bigger X can increase the time it takes for it to disappear. The temperature is kept the same. Same volume of solution total volumes need to be the same. Accuracy: Timing is accurate e.g. start and stop clock on time/quickly Wash equipment before next reading to avoid volume error Measure volumes ate eye level Use large measuring cylinders for larger volumes Distance X viewed from Pipette accurate to nearest drop What to change: Concentration Equipment used: Conical Flask To put the solution of sodium thiosulphate, water and acid into. Three Measuring Cylinders (two 10ml)(one 25ml) Each used to accurately measure how much sodium thiosulphate, water and acid are used in the experiment. Pipette Used to put small amounts of acid into a measuring cylinder because it holds small amounts of acid in it so I can receive an accurate measurement. Digital Stopclock Used to time how long it took for the solution to turn cloudy and it s a more precise reading than an analogue clock (mili seconds). They re to the mearest hundred to the second. Paper marked with X Used to see whether the solution is cloudy enough to make the X not visible. Two Beakers To hold acid and sodium thiosulphate in while we carried out the experiment. 2

3 Safety: To prevent accidents from occurring we took some safety procedures for this experiment: Fumes are dangerous so be careful with the reaction. To prevent anything from happening we could open the windows. Liquids are corrosive so do not touch them. If liquid goes on hand then wash then thoroughly. Safety goggles must be worn at all times during the experiment. Experiment should be handled carefully and slowly. Method: In trial run 1 we used a solution called sodium thiosulphate to measure how long it takes to turn cloudy when you mix a certain amount of water and acid to it. The way we measured how the solution has turned cloudy is by: Draw an X on a piece of paper and place under a conical flask. Measure volumes of sodium thiosulphate and water using results table Add 3ml of HCL into the flask. Immediately time how long it took until the X was no longer visible, how long it took for the solution to turn cloudy The person observing when the X disappeared then recorded the time. Results of trial run 1: Concentration (%) Volume of sodium thiosulphate (ml) Volume of H2O (cm3) Volume of acid (ml) Time taken for X to disappear (s) 3

4 Evaluation: One of the weaknesses of the trial run was that the person recording the time changed and this could of lead to slight deviation in the result. However, other factors like the room temperature and the amount of acid in the solution were kept controlled to keep the test as fair as possible. Different people watching when the X disappeared meant that there are more likely to be errors and could make our results less reliable. Our results show a clear patter as the concentration of sodium thiosulphate increased, the time taken for the X to disappear decreased; this proves the collision theory. However, as we tripled the concentration, the time did not triple. This may be because of our lack of confidence and also it was our first measurement and we were definitely going to make mistakes. The changes we will make are to increase the concentration by 10% each time rather than tripling it. We proceeded with our trial run once and in my opinion made our results less reliable. This is because we do not have enough data to prove that concentration affects the rate of reaction. We will make sure the same person observes the X and records the time. Prediction: Using my trial run I can come to make a prediction. There is a pattern when the concentration is higher it takes less time for the reaction to happen. When we raised the concentration to 60% it takes less time for the reaction to be complete, also when we raised the concentration to 100% the reaction happened very fast; this compares and suggests to me that when the concentration is risen the time it takes for the reaction to be complete is less the rate of reaction is obviously different. 4

5 TRIAL RUN 2 How surface area affects rate Here the surface area of solid sodium thiosulphate was changed. Equipment used: Pestle and Mortar used to crush the sodium thiosulphate pellets to increase the surface area Conical Flask used to put in hydrochloric acid into and mix with the crushed sodium Digital Stopclock used to time how long the crushed sodium mixed with the hydrochloric acid took to turn cloudy Safety Goggles to protect our eyes from anything going in them Safety: To prevent accidents from occurring we took some safety procedures for this experiment: Fumes are dangerous so be careful with the reaction by opening windows. Liquids are corrosive so do not touch them and wash hands if touched. Safety goggles must be worn at all times during the experiment. Experiment should be handled carefully and slowly. Method: The method we used in this trial was to time how long it took for the small amounts of solid sodium thiosulphate pellets to react with the acid. We measured 20g of sodium thiosulphate pellets We measured another 20g of sodium thiosulphate pellets however we crushed it with the pestle and mortar to turn it into a powder We added the sodium thiosulphate pellets into a conical flask containing 10ml of hydrochloric acid and recorded the time taken for it to fully react with the acid. Then a group member recorded the time. We added the powder thiosulphate to the acid and recorded the time for it to react. The person inspecting the sodiumthiosulphate remained the same; this was done so that the test was fair. Other variables were also kept controlled. 5

6 Results of trial run 2: Surface area of sodium thiosulphate Mass (g) Volume of Hydrochloric acid (ml) Sodium thiosulphate Pellets Powder Time taken to react (s) This trial run proves the collision theory, it says that increased surface area increases rate of reaction Evaluation: The results of this trial aren t very accurate because enough data was not collected. This is because it is difficult to measure surface area of tiny grains of sodium. Due to this, we managed to acquire only 2 results, powder and solid states of sodium thiosulphate. In addition, one other reason why the results were not that reliable was because we did not repeat this trial run more than once. We should have repeated the trial run more times to make the results more reliable and to see whether surface area does affect the rate of reaction. I compared my graph to another group s to see the differences and to see if I had made any errors. It also would help me to draw the reasons for my anomalous results for example when the mass of sodium pellets was 20, my time was 60 seconds, but the other group s time was 65 seconds; this helped me to detect any errors. On the whole this is a very subjective method e.g. crushing method is not very accurate. Also the reaction was completed when the pellets or powder had completely reacted, but because the solution got cloudy it became difficult to see. I will therefore to my trial run 1 as my final experiment. We decided to use the method which we used in trial run 1. We decided to use the trial run 1 method because we found the experiment easier to do rather than trial run 2 also; we found the measurement in trial run 1 to be more accurate than trial run 2. So, for our final run we agreed on measuring more levels of concentration; we started with 100% concentration and then reduced the concentration by 10% each time, this lead us to 10 levels of concentration. Each time while doing the experiment we reduced the amount of sodium thiosulphate on the other hand we increased the amount of water. We made sure the level of solution was level and we also kept the hydrochloric acid always the same. We made sure it was the same by measuring it with a measuring beaker. 6

7 FINAL RUN Due to the fact that we were measuring how concentration affects the rate of reaction, the main factors which affect the rate of reaction were controlled, for example: Temperature we did this by making sure all windows and doors were closed and all 3 final runs were done on the same day so whether was not an issue and did not affect the results Use of catalyst a catalyst was not used in any of the experiments Surface area the same volumes of hydrochloric acid was used and also the volume of sodium thiosulphate and water always added up to 30ml To make our experiment as fair as possible we made sure the following variables were controlled: We used the same tap so the temperature of the water was kept the same. The same equipment was used and washed thoroughly after each experiment to not affect volumes. The same person adding the solution was kept the same and also the person observing the X was kept the same, this is because different people have different eyesight and so the observation of the X when it disappeared was recalled by the same person. The hydrochloric chemical we used was kept at a constant concentration. We used 3ml of it although we could have kept the concentration of sodium thiosulphate the same too. The solution was kept at a constant volume throughout the experiment. If the volume was different then it could have given us a different result. We must also make sure the water and hydrochloric acid were placed into the beaker at precisely the same time or it could affect the result of our experiment. The colour and the size of the X were kept the same. We used a pencil and very accurately made sure the X was drawn the same each time. Accuracy: Pipette Nearest drop Measure volumes at eye level Same lighting of room Same equipment Two different measuring cylinders 7

8 Equipment used: 50ml Conical Flask to add the solution of water, sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid One 10ml Measuring Cylinder to measure small amounts of hydrochloric acid into because we only used 3ml of hydrochloric acid, it was easier to use the 10ml as you could see clearly how much hydrochloric acid we was measuring Two 30ml Measuring Cylinders we used each cylinder to measure out sodium thiosulphate and water. Pipette used to insert small amount of acid into a measuring cylinder Digital Stopclock used to time how long it would take for the solution to turn cloudy, less vulnerable to human errors because it is more precise Paper marked with X used to see whether the solution has turned cloudy and made the X not visible Two Beakers to hold hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate into while carrying out the experiment Method: Safety Pour solutions into beakers. Draw X and put under conical flask. Measure volumes of acid, water and sodium thiosulphate into measuring cylinder using results table. Put sodium thiosulphate and water into the conical flask. Add the acid and start the stopclock immediately. 8

9 Concentration (%) Volume of sodium thiosulphate (ml) Volume of H2O (ml) Volume of HCL (ml) Time 1 (s) Time 2 (s) Time 3 (s) Time 4 (s) Average time (s) Rate

10 CONCLUSION In conclusion I have found out that that the concentration does affect the rate of reaction. I believe that my results were accurate. For a reaction to take place particles must collide with sufficient energy; this is called activation energy. When concentration increases the number of particles increases in the same amount of space resulting in less space for particle movement and more frequent collisions. When temperature is increased the particles move faster and with more kinetic energy, resulting in reaching activation energy level quicker. Because of this the collisions happen more often and with more force so the reaction is faster. The diagram below illustrates the effect of temperature change. Surface area also plays a part in the collision theory. When surface area of a solid increases the time for the reaction to occur decreases. As I can see from trial run 2 this is evident. My results can be described using the collision theory. The collision theory is when the temperature is increased the atoms conduct the heat and vibrate; this causes the atoms to gain kinetic energy to move, this be because heat energy is transferred to kinetic energy for the atoms. Because there is more kinetic energy the atoms move faster with more energy. The extra energy enables the atoms to move and collide with other atoms and particles; because of this the collisions happen more often and with more force so the reaction is faster. When this reaction proceeds, the process of the ionic bond (a chemical reaction losing and gaining electrons so the reaction is complete between the two reactants to produce a new product) happens faster because the collisions happen faster, therefore there are more collisions with sufficient energy and this are called activation energy. Activation energy can be thought of as the height of the potential barrier (sometimes called the energy barrier) separating two minima of potential energy (of the reactants and products of a reaction). For a chemical reaction to proceed at a reasonable rate there should exist an appreciable number of molecules with energy equal to or greater than the activation energy. Average Time Graph The general trend on my graph was that as the concentration increases the time taken for the reaction to occur decreases. At first the line of best fit was very steep however as the concentration increased the line of best fit became less steep. For example: at 20% concentration it took 164 seconds, then at 40% concentration it took 74 seconds and finally at 60% concentration it took 49 seconds according to the line of best fit. There is a pattern, as 10

11 the concentration increases, the time taken decreases. Evidence of this can be seen by the gradients. I calculated the gradients concentrations 10, 30 and 50%. At 10% the gradient was 17.33, at 30% the gradient was 3.73 and finally at 50% the gradient was I could see that as the concentration goes up the gradient becomes smaller so, this agrees with the fact that as concentration goes up, time goes down. I believe that this pattern shows enough credible evidence to support my prediction. The result of why time decreases as concentration increases is because more particles are moving about in the same amount of space causing them to collide more often (more frequent collisions). When the concentration is low the time increases. This can be explained using the collision theory. Rate Graph From my graph I can see that the there is a positive correlation. When the concentration is high the rate is high. This means that higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction will be. This causes the atoms to gain more kinetic energy, and this is because there are more particles in the same amount of space so they collide more often and therefore create activation energy. Evidence of this can be described from the graph: at 20% the rate was 0.58, at 40% the rate was 1.14 and finally at 60% the rate was Therefore it is clear the concentration is directly proportional to the rate. 11

12 EVALUATION I compared my graphs to another group s to see the differences and to see if I had made any errors. It also would help me to draw the reasons for my anomalous results for example when the concentration was 10 %, my average time was seconds, but the other group s time was seconds; this helped me to detect any errors. Concentration (%) My Time (s) Their Time (s) Average Time (s) After I compared another group s graph and mine, I could see that the results were very similar, but not exact. From this I was sure that my results were on the right path and that my prediction was correct. Reasons for any anomalous results will be explained below. In my results table I circled any outliers. When I found any outliers I repeated the experiment one more time taking extra care. This allowed me to receive reliable and accurate readings. The error bars of some points at a lower concentration have a larger range compared to the points which have a higher concentration. This shows that these points are not as reliable examples are: at 10% the range is 36.00, at 20% the range is and finally at 30% the range is The reasons why I have obtained outliers in my results table and big ranges on the error bars could be due to many factors for example: The experiment was done over two different days hence there may have been a change in room temperature. There was a window open which may have affected the temperature of the solution. Tiredness affecting eye judgment. Contaminated equipment e.g. pipettes, beakers etc. To improve the experiment in the future we could use such equipment that would give an accurate amount of the reactants like a burette. It would give the solution a precise amount of concentration. Another way to have been accurate is if the range for the concentration was in 5 s for example: 5, 10, 15, but in my experiment the concentration went up in 10 s for example: 10, 20, 30, this way my results would have been really accurate and would have been unlikely to have any anomalous results. If we increased the solution of sodium thiosulphate in 1 s rather than 3 s the experiment would be a whole lot slower, therefore we 12

13 would have more time to get accurate results because the reaction time would increase and limit the number of inconsistencies made. We may obtain better results if we change the variable to temperature however, an inconsistency could be when heating the solution; the temperature would decrease a bit while putting the beaker on the cross, adding the acid and starting the stopwatch. In future these points should be taken as advice so experiments are accurate and inconsistency free. To improve my experiment even further, there are certain things I could have used or done to make my experiment better for example: Light sensor do not turn off the light if they are turned on and or do not turn on the lights if they are turned off while doing the experiment. Increase the concentration in 5 s rather 10 s. Measure the temperature by placing the solutions in a water bath so the temperature does not change instead it is at a constant temperature. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature. Do the experiment all in one day so our results don t vary. Use a burette so our volumes are measured to the nearest ml. Use a glass pipette because it is clearer to see what is in it. An alternative method for future experiments could be using a light detector because it would judge the end point of the reaction accurately. As soon as a certain amount of light does not pass through, it shows that the reaction is complete so it is more accurate than using the human eye. Overall I support my conclusion that concentration does affect the rate of reaction because my graph is how I predicted it to be; the science backs up my results. Also after repeating my experiment for the 4 th time the range of the error bars became closer together. My data was reliable, this is because I done my experiment 3 times and a further 4 th time if there were any outliers. I made the increments of the concentration by 10% each time which showed a clear pattern. My method was reliable because I made sure the same person observed the X disappear, hence the same eye judgement was used for accuracy. My equipment was reliable for example, I used a pipette to accurately measure the volume of sodium thiosulphate inserted into the beaker. I made sure the X was kept the same and I also washed all the equipment I used to ensure minimisation of errors. Next time to be more confident in my conclusion I would compare my results and my graphs or maybe use CaCO 3 instead of Na 2 S 2 O 3 and carry out more trial runs. 13

14 REFERENCES: shfiles/stoichiometry/acid_base.html Cambridge Advanced Series endorsed by OCR, Chemistry 1 AQA Additional Science 14

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

1A Rate of reaction. AS Chemistry introduced the qualitative aspects of rates of reaction. These include:

1A Rate of reaction. AS Chemistry introduced the qualitative aspects of rates of reaction. These include: 1A Rate of reaction AS Chemistry introduced the qualitative aspects of rates of reaction. These include: Collision theory Effect of temperature Effect of concentration Effect of pressure Activation energy

More information

Chemical Reactions Practice Test

Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction

More information

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below.

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. Q. Methanol can be made when methane reacts with oxygen. (a) The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. (i) What is the energy change represented by A? () (ii) Use the energy level diagram

More information

AQA CERTIFICATE Science: Double Award

AQA CERTIFICATE Science: Double Award AQA CERTIFICATE Science: Double Award 8404/C/2H Mark scheme 8404 June 205 Version/Stage:.0 Final Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant questions,

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety

More information

Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

More information

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Objectives: Challenge: Students should be able to - recognize evidence(s) of a chemical change - convert word equations into formula equations - perform

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

Controlled Assessment Additional Science / Chemistry ISA CU2.x Rates of Reaction (Specimen)

Controlled Assessment Additional Science / Chemistry ISA CU2.x Rates of Reaction (Specimen) Controlled Assessment Science / Chemistry ISA CU2.x Rates of Reaction (Specimen) For moderation in May 20yy or January 20zz Teachers tes This ISA relates to Science / Chemistry Unit 2: C2.4 Rates of Reaction

More information

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. GCSE CHEMISTRY Higher Tier Chemistry 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed). Instructions Answer all

More information

The Empirical Formula of a Compound

The Empirical Formula of a Compound The Empirical Formula of a Compound Lab #5 Introduction A look at the mass relationships in chemistry reveals little order or sense. The ratio of the masses of the elements in a compound, while constant,

More information

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 Standard Enthalpy Change Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction, symbolized as H 0 298, is defined as The enthalpy change when the molar quantities of reactants

More information

The relationship between the concentration of a reactant and the rate of reaction with respect to that reactant can be shown using rate time graphs.

The relationship between the concentration of a reactant and the rate of reaction with respect to that reactant can be shown using rate time graphs. The effect of concentration on rate Student sheet To study The relationship between the concentration of a reactant and the rate of reaction with respect to that reactant can be shown using rate time graphs.

More information

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured 1) Error Analysis Apparatus Errors (uncertainty) Every time you make a measurement with a piece of apparatus, there is a small margin of error (i.e. uncertainty) in that measurement due to the apparatus

More information

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB Purpose: Most ionic compounds are considered by chemists to be salts and many of these are water soluble. In this lab, you will determine the solubility,

More information

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E (To save endless repetition, wherever they are included, comments are intended for homeschooling parents who may

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

0610 BIOLOGY. 0610/62 Paper 6 (Alternative to Practical), maximum raw mark 40

0610 BIOLOGY. 0610/62 Paper 6 (Alternative to Practical), maximum raw mark 40 CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series 0610 BIOLOGY 0610/62 Paper 6 (Alternative to Practical), maximum raw

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration

Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration This experiment is designed to illustrate techniques used in a typical indirect or back titration. You will use the NaH you standardized last week to back

More information

Sample Liver Enzyme Lab

Sample Liver Enzyme Lab Sample Liver Enzyme Lab Design Aspect 1: Research Question This lab will be driven by the research question, Do changes in temperature have an effect on the activity of the enzyme catalase? Pearson Baccalaureate:

More information

MEMORANDUM GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2

MEMORANDUM GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MEMORANDUM GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MARKS: 150 TIME: 3 hours Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards LO1 LO2 LO3 AS 11.1.1: Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to collect

More information

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water INTRODUCTION Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of solvents (the larger volume of the mixture) and solutes (the smaller volume of the mixture). For example, a hot chocolate

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

More information

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets Cautions: 6 M hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Purpose: To colorimetrically determine the mass of iron present in commercial vitamin tablets using a prepared calibration curve. Introduction: Iron is considered

More information

GCE Chemistry PSA14: A2 Physical Chemistry Determine an equilibrium contstant

GCE Chemistry PSA14: A2 Physical Chemistry Determine an equilibrium contstant hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Chemistry : A2 Physical Chemistry Determine an equilibrium contstant Copyright 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance

More information

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

More information

Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer

Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer SNC2D/2P Chemical Reactions/Chemical Reactions and their Practical Applications Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer Topics evidence of chemical change types of chemical reactions

More information

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS]

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] OpenStax-CNX module: m38210 1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of butane using Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures

More information

Evaluation copy. Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2

Evaluation copy. Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2 Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2 Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes An understanding of material things requires an understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of matter. A few planned experiments can help you

More information

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Experiment 6A Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the chemical activities

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

Paper 1 (7404/1): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme

Paper 1 (7404/1): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme AQA Qualifications AS Chemistry Paper (7404/): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme 7404 Specimen paper Version 0.6 MARK SCHEME AS Chemistry Specimen paper Section A 0. s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6

More information

Green Principles Atom Economy Solventless Reactions Catalysis

Green Principles Atom Economy Solventless Reactions Catalysis Lab 5: The Aldol Reaction Solventless vs Traditional Reactions: (Melting Point Study & Recrystallization) (adapted from Doxsee, K.M. and Hutchison, J.E., Green Organic Chemistry and John Thompson; Lane

More information

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Introduction Many metals react with acids to form hydrogen gas. In this experiment, you will use the reactions

More information

CH204 Experiment 2. Experiment 1 Post-Game Show. Experiment 1 Post-Game Show continued... Dr. Brian Anderson Fall 2008

CH204 Experiment 2. Experiment 1 Post-Game Show. Experiment 1 Post-Game Show continued... Dr. Brian Anderson Fall 2008 CH204 Experiment 2 Dr. Brian Anderson Fall 2008 Experiment 1 Post-Game Show pipette and burette intensive and extensive properties interpolation determining random experimental error What about gross error

More information

Chapter 1 Student Reading

Chapter 1 Student Reading Chapter 1 Student Reading Chemistry is the study of matter You could say that chemistry is the science that studies all the stuff in the entire world. A more scientific term for stuff is matter. So chemistry

More information

Lab 25. Acid-Base Titration and Neutralization Reactions: What Is the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Each Sample of Vinegar?

Lab 25. Acid-Base Titration and Neutralization Reactions: What Is the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Each Sample of Vinegar? Lab 25. Acid-Base Titration and Neutralization Reactions: What Is the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Each Sample of Vinegar? Introduction Vinegar is basically a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH). It is

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC Determination of the enthalpy of TEC Related concepts First law of thermodynamics, Hess s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of formation, heat capacity. Principle The bomb

More information

Separation by Solvent Extraction

Separation by Solvent Extraction Experiment 3 Separation by Solvent Extraction Objectives To separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid and a neutral compound by using solvent extraction techniques. Introduction Frequently, organic

More information

PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE

PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

ph units constitute a scale which allows scientists to determine the acid or base content of a substance or solution. The ph 0

ph units constitute a scale which allows scientists to determine the acid or base content of a substance or solution. The ph 0 ACID-BASE TITRATION LAB PH 2.PALM INTRODUCTION Acids and bases represent a major class of chemical substances. We encounter them every day as we eat, clean our homes and ourselves, and perform many other

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

GCSE Further Additional Science. Higher Tier. Unit 2 Chemistry 3H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME V1

GCSE Further Additional Science. Higher Tier. Unit 2 Chemistry 3H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME V1 GCSE Further Additional Science Higher Tier Unit 2 Chemistry 3H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME V Copyright 202 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included.

DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. Dyeing of textiles has been practiced for thousands of years with the first

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

Bubbling Tablets. Objective: Investigate the effects of surface area on reaction rates.

Bubbling Tablets. Objective: Investigate the effects of surface area on reaction rates. Bubbling Tablets Objective: Investigate the effects of surface area on reaction rates. Key concepts Increasing the surface area of a reactant results in a faster reaction. Things on the nanoscale have

More information

Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Chapter 6, Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Key Concepts Reactants must be moving fast enough and hit each other hard enough for a chemical reaction to take place. Increasing the

More information

EXPERIMENT 2 THE HYDROLYSIS OF t-butyl CHLORIDE. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride.

EXPERIMENT 2 THE HYDROLYSIS OF t-butyl CHLORIDE. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride. PRINCIPLES: Once the Rate Law for a reaction has been experimentally established the next step is its explanation in terms

More information

Stoichiometry Limiting Reagent Laboratory. Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston

Stoichiometry Limiting Reagent Laboratory. Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston STOICHIOMETRY - LIMITING REAGENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Chemistry PSA10: A2 Inorganic Chemistry Carry out a redox titration

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Chemistry PSA10: A2 Inorganic Chemistry Carry out a redox titration hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Chemistry : A2 Inorganic Chemistry Copyright 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee

More information

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document.

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. Name: Period: Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. 1. Which of the following is a NOT a physical property of hydrogen? A. It is gas C. It is

More information

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

More information

Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer

Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition 6.7-1 Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer Topic Conservation of momentum Time 1 hour! Safety Please click on the safety icon to view the safety precautions.

More information

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed: Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams

More information

Neutralizing an Acid and a Base

Neutralizing an Acid and a Base Balancing Act Teacher Information Objectives In this activity, students neutralize a base with an acid. Students determine the point of neutralization of an acid mixed with a base while they: Recognize

More information

Unit 1 - Pure Substances and Mixtures Chapter 2: Solutions

Unit 1 - Pure Substances and Mixtures Chapter 2: Solutions 2.1 Solutes & Solvents Vocabulary: Unit 1 - Pure Substances and Mixtures Chapter 2: Solutions solvent the larger part of a solution - the part of a solution into which the solutes dissolve solute the smaller

More information

A.17. OXIDIZING PROPERTIES (SOLIDS)

A.17. OXIDIZING PROPERTIES (SOLIDS) A.17. OXIDIZING PROPERTIES (SOLIDS) 1. METHOD 1.1. INTRODUCTION It is useful to have preliminary information on any potentially explosive properties of the substance before performing this test. This test

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air

Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.1 Determination of the Percentage Oxygen in Air In this laboratory exercise we will determine the percentage by volume of Oxygen in Air. We will do this

More information

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Kenny Gotlieb, Sasha Mitchell and Daniel Walsh Physics Department, Harvard-Westlake School 37 Coldwater Canyon, N. Hollywood, CA 9164 Introduction

More information

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions Name: Date: Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions amylase What are Enzymes? starch glucose Enzymes are compounds that assist chemical reactions by increasing the rate at which they occur. For example,

More information

Standardization of Potassium Permanganate solution with Standard Sodium Oxalate Solution.

Standardization of Potassium Permanganate solution with Standard Sodium Oxalate Solution. Experiment Number: 07 Name of the experiment: Standardization of Potassium Permanganate solution with Standard Sodium Oxalate Solution. Course: Chem-114 Name: Noor Nashid Islam Roll: 0105044 Group: A2

More information

Acid Base Titrations

Acid Base Titrations Acid Base Titrations Introduction A common question chemists have to answer is how much of something is present in a sample or a product. If the product contains an acid or base, this question is usually

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice

Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice 1 Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice Introduction Vitamin C Vitamins are organic compounds that have important biological functions. For instance, in humans they enable a variety of enzymes in the body to

More information

Moles Lab mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023. This is also known as Avagadro's number Demo amu amu amu

Moles Lab mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023. This is also known as Avagadro's number Demo amu amu amu Moles I. Lab: Rice Counting II. Counting atoms and molecules I. When doing reactions chemists need to count atoms and molecules. The problem of actually counting individual atoms and molecules comes from

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R

EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R Outcomes EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Determine universal gas constant using reaction of an acid with a metal.

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER Chemistry 111 Lab: Synthesis of a Copper Complex Page H-1 SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER In this experiment you will synthesize a compound by adding NH 3 to a concentrated

More information

This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction

This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction Joy Paul Enzyme Catalyst lab Abstract: This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction studied was the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by the enzyme peroxidase. Three

More information

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY Have your lab textbook available for quick reference to specific pages, indicated in red. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Chromatography

More information

Unit 6 The Mole Concept

Unit 6 The Mole Concept Chemistry Form 3 Page 62 Ms. R. Buttigieg Unit 6 The Mole Concept See Chemistry for You Chapter 28 pg. 352-363 See GCSE Chemistry Chapter 5 pg. 70-79 6.1 Relative atomic mass. The relative atomic mass

More information

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 153-156. Goals We will use a titration to determine the concentration of acetic acid in a sample of

More information

Oxidation States of Copper Two forms of copper oxide are found in nature, copper(i) oxide and copper(ii) oxide.

Oxidation States of Copper Two forms of copper oxide are found in nature, copper(i) oxide and copper(ii) oxide. The Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pp. 55-58. Goals The reaction of hydrogen gas with a copper oxide compound will be studied quantitatively. By

More information

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances.

More information

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet)

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) Property : High Polarity Activity #1 Surface Tension: PILE IT ON. Materials: 1 DRY penny, 1 eye dropper, water. 1. Make sure the penny is dry. 2. Begin by estimating

More information

Recrystallization II 23

Recrystallization II 23 Recrystallization II 23 Chem 355 Jasperse RECRYSTALLIZATIN-Week 2 1. Mixed Recrystallization of Acetanilide 2. Mixed Recrystallization of Dibenzylacetone 3. Recrystallization of an Unknown Background Review:

More information

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container.

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container. TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

More information

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Purpose: It is important for chemists to be able to determine the composition of unknown chemicals. This can often be done by way of chemical tests.

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

TITRATION OF VITAMIN C

TITRATION OF VITAMIN C TITRATION OF VITAMIN C Introduction: In this lab, we will be performing two different types of titrations on ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. The first will be an acid-base titration in

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Net ionic equation: 2I (aq) + 2H (aq) + H O (aq) I (s) + 2H O(l)

Net ionic equation: 2I (aq) + 2H (aq) + H O (aq) I (s) + 2H O(l) Experiment 5 Goals To determine the differential rate law for the reaction between iodide and hydrogen peroxide in an acidic environment. To determine the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

Paper 2 (7404/2): Organic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme

Paper 2 (7404/2): Organic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme AQA Qualifications AS hemistry Paper 2 (7404/2): Organic and Physical hemistry Mark scheme 7404 Specimen paper Version 0.5 MARK SEME AS hemistry Specimen paper 2 Question Marking guidance Mark AO omments

More information

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC. Safety precautions

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC. Safety precautions Safety precautions Naphthalene is harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is further very toxic to aquatic organisms and can have long-term harmful effects in bodies of water. Equipment 1 Bomb calorimeter

More information