OFFICIAL BODY PARTS LIST FOR THE GROSS ANATOMY OF THE EXTREMITIES

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1 OFFICIAL BODY PARTS LIST FOR THE GROSS ANATOMY OF THE EXTREMITIES LOWER LIMB I SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES AND SAPHENOUS OPENING Superficial veins Small saphenous vein Great saphenous vein Dorsal venous arch of the foot Cutaneous nerves Posterior aspect of lower limb Sural nerve Anterior aspect of lower limb Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve Saphenous nerve Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve Dorsal digital branches of the deep fibular nerve (web between toes 1+2) Fascia Fascia lata Iliotibial tract Crural fascia LOWER LIMB II ANTERIOR AND MEDIAL COMPARTMENTS OF THE THIGH Bony landmarks (Articulated skeleton and individual bones) Hip bone (pelvis) Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubic tubercle Femur Greater trochanter of femur

2 Lesser trochanter of femur Lateral condyle and lateral epicondyle of femur Medial condyle and medial epicondyle of femur Medial supracondylar line Adductor tubercle Linea aspera Patella Tibia Tuberosity (tubercle) of tibia A) ANTERIOR COMlPARTMENT OF THE THIGH Femoral triangle Boundaries Inguinal ligament Adductor longus muscle Sartorius muscle Floor Iliopsoas muscle Pectineus muscle Contents Blood vessels Femoral artery and vein Profunda femoris artery (deep femoral artery) Lateral circumflex femoral artery Medial femoral circumflex artery Adductor canal Femoral artery and vein Saphenous nerve Adductor hiatus

3 Anterior muscle group Quadriceps femoris muscle Rectus femoris muscle Vastus lateralis muscle Vastus medialis muscle Vastus intermedius muscle Ligamentum patellae (patellar ligament) Quadriceps femoris tendon B) MEDIAL COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH Medial muscle group Pectineus muscle Gracilis muscle Adductor longus muscle Adductor brevis muscle Adductor magnus muscle note adductor hiatus and adductor tubercle Nerves Obturator nerve Anterior division Posterior division Blood vessels Deep artery of the thigh Perforating arteries LOWER LIMB III GLUTEAL REGION Bony landmarks (articulated skeleton and articulated pelvis with ligaments) Pelvis Greater sciatic notch Greater sciatic foramen Lesser sciatic notch Lesser sciatic foramen

4 Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Femur Greater trochanter of femur Intertrochanteric crest Gluteal tuberosity Gluteus maximus muscle Gluteus medius muscle Gluteus minimus muscle Piriformis muscle Obturator internus muscle Superior gemellus muscle Inferior gemellus muscle Quadratus femoris muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle Iliotibial tract Nerves Superior gluteal nerve Inferior gluteal nerve Sciatic nerve Tibial division Common fibular division Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh (posterior femoral cutaneous nerve) Pudendal nerve Blood vessels Superior gluteal artery Inferior gluteal artery Internal pudendal artery LOWER LIMB IV POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE THIGH AND POPLITEAL FOSSA

5 Bony landmarks (articulated skeleton and individual bones) Pelvis Ischial tuberosity Femur Linea aspera lateral lip Medial condyle of femur Lateral condyle of femur Tibia Medial condyle of tibia Fibula Posterior muscle group Biceps femoris muscle Long head Short head Semitendinosus muscle Semimembranosus muscle Hamstring part of adductor magnus Popliteal fossa Biceps femoris muscle Semitendinosus muscle Semimembransosus muscle Gastrocnemius muscle medial and lateral bellies Popliteus muscle Nerves Sciatic nerve Tibial nerve Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Muscular branches Blood vessels Popliteal artery and vein

6 Other structures Pes anserinus LOWER LIMB V - ANTERIOR, LATERAL AND POSTERIOR COMPARTMENTS OF THE LEG AND DORSUM OF FOOT Bony landmarks (articulated foot and individual bones of the leg) Tibia Medial condyle of tibia Lateral condyle of tibia Shaft (body) Anterior border of tibia Medial malleolus Fibula Head of fibula Neck Lateral malleolus Articulated foot 7 tarsal bones Talus Calcaneus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd Metatarsals - 5 Tuberosity of 5 th metatarsal Phalanges A) Anterior crural compartment and dorsum of foot Tibialis anterior muscle Extensor hallucis longus muscle Extensor hallucis brevis muscle Extensor digitorum longus muscle Extensor digitorum brevis muscle Fibularis tertius Neurovascular structures Anterior tibial artery Dorsalis pedis artery Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve

7 B) Lateral crural compartment and lateral side of ankle Fibularis (peroneus) longus muscle Fibularis (peroneus) brevis muscle Nerves Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve C) Posterior crural compartment and medial side of ankle Superficial group Gastrocnemius muscle two bellies Soleus muscle Plantaris muscle Tendo calcaneus (calcaneal tendon) Deep group Popliteus muscle Flexor hallucis longus muscle Flexor digitorum longus muscle Tibialis posterior muscle Neurovascular structures Tibial nerve Muscular branches Posterior tibial artery Fibular (peroneal) artery Anterior tibial artery LOWER LIMB VI SOLE OF THE FOOT AND KNEE JOINT A) SOLE OF FOOT on prosected cadaver lower extremities Muscle layers First layer Abductor hallucis muscle Abductor digiti minimi muscle

8 Flexor digitorum brevis muscle Second layer Quadratus plantae muscle Flexor digitorum longus tendon Lumbrical muscles 4 Third layer Flexor hallucis brevis muscle Adductor hallucis muscle Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle Fourth layer Fibularis (peroneus) longus tendon Tibialis posterior tendon Nerves Medial plantar nerve Lateral plantar nerve Blood vessels Medial plantar artery Lateral plantar artery Plantar arterial arch Other structures Plantar aponeurosis B) KNEE JOINT DISSECTION Bony features Femur Medial condyle Lateral condyle Intercondylar fossa

9 Tibia Medial condyle Lateral condyle Patella Ligaments and menisci Tibial collateral ligament medial collateral ligament Fibular collateral ligament lateral collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Patellar ligament Medial meniscus Lateral meniscus UPPER LIMB I SCAPULAR REGION Superficial veins Dorsal venous arch Basilic vein Cephalic vein Median cubital vein Cutaneous nerves Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm Medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm Superficial branch of the radial nerve Dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve Bony landmarks Scapula Acromion Spine of the scapula Supraspinous fossa Suprascapular notch Infraspinous fossa Glenoid cavity Supraglenoid tubercle Infraglenoid tubercle

10 Coracoid process Superior transverse scapular ligament Humerus Head Anatomical neck Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Radial (spiral) groove Deltoid muscle Supraspinatus muscle Infraspinatus muscle Teres minor muscle Teres major muscle Triceps muscle Long head Neural structures Axillary nerve Suprascapular nerve Vascular structures Posterior circumflex humeral artery Suprascapular artery Other features Quadrangular space UPPER LIMB II AXILLA

11 Walls of the axilla Pectoralis major muscle Pectoralis minor muscle Latissimus dorsi muscle Teres major muscle Subscapularis muscle Serratus anterior muscle Tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii in intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) Axillary artery First part Supreme (superior) thoracic artery Second part Lateral thoracic artery Thoracoacromial artery (trunk) Third part Subscapular artery Circumflex scapular artery Posterior circumflex humeral artery Anterior circumflex humeral artery Brachial plexus Long thoracic nerve to serratus anterior muscle Lateral cord Lateral root of the median nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Lateral pectoral nerve Medial cord Medial root of the median nerve Medial cutaneous nerve of the arm (medial brachial cutaneous n.) Medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (medial antebrachial cutaneous n.) Medial pectoral nerve Ulnar nerve Posterior cord Upper subscapular nerve

12 Middle subscapular (thoracodorsal) Lower subscapular nerve Axillary nerve Radial nerve Median nerve UPPER LIMB III - ARM AND CUBITAL FOSSA Bony landmarks (articulated skeleton and individual bones) Humerus Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Olecranon fossa Radius Head Neck Tuberosity Ulna Olecranon Anterior compartment of the arm Coracobrachialis muscle Brachialis muscle Biceps brachii muscle Short head Long head Nerves Musculocutaneous nerve Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (lateral antebrachial cutaneous n.) Medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm Median nerve Ulnar nerve Artery Brachial artery Deep artery of the arm (profunda brachii, deep brachial artery) Superior ulnar collateral artery

13 Cubital fossa Contents Tendon of biceps brachii muscle Brachial artery Median nerve Posterior compartment of the arm Triceps brachii muscle Long head Lateral head Medial head Brachioradialis muscle Nerves Radial nerve in the radial (spiral) groove of the humerus Ulnar nerve Artery Deep artery of the arm UPPER LIMB IV FLEXOR REGION OF THE FOREARM Bony landmarks Humerus Medial epicondyle Medial supracondylar ridge Lateral epicondyle Lateral supracondylar ridge Capitulum Trochlea Olecranon fossa Radius Head Neck Tuberosity

14 Ulnar notch Styloid process Ulna Olecranon Trochlear notch Radial notch Head Superficial group of flexor muscles Common flexor tendon Brachioradialis muscle Pronator teres muscle Flexor carpi radialis muscle Palmaris longus muscle Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Deep group of muscles Flexor digitorum profundus muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle Pronator quadratus muscle Nerves Radial nerve Superficial branch Deep branch Median nerve Anterior interosseous nerve Ulnar nerve Arteries Brachial artery Radial artery Radial recurrent artery

15 Ulnar artery Common interosseous artery Anterior interosseous artery Posterior interosseous artery UPPER LIMB V PALM OF THE HAND Bony landmarks (articulated hand) Carpal bones (8) Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Metacarpal bones (5) Phalanges Thumb proximal and distal Other digits proximal, middle and distal Superficial palm Palmar aponeurosis Arterial arches Ulnar artery Superficial branch forms superficial palmar arch Deep palmar branch Ulnar nerve Superficial branch Deep branch Carpal tunnel Flexor retinaculum Contents Median nerve Recurrent branch Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons 4 Flexor digitorum profundus tendons 4 Lumbrical muscles - 4 Flexor pollicis longus tendon Thenar muscles Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

16 Flexor pollicis brevis muscle Opponens pollicis muscle Hypothenar muscles Abductor digiti minimi muscle Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle Opponens digiti minimi muscle Deep palm Deep branch of the ulnar nerve Deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery Deep palmar arch UPPER LIMB VI EXTENSOR REGION OF FOREARM AND DORSUM OF HAND Superficial group Brachioradialis muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Extensor digiti minimi muscle Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Deep group Abductor pollicis longus muscle Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Extensor pollicis longus muscle Supinator muscle Extensor indicis muscle Anatomical snuff box Boundaries Abductor pollicis longus muscle Extensor pollicis brevis muscle Extensor pollicis longus muscle Contents Radial artery

17 Nerves Radial nerve Superficial branch Deep branch Posterior interosseous nerve Other structures Common extensor tendon Extensor retinaculum Extensor expansion Posterior interosseous artery 1

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