italian infication.notebook October 29, 2009 THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY

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1 THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY Historical background. The Roman Empire. The Italian culture. The French Revolution and The Napoleonic Wars. The Vienna settlement. Mazzini and the idea of an Italian state (Risorgimento). Nationalistic upheavals during the 1820s, 1830s and jan 14 10:35 1

2 The Papacy The influence of Papal diplomacy over the previous millenium where the Popes had tended to strongly support the existence of a number of small states in the north of the peninsula such that no strong power might presume to try to overshadow the papacy. Such political decentralisation may have facilitated the emergence of a number of mercantile city states Sardinia Piedmont The former Duchy of Savoy meanwhile, originally based on limited territories north of the Alps, had expanded to also include Nice, Piedmont (an extensive territory in the north east of the Italian peninsula) and the island of Sardinia and was now known now by its senior title as the Kingdom of Sardinia. Austria Habsburg Austria was awarded sovereignty over Lombardy and over the former Venetian Republic whilst the Republic of Genoa was similarly entrusted to the House of Savoy. The territories of the chuch that straddled the central portion of the peninsula were again placed under Papal sovereignty whilst to the south the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples) was restored to a junior branch of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. jan 14 12:32 2

3 Italian nationalism The belief that "Italia" was a desireable possibility can be associated with the change in perspectives that many people, particularly from the more affluent artisan, middle and minor aristocratic classes, underwent after the American and French revolutions Giuseppe Mazzini The central figure in the origin of "Young Italy" was one Giuseppe Mazzini ( ), who in 1821 in Genoa had witnessed the distress of the "refugees of Italy" who were in the process of fleeing into exile after their failure of their revolutionary efforts at winning reform and, moved by their example, had chosen to devote his life to the cause of Italian independence and unity. In 1827 he was initiated into Carbonari movement and was himself forced into exile in 1831 for revolutionary activity. growth of secret national societies (Carbonari) 1848, upheavals started in Milan (Lombardy) but spread to all italian states. Piedmont declared war on Austria and succeeded in driving the Austrian troops out of Lombardy and Venice. A republic was declared in Rome under Mazzini and under the protection of Garibaldis troops. jan 14 12:50 3

4 He also began to move away from the philosophy of the Carbonari and subsequently founded Giovine Italia (Young Italy) a movement dedicated to securing "for Italy Unity, Independence, and Liberty." Mazzini's revolutionary vision extended beyond the limited objective of Italian national unity towards the liberation of all oppressed peoples. He hoped for a new democratic and republican Italy that would lead other subject peoples to freedom and liberty and for a new Europe, controlled by the people and not by sovereigns, that would replace the old order. Camillo Cavour Cavour s political ideas were greatly influenced by the July revolution of 1830 in France, which seemed to him to prove that an historic monarchy was not incompatible with Liberal principles, and he became more than ever convinced of the benefits of a constitutional monarchy as opposed both to absolutism and to republicanism. His views were strengthened by his studies of the British constitution, of which he was known to be a great admirer such that he was even nicknamed " Milord Camillo jan 14 12:54 4

5 The failures of 1848; the pope abandoned the nationalists the rulers of all states except Piedmont also abandoned the idea of a nationalstate the need of foreign assistance the division of the italian nationalists obvious the struggle of 1848 strengthened and united the people okt 19 09:23 5

6 THE NATIONAL UNIFICATION In 1852 Count Camillo di Cavour became prime minister of Sardinia Piedmont. He was a realistic, modern politician with clearly defined objectives and a policy how these could be achieved. He made S P into a model state of modern liberalism Industrialized and wealthy. jan 14 10:38 6

7 Participation in the Crimean war to put the Italian question on the map of European politics.(alexander II succeeded Nikolaj I as czar of Russia Radical change in Russian foreign policy. Russia wasn't the police of Europe anylonger). okt 13 09:08 7

8 1857: S P:s political leadership (King Viktor Emanuel II and Cavour) gained the support of the guerillafighter Garibaldi (with his redskirts). okt 13 09:09 8

9 1858: Meeting of Plombières Napoleon promised military aid in case of an Austrian threat. An alliance on this basis in okt 13 09:09 9

10 1859: Military preparations on the part of S P provoked Austria to declare war. While Austria attacked it resulted in French assistance to S P. In the peace Lombardy fell to France and from France to S P (exchanged 1860 for Savoy, Nice). Tuscany, Parma, Bologna and Modena joined S P after plebicites. okt 13 09:10 10

11 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi landed in Sicily and started a uprising. Very successful which worried Cavour (Who feared an European intervention). The army of S P started its march southwards to prevent Garibaldi from reaching Rome. Garibaldi resigned his dictatorial position and swore an oath of loyalty to Viktor Emanuel (this broke the revolutionary edge of the unification and possibly hindered an foreign intervention in Italy). okt 13 09:11 11

12 March 1861: The Italian kingdom is united, besides Venetia and Rome. Viktor Emanuel II is declared king of Italy. okt 13 09:12 12

13 1866: Through a military alliance with Prussia (Idea of Bismarck) Italy gained Venetia after a war against Austria. okt 13 09:12 13

14 1870: Rome, except the Vatican State, is included in the Italian kingdom. (Due to the Franco Prussian war France is forced to withdraw their troops from Rome). Rome becomes the capital of Italy. Big problems between North South, criminality etc. okt 13 09:13 14

15 Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi? Introduction; set the timespan, define the italian unification an explanation on how the statement will be dealt with Body of the essay: Cavour Garibaldi Cavour vs. Garibaldi the statement vs. development when is the unification finished Conclusion: Why? okt 13 13:00 15

16 The involvement of foreign powers was of crucial importance to the unification of Italy. How far do you agree with the statement? Introduction; Definition of Italian unification timespan Foreign Powers Body; The unification of Italy and the foreign powers The Wienna Settlement Austria, France, 1848, Crimean War, 1859, The French garrison in Rome Britain, The Crimean War, favoured the idea of an Italian nationalstate Russia, abandoned Austria after the Crimean War (AlexanderII) The Papal State, an obstacle after 1848 The Ottoman Empire, the crimean war Prussia, 1866, 1870 Conclusion; How far do you agree with the statement okt 13 14:06 16

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