Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products

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1 Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products 2EY ' -ONTEMAYOR %DITOR

2 Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products Rey G. Montemayor, editor ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Drive PO Box C700 West Conshohocken, PA Printed in the U.S.A. ASTM Stock Number: MNL51

3 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Montemayor, Rey G., 1944 Distillation and vapor pressure measurement in petroleum products / Rey G. Montemayor. p. cm. ASTM Manual Series: MNL 51 ASTM stock number: MNL51. ISBN Petroleum Refining Standards. 2. Petroleum refineries Standards. 3. Distillation Standards. 4. Vapor pressure Standards. I. ASTM International. II. Title. TP M dc Copyright 2008 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or in part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of the publisher. Photocopy Rights Authorization to photocopy item for internal, personal, or educational classroom use, or the internal, personal, or educational classroom use of specific clients, is granted by ASTM International provided that the appropriate fee is paid to ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA ; Tel: ; online: NOTE: The Society is not responsible, as a body, for the statements and opinions expressed in this publication. ASTM International does not endorse any products represented in this publication. Printed in Mayfield, PA September 2008

4 iii Foreword THIS PUBLICATION, Manual on Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products, was sponsored by ASTM International Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, and edited by Rey G. Montemayor, Imperial Oil Ltd., Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. This publication is Manual 51 of ASTM International s Manual Series.

5 v Preface ASTM International has been developing standards that is widely used world-wide since The technical content and quality of these standards are excellent, and these are largely due to the thousands of technical experts who volunteer and devote considerable amount of their time and effort in the standards development activities. In ASTM Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, one of the largest ASTM committees, a tremendous amount of activity is spent in developing new test methods, and revising existing test methods to meet ever increasing demands for high quality standards in the industry. ASTM D02 is blessed with a considerable number of technical experts who, in one way or another, have contributed tremendously to standards development related to petroleum products and lubricants. This manual is the result of the selfless effort, time, dedication, and considerable expertise of some of these experts.

6 vi Acknowledgment This manual would not have been possible without the help and contribution from a number of individuals. I would like to sincerely thank the authors of the different chapters who have been very responsive in submitting their manuscripts, and who have been very patient in waiting for all the publication protocols to be satisfied. Their time, effort, dedication and expertise have proven to be invaluable in the preparation of this manual. To the anonymous reviewers who have provided very helpful and constructive suggestions on their review of the content of the various chapters thereby making them easier to understand and minimize any potential misunderstanding, I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude. Special thanks to a number of ASTM Staff who are instrumental in bringing this work to become a reality: to Lisa Drennen of Committee D02 who provided a number of ASTM historical documents; and to Monica Siperko and Kathy Dernoga of the ASTM Publications Department who provided support, guidance, and encouragement throughout the preparation of the various chapter manuscripts. I wish to thank Imperial Oil Ltd., for its continued support in the time and effort spent with this work, and other ASTM International activities. I would also like to acknowledge ASTM International and Committee D02 for sponsoring this work. And last, but not least, to Susanna, my sincere thanks for being so understanding and supportive of my involvement with ASTM International. Rey G. Montemayor Imperial Oil Ltd.

7 Contents Preface... Acknowledgment... v vi Chapter 1: Introduction and a Brief Historical Background, R. G. Montemayor... 1 Coverage Of The Manual... 1 Distillation Measurement... 1 Vapor Pressure Measurement... 2 Simulated Distillation Measurement... 2 A Bit Of History... 2 Distillation Measurement at Atmospheric Pressure... 2 Distillation Measurement at Reduced Pressure... 3 Simulated Distillation... 4 Vapor Pressure Measurement... 5 Chapter 2: Distillation Measurement at Atmospheric Pressure, R. G. Montemayor... 6 ASTM D86 Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure... 6 Scope... 6 Terminology... 6 Summary of the Method... 6 Significance and Use... 7 Sampling Group Characteristic... 7 Sample Storage and Conditioning... 8 Wet Samples... 8 Manual and Automated D86 Apparatus... 8 Distillation Flask... 9 Flask Support Hole Dimension... 9 Condenser and Cooling Systems... 9 Heat Source and Heat Control Temperature Measurement Device Calibration Temperature Measurement Device Receiving Cylinder and Level Follower Barometer or Pressure Measuring Device Calculations Correcting Temperature Readings to kpa 760 mm Hg Pressure Device Sample Calculation Percent Total Recovery and Percent Loss Corrected Percent Loss and Corrected Percent Recovery Percent Evaporated and Percent Recovered Temperature Readings at Prescribed Percent Evaporated Percent Evaporated or Percent Recovered at a Prescribed Temperature Reading Slope or Rate of Change of Temperature Calculation of Precision Report Precision Bias ASTM D850 And D1078: Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure For Aromatic Materials And Volatile Organic Solvents ASTM D ASTM D Comparison Of ASTM D86, D850, And D Potential Troubleshooting Guide Safety Statistical Quality Control Cross-Reference Of Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure Test Methods New Test Methods For Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure Micro Method Mini Method ASTM D402 Distillation Of Cut-Back Asphaltic Product... 25

8 Chapter 3: Distillation Measurement at Reduced Pressure, R. M. Daane Distillation Of Crude Petroleum By ASTM D Introduction Field Of Application Important Parameters Temperature Distillation Pressure Separation Sharpness Efficiency Other Factors Affecting Results Precision Summary Vacuum Distillation ASTM D Introduction Field of Application Important Parameters Temperature Distillation Pressure Separation Sharpness Other Factors Boiling Point, TBP, and AET Comparison of ASTM D5236 and D Precision ASTM D Introduction Field of Application Important Parameters Temperature Distillation Pressure Volume Measurement Precision Accuracy Closing Remarks Chapter 4: Simulated Distillation Measurement, D. S. Workman Introduction Gas Chromatography and Simulated Distillation ASTM Simulated Distillation Methods Important Considerations Instrument Requirements Column Selection Carrier Gas Flow Control Data Collection Analysis Software Data Interpretation Comparison To Physical Distillation TBP Correlations Using Simulated Distillation Data D86 Correlated Data from D2887 Data Correlation of Flash Point and D Future Work In The Area Of Simulated Distillation Accelerated Simulated Distillation Chapter 5: Vapor Pressure Measurement, R. G. Montemayor ASTM D323 Vapor Pressure Measurement By The Reid Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus Sampling Calibration Report, Precision, and Bias ASTM D4953 Vapor Pressure By The Dry Reid Method Scope Summary of the Test Method, Significance and Use, and Apparatus Precision and Bias... 52

9 ASTM D5191 Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products Mini Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus Sampling and Sample Handling Calibration Calculation Report, Precision, and Bias ASTM D5190 Vapor Pressure Of Petroleum Products Automatic Method Summary of the Test Method Apparatus Calibration Calculation Precision and Bias ASTM D5482 Vapor Pressure Of Petroleum Products Mini Method-Atmospheric Summary of the Test Method Apparatus Calculation Precision and Bias ASTM D6377 Vapor Pressure Of Crude Oil: VPCR X Expansion Method Scope Terminology Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus and Calibration Sampling Report, Precision, and Bias ASTM D6378 Vapor Pressure VP X Of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, And Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures Triple Expansion Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus and Calibration Sampling and Sample Handling Calculation Report, Precision, and Bias Proposed Revision to D6378 Being Considered ASTM D1267 Vapor Pressure Of Liquefied Petroleum LP Gases LP-Gas Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus Sampling and Calculation Report, Precision, and Bias ASTM D6897 Vapor Pressure Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases LPG Expansion Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Apparatus and Calibration Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Measurements ASTM D2533 Vapor-Liquid Ratio of Spark-Ignition Fuels Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Method Critical Apparatus, Calibration, Sampling, and Sample Handling Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias ASTM D5188 Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature of Fuels Evacuated Chamber Method Scope Summary and Significance of the Test Apparatus, Calibration, Sampling, and Sample Handling Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias Other Vapor Pressure Measurements ASTM D2878 Estimating Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils ASTM D2879 Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope ASTM E1194 Vapor Pressure ASTM E1719 Vapor Pressure of Liquids by Ebulliometry Comparison Of Vapor Pressure And Vapor/Liquid Ratio Test Methods... 66

10 Cross-Reference Of ASTM Vapor Pressure Methods With Other International Standards Chapter 6: An Overview of On-Line Measurement for Distillation and Vapor Pressure, A. T. C. Lau and M. A. Collier Sample Transport Module Sample Conditioning Module Analysis and Report Module Sample Disposal Module Performance Validation of On-Line Analytical Instrumentation Systems Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Distilation Simulated Distillation Reid Vapor Pressure Absolute Vapor Pressure Chapter 7: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Crude Oil, R. G. Montemayor Introduction Distillation Data of Crude Oil Vapor Pressure Data of Crude Oils 9, API Nomographs and True Vapor Pressure TVP Chapter 8: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data in Spark-Ignition Fuels, B. R. Bonazza and L. M. Gibbs Introduction Vapor Pressure Distillation Driveability Index Vapor-Liquid Ratio Vapor-Lock Index VLI Volatility and Performance Chapter 9: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Diesel Fuels, R. G. Montemayor Introduction and History 1, Diesel Engine Applications Grades and Specification of Diesel Fuel Distillation Data of Diesel Fuels Vapor Pressure Data of Diesel Fuels Chapter 10: Distillation and Vapor Pressure in Aviation Fuels, K. H. Strauss Aviation Gasoline Distillation Vapor Pressure Aviation Gasoline Versus Motor Gasoline Quality Protection of Aviation Gasoline Volatility Non-Petroleum Fuels for Reciprocating Aircraft Engines Aviation Turbine Fuels Volatility of Military Fuels Volatility of Civil Fuels Vapor Pressure Quality Protection of Aviation Turbine Fuel Volatility Chapter 11: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Solvents, R. G. Montemayor and J. W. Young Solvents Characterization of Solvent Volatility Solvent Types Hydrocarbon Solvents Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents Hydrocarbon Solvents Naphtha Mineral Spirits Low Boiling Aliphatic Solvents Naphthenic/Cycloparaffinic Solvents Isoparaffinic Solvents Aromatic Solvents Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents Oxygenated Solvents... 96

11 Chlorinated and Other Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents Distillation Specifications in Solvents Significance of Distillation Data for Solvents Significance of Vapor Pressure Date of Solvents Chapter 12: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data in Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG, R. J. Falkiner and R. G. Montemayor Introduction History LPG Properties and Thermodynamics Distillation and Composition of LPG by Low Temperature Fractional Distillation Composition by GC Vapor Pressure History Testing Quality Protection of LPG Volatility Appendix, R. G. Montemayor

12 ISBN: Stock #: MNL51

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