# 5.2 Transportation And Marketing Of Petroleum Liquids General

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2 Figure Flow sheet of petroleum production, refining, and distribution systems. (Points of organic emissions are indicated by vertical arrows.) EMISSION FACTORS 6/08

10 where: L B = ballasting emission factor, lb/10 3 gal of ballast water P = true vapor pressure of discharged crude oil, psia U A = arrival cargo true ullage, before dockside discharge, measured from the deck, feet; (the term "ullage" here refers to the distance between the cargo surface level and the deck level) Table lists average total organic emission factors for ballasting into uncleaned crude oil cargo compartments. The first category applies to "full" compartments wherein the crude oil true ullage just before cargo discharge is less than 1.5 meters (m) (5 ft). The second category applies to lightered, or short-loaded, compartments (part of cargo previously discharged, or original load a partial fill), with an arrival true ullage greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). It should be remembered that these tabulated emission factors are examples only, based on average conditions, to be used when crude oil vapor pressure is unknown. Equation 4 should be used when information about crude oil vapor pressure and cargo compartment condition is available. The following sample calculation illustrates the use of Equation (Metric And English Units). TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSION FACTORS FOR CRUDE OIL BALLASTING a Compartment Condition Before Cargo Discharge mg/l Ballast Water By Category Average Emission Factors lb/10 3 gal Ballast Water mg/l Ballast Water Typical Overall b lb/10 3 gal Ballast Water a b c d Fully loaded c Lightered or previously short loaded d A Assumes crude oil temperature of 16 C (60 F) and RVP of 34 kpa (5 psia). VOC emission factors average about 85% of these total organic factors, because VOCs do not include methane or ethane. Based on observation that 70% of tested compartments had been fully loaded before ballasting. May not represent average vessel practices. Assumed typical arrival ullage of 0.6 m (2 ft). Assumed typical arrival ullage of 6.1 m (20 ft) EMISSION FACTORS 6/08

13 Table (cont.). Emission Source Gasoline a Oil b Crude Jet Naphtha (JP-4) Jet Kerosene Distillate Oil No. 2 Residual Oil No. 6 Transit losses Loaded with product mg/l transported Typical ND ND ND ND ND Extreme ND ND ND ND ND lb/10 3 gal transported Typical ND ND ND ND ND Extreme ND ND ND ND ND Return with vapor mg/l transported Typical ND ND ND ND ND Extreme ND ND ND ND ND lb/10 3 gal transported Typical ND ND ND ND ND Extreme ND ND ND ND ND a Reference 2. Gasoline factors represent emissions of VOC as well as total organics, because methane and ethane constitute a negligible weight fraction of the evaporative emissions from gasoline. VOC factors for crude oil can be assumed to be 15% lower than the total organic factors, to account for the methane and ethane content of crude oil evaporative emissions. All other products should be assumed to have VOC factors equal to total organics. The example gasoline has an RVP of 69 kpa (10 psia). ND = no data. b The example crude oil has an RVP of 34 kpa (5 psia). Loading emission factors are calculated using Equation 1 for a dispensed product temperature of 16 C (60 F). d Reference 2. Not normally used. In the absence of specific inputs for Equations 1 through 5, the typical evaporative emission factors presented in Tables and should be used. It should be noted that, although the crude oil used to calculate the emission values presented in these tables has an RVP of 5, the RVP of crude oils can range from less than 1 up to 10. Similarly, the RVP of gasolines ranges from 7 to 13. In areas where loading and transportation sources are major factors affecting air quality, it is advisable to obtain the necessary parameters and to calculate emission estimates using Equations 1 through Service Stations - Another major source of evaporative emissions is the filling of underground gasoline storage tanks at service stations. Gasoline is usually delivered to service stations in 30,000-liter (8,000-gal) tank trucks or smaller account trucks. Emissions are generated when gasoline vapors in the underground storage tank are displaced to the atmosphere by the gasoline being loaded into the tank. As with other loading losses, the quantity of loss in service station tank filling depends on several variables, including the method and rate of filling, the tank configuration, and the gasoline temperature, vapor pressure and composition. An average emission rate for submerged filling is 880 mg/l (7.3 lb/1000 gal) of transferred gasoline, and the rate for splash filling is 1380 mg/l (11.5 lb/1000 gal) transferred gasoline (see Table 5.2-7). 5 6/08 Petroleum Industry

14 Table (Metric And English Units). TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSION FACTORS FOR PETROLEUM MARINE VESSEL SOURCES a a b c d e Emission Source Gasoline b Oil c Crude Jet Naphtha (JP-4) Jet Kerosene Distillate Oil No. 2 Residual Oil No. 6 Loading operations Ships/ocean barges mg/l transferred d lb/10 3 gal transferred d Barges mg/l transferred d lb/10 3 gal transferred d Tanker ballasting mg/l ballast water 100 e ND ND ND ND lb/10 3 gal ballast water 0.8 e ND ND ND ND Transit mg/week-l transported lb/week-10 3 gal transported Factors are for a dispensed product of 16 C (60 F). ND = no data. Factors represent VOC as well as total organic emissions, because methane and ethane constitute a negligible fraction of gasoline evaporative emissions. All products other than crude oil can be assumed to have VOC factors equal to total organic factors. The example gasoline has an RVP of 69 kpa (10 psia). VOC emission factors for a typical crude oil are 15% lower than the total organic factors shown, in order to account for methane and ethane. The example crude oil has an RVP of 34 kpa (5 psia). See Table for these factors. See Table for these factors. Emissions from underground tank filling operations at service stations can be reduced by the use of a vapor balance system such as in Figure (termed Stage I vapor control). The vapor balance system employs a hose that returns gasoline vapors displaced from the underground tank to the tank truck cargo compartments being emptied. The control efficiency of the balance system ranges from 93 to 100 percent. Organic emissions from underground tank filling operations at a service station employing a vapor balance system and submerged filling are not expected to exceed 40 mg/l (0.3 lb/1000 gal) of transferred gasoline EMISSION FACTORS 6/08

15 Table (Metric And English Units). EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE SERVICE STATION OPERATIONS a a b c Emission Source mg/l Throughput Emission Rate lb/10 3 gal Throughput Filling underground tank (Stage I) Submerged filling Splash filling 1, Balanced submerged filling Underground tank breathing and emptying b Vehicle refueling operations (Stage II) Displacement losses (uncontrolled) c 1, Displacement losses (controlled) Spillage Factors are for VOC as well as total organic emissions, because of the methane and ethane content of gasoline evaporative emissions is negligible. Includes any vapor loss between underground tank and gas pump. Based on Equation 6, using average conditions. A second source of vapor emissions from service stations is underground tank breathing. Breathing losses occur daily and are attributable to gasoline evaporation and barometric pressure changes. The frequency with which gasoline is withdrawn from the tank, allowing fresh air to enter to enhance evaporation, also has a major effect on the quantity of these emissions. An average breathing emission rate is 120 mg/l (1.0 lb/1000 gal) of throughput Motor Vehicle Refueling - Service station vehicle refueling activity also produces evaporative emissions. Vehicle refueling emissions come from vapors displaced from the automobile tank by dispensed gasoline and from spillage. The quantity of displaced vapors depends on gasoline temperature, auto tank temperature, gasoline RVP, and dispensing rate. Equation 6 can be used to estimate uncontrolled displacement losses from vehicle refueling for a particular set of conditions. 14 (6) where: E R = refueling emissions, mg/l )T = difference between temperature of fuel in vehicle tank and temperature of dispensed fuel, F T D = temperature of dispensed fuel, F RVP = Reid vapor pressure, psia Note that this equation and the spillage loss factor are incorporated into the MOBILE model. The MOBILE model allows for disabling of this calculation if it is desired to include these emissions in the stationary area source portion of an inventory rather than in the mobile source portion. It is estimated that the uncontrolled emissions from vapors displaced during vehicle refueling average 1320 mg/l (11.0 lb/1000 gal) of dispensed gasoline. 5,13 Spillage loss is made up of contributions from prefill and postfill nozzle drip and from spit-back and 6/08 Petroleum Industry

16 overflow from the vehicles's fuel tank filler pipe during filling. The amount of spillage loss can depend on several variables, including service station business characteristics, tank configuration, and operator techniques. An average spillage loss is 80 mg/l (0.7 lb/1000 gal) of dispensed gasoline. 5,13 Control methods for vehicle refueling emissions are based on conveying the vapors displaced from the vehicle fuel tank to the underground storage tank vapor space through the use of a special hose and nozzle, as depicted in Figure (termed Stage II vapor control). In "balance" vapor control systems, the vapors are conveyed by natural pressure differentials established during refueling. In "vacuum assist" systems, the conveyance of vapors from the auto fuel tank to the underground storage tank is assisted by a vacuum pump. Tests on a few systems have indicated overall systems control efficiencies in the range of 88 to 92 percent. 5,13 When inventorying these emissions as an area source, rule penetration and rule effectiveness should also be taken into account. Procedures For Emission Inventory Preparation, Volume IV: Mobile Sources, EPA-450/ d, provides more detail on this. References For Section 5.2 Figure Automobile refueling vapor recovery system. 1. C. E. Burklin and R. L. Honercamp, Revision Of Evaporative Hydrocarbon Emission Factors, EPA-450/ , U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, August G. A. LaFlam, et al., Revision Of Tank Truck Loading Hydrocarbon Emission Factors, Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Durham, NC, May G. A. LaFlam, Revision Of Marine Vessel Evaporative Emission Factors, Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Durham, NC, November Evaporation Loss From Tank Cars, Tank Trucks And Marine Vessels, Bulletin No. 2514, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, C. E. Burklin, et al., A Study Of Vapor Control Methods For Gasoline Marketing Operations, EPA-450/ A and -046B, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May Bulk Gasoline Terminals - Background Information For Proposed Standards, EPA-450/ a, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, December EMISSION FACTORS 6/08

17 7. Gasoline Distribution Industry (Stage I) - Background Information for Promulgated Standards, EPA-453/R b, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Emissions From Marine Vessel Transfer Operations, Publication 2514A, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, C. E. Burklin, et al., Background Information On Hydrocarbon Emissions From Marine Terminal Operations, EPA-450/ a and -038b, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, November Rules For The Protection Of The Marine Environment Relating To Tank Vessels Carrying Oil In Bulk, 45 FR 43705, June 30, R. A. Nichols, Analytical Calculation Of Fuel Transit Breathing Loss, Chevron USA, Inc., San Francisco, CA, March 21, R. A. Nichols, Tank Truck Leakage Measurements, Chevron USA, Inc., San Francisco, CA, June 7, Investigation Of Passenger Car Refueling Losses: Final Report, 2nd Year Program, APTD-1453, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, September Refueling Emissions From Uncontrolled Vehicles, EPA-AA-SDSB-85-6, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, June /08 Petroleum Industry

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