The Biosphere Study Guide

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1 ANSWER KEY Name The Biosphere Study Guide Period Directions: Read pg in Science Explorer. Answer the following questions. Land Biomes 1. What is a biome? a group of ecosystems with similar organisms and climate 2, Which two abiotic factors determine the type of land biome found in a given area? Temperature and precipitation (rainfall) 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Different environments support different types of plants and animals. true 4. Name the six major land biomes. Rainforest, Tundra, Desert, Grassland, Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest (Coniferous Forest) Rainforests Tropical and Temperate 5. Describe the rainfall and temperature in a tropical rainforest. Receive large amounts of rain Warm temperatures that do not vary 6. Where are tropical rainforests located in the world? in warm regions close to the equator canopy 7. The tall trees in a tropical rainforest form a leafy roof called a and the understory second layer of trees forms an. 8. Is there a great variety of plant and animal species in a tropical rainforest? Explain. They contain the greatest variety of species of any biome; abundant plant life provides many habitats. 9. Describe the rainfall and temperature in a temperate rainforest. Receive more than 300 cm of rain annually Cool or moderate temperatures 10. Where do we find temperate rainforests? Northwestern coast of United States

2 Deserts 11. Describe the rainfall and temperature in a desert. Less than 25 cm of rain per year Wide range of temperature in one day period 12. Are all deserts hot? Explain. No. Gobi Desert in central Asia has freezing temperatures. 13. What are some adaptations that help an organism live in a desert? Give two examples. Grasslands Saguara cactus has folds that expand to hold water Desert animals active at night (cooler) Gila monsters burrow underground to escape heat 14. Describe the rainfall and temperature in a prairie grassland. Between 25 and 75 cm of rain per year Moderate temperatures (more comfortable than desert) 15. a) Why are trees unable to grow in a prairie grassland? Grasslands do not receive enough rain for trees to grow. b) Why do grasses flourish in grasslands? The soil is very rich. Savannas 16. Grasslands that are located closer to the equator than prairies are called. When compared to prairies, these grasslands receive (more, less) rain. 17. Many of the largest animals on Earth live in the grasslands. Give four examples. Bison, antelopes, zebras, rhinoceros, giraffes, kangaroos Deciduous Forests 18. Describe the temperature and rainfall in a deciduous forest. Receive at least 50 cm of rain Moderate temperatures with four seasons 19. a) What are deciduous trees? Trees that shed their leaves and grow new ones each year b) Give two examples of deciduous tress. Oaks, maples 20. Where are deciduous forests found in the United States? See map on pg Eastern United States

3 21. Name five animals found in a deciduous forest in the United States. Opossums, white tailed deer, skunk, mice, wood thrush, black bear Boreal/Coniferous Forests 22. What types of trees are found in a boreal forest? Give two examples of these trees. Coniferous trees fir, spruce, hemlock 23. Why do you think the trees in a boreal forest are called evergreen trees? Thinking Question! They never lose their needles. They stay green all year. 24. Describe the rainfall and temperature in a boreal forest biome. Long, cold winters; mild summers Much of the rain falls as snow (deep snowfalls) 25. Name six animals that live in a boreal forest. Deer, elk, moose, porcupines, wolves, bears, wolverines, lynx Tundra 26. Describe the temperature and rainfall in the tundra. Extremely cold temperatures; very dry little precipitation 27. What is permafrost? Frozen soil (frozen all year) 28. What type of plants grow in the tundra? Mosses, grasses, low shrubs 29. Name four mammals found in the tundra. Caribou, foxes, wolves, hares Freshwater Ecosystems 30. What percentage of the Earth s surface is covered with water? 75% 31. Why is sunlight an important factor in water ecosystems? Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis. 32. Give four examples of freshwater ecosystems. Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers 33. Describe how a trout is adapted to live in a rushing stream. Streamlined bodies that let them swim through rushing water

4 Marine Ecosystems 34. Where is an estuary located? where a river meets the salt water of the ocean 35. a) Why does an estuary contain such a diverse group of organisms? Shallow, sunlit waters and nutrients carried by the river b) Name the producers in an estuary. Plants (marsh grasses) and algae c) Name three consumers in an estuary. Crabs, worms, clams, oysters, fish 36. Label the diagram below using Figure 22 on pg Intertidal Neritic Zone Open Ocean surface Zone zone High Low Deep Tide Tide Continental Zone Line Line shelf Deep Zone (Abyss) 37. Complete the compare/contrast table. Ocean Zone Location Description/Organisms Intertidal Zone Between the highest and lowest tide *Difficult place to live barnacles, sea stars, clams, crabs, tide pool organisms Neritic Zone Between low tide and the edge of the continental shelf *Rich in living organisms Coral reefs (tropical waters), sardines, shrimp, mackerel, sea anchovies Surface Zone in Open Ocean Beyond the continental shelf, light penetrates to few hundred meters Algae and plankton carry out photosynthesis Deep Zone (Abyss) Below the surface zone Giant squid; Glow in dark fish *these animals feed on the remains of other organisms *light does not penetrate (very dark)

5 Succession in Ecosystems 38. What is a community in an ecosystem? All the different organisms that live together in an area A community in an ecosystem is in equilibrium, or a state of balance, when the numbers and species of organisms in it do not change suddenly 39. What is succession? The series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time primary secondary 40. The two main types of succession are and. 41. What is primary succession? The series of changes that occur in an area where no ecosystem previously existed Ex.: a new island formed by the eruption of an undersea volcano or an area of rock uncovered by a melting sheet of ice 42. In primary succession, soil must first form the rock surface. The first species to populate an area Pioneer species in primary succession are called. They help to break up the rock and lichens form soil. Examples of these species are and mosses. 43.The series of changes that occur after a disturbance in an existing ecosystem is called. 44. The statements below describe areas where succession will occur. Identify each statement as either an example of primary or secondary succession. Primary succession a. A new island formed by the eruption of an undersea volcano. b. A clearing in a forest left by cutting down the trees. c, An area without any trees or other plants following a forest fire. Primary succession d. An area of bare rock uncovered by melting ice as a glacier recedes.

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