Fight for North America: The Emergence of Colonial and Native Societies ( )

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1 Fight for North America: The Emergence of Colonial and Native Societies ( )

2 Essential Question #1 If the goal of colonization was to create new empires for the European powers, why did the Europeans develop such different patterns of colonization? (Key concept 2.1)

3 Spanish Colonization Focus/Discussion Question #1 How did Spain establish tight control over the land and the native population?

4 Spain began to fortify their new territory in the New World Goal- block the French St. Augustine, FL, 1565 Settlements in Texas, 1716 Control over Native Americans Convert to Christianity Battle of Acoma Pope s Rebellion Black Legend and reality of Spain s legacies

5 French, Dutch, and British Colonization Focus/Discussion Question #2 How did the French and Dutch differ from the British in their views of establishing relationships with American Indians?

6 Dutch and French Small population of colonists Focused on trade alliances with the Indians (beaver fur) Intermarriage with American Indians British Focused on agricultural production Large numbers of colonists would populate the colonies Hostility toward American Indians Colonists wanted more land Believed Am. Indians served no economic function for the colonists

7 Racial Differences Focus/Discussion Question #3 Why was the treatment of Africans and American Indians much more violent for the British than the French, Spanish, and Dutch?

8 British Cultural and racial superiority American Indians Pequot War King Philip s War (Metacom) Africans Slavery became based on race Early slave codes Slavery began for economic reasons, later racial discrimination molded future American slave system

9 Regional differences (the future 13 colonies) Focus Question #4 How was each region successful in their own way, considering the climate, geography, people and natural resources were different? New England Middle Colonies Chesapeake Southern Colonies (also including the West Indies)

10 New England Success revolved around the family and community Unity and purpose- concern about the moral health of the whole community Farming was difficult, shifted focus to shipbuilding and fishing industry Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, DE, PA) Known as the bread colonies - heavy exports of grain Fur trade (access to several rivers) Lumbering and shipbuilding Most ethnically mixed area, most democratic, religious tolerance

11 Chesapeake (VA & MD) Most difficult area to survive in (1/2 born in this area died by the age of 20) Tobacco cultivation- 40 million lbs by 1700 Lack of workers led to the increase of indentured servitude and headright system Southern Colonies (SC & GA) Plantation colonies Tobacco and rice Slave labor became increasingly popular- Africans would outnumber the white pop. West Indies- sugar plantations, Barbados slave code

12 Competition for Colonization Essential Question #2 How did European efforts to colonize North America intensify conflicts between colonizers and native peoples? (Key concept 2.2)

13 Focus/Discussion Question #1 Explain how competition over resources between European rivals led to conflict within the North American colonies as well as with American Indians.

14 New trade items Beaver fur Dutch and French competition Violated many Indians religious beliefs Demonstrated the effect that contact with Europeans had on traditional Indian way of life Am. Indians new desire- firearms- created competition among the tribes for access to prime hunting grounds, intensified fighting between Indian groups

15 Tobacco Desired product in Europe Tobacco planting expanded, caused more Indian attacks Labor sources Indians used first, died of diseases too quickly Africans too expensive Indentured servants (4-7 years) Headright system Problems?

16 Conflicts Colonists begin seeking foreign markets to sell their goods (tobacco, fur) Molasses Act Stop North American trade with other European countries (France) Colonies would lose profits from other countries Merchants begin smuggling, bribing Foreshadows revolutionary movement

17 Focus/Discussion Question #2 Analyze the cultural and demographic changes brought about on the American Indians as contact with Europeans increased.

18 Trade transformed Indian life Desire for guns, alcohol Horses from the Spanish led to the migration of Indians onto the Great Plains European traders began to marry Indian women, conform to Indian ways of life Disease Would extinguish entire cultures Oral traditions would be lost New tribes would be created

19 Focus/Discussion Question #3 How did the British and Spanish differ on their views of American Indian culture?

20 Spanish Black Legend False concept that Spanish simply tortured, killed, stole from, infected, and left nothing but misery Spanish laid the foundation for the future Spanishspeaking nations of Central and South America Spanish married and fused together a new culture English Came to dominate land, Indians to be used as a labor source Racial superiority No desire to blend with Indian culture, isolate the Indians

21 Wars with American Indians Pope s Rebellion (1680) Spanish missionaries tried to suppress Indian religious customs Pueblos destroyed every Catholic Church and killed hundreds of Spanish settlers First ( ) and Second Anglo-Powhatan Wars ) First- Lord De La Warr used Irish tactics against Powhatans, ended with marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe Second- Powhatans last effort to remove Virginians No assimilation or peaceful coexistence, banished the Chesapeake Indians- beginning of reservation system

22 King Philip s War Puritans annihilated the Pequot tribe in 1637 By 1675, pan-indian alliance was created, led by Metacom Metacom led assaults on English villages 52 Puritan towns attacked, 12 destroyed Hundreds of colonists, Indians dead Metacom s wife and son sold into slavery Metacom- captured, beheaded, and drawn and quartered. Importance- Reduced Indian numbers, confidence, and unity

23 Essential Question #3 Explain the impact on the colonial societies as the exchanges within the Atlantic World increased between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. (key concept 2.3)

24 Focus/Discussion Question #1 How did the interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians stimulate economic growth while reshaping labor systems?

25

26 Focus/Discussion Question #2 How did Britain s desire to maintain a North American empire inspire colonists to begin to resist Britain s control?

27

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