From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14"

Transcription

1 From DNA to Protein Chapter 14

2 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes

3 14.1 DNA, RNA, and Gene Expression What is genetic information and how does a cell use it?

4 The Nature of Genetic Information Each strand of DNA consists of a chain of four kinds of nucleotides: A, T, G and C The sequence of the four bases in the strand is the genetic information

5 Converting a Gene to an RNA Transcription Enzymes use the nucleotide sequence of a gene to synthesize a complementary strand of RNA DNA is transcribed to RNA Most RNA is single stranded RNA uses uracil in place of thymine RNA uses ribose in place of deoxyribose

6 Ribonucleotides and Nucleotides

7 Ribonucleotides and Nucleotides

8 base (guanine) 3 phosphate groups sugar (ribose) guanine G (RNA) guanosine triphosphate A Guanine, one of the four nucleotides in RNA. The others (adenine, uracil, and cytosine) differ only in their component bases. Three of the four bases in RNA nucleotides are identical to the bases in DNA nucleotides. Fig. 14-2a, p. 216

9 base (guanine) 3 phosphate groups sugar (deoxyribose) guanine G (DNA) deoxyguanosine triphosphate B Compare the DNA nucleotide guanine. The only structural difference between the RNA and DNA versions of guanine (or adenine, or cytosine) is the functional group on the 2 carbon of the sugar. Fig. 14-2b, p. 216

10 DNA and RNA

11 adenine A DNA RNA adenine A NH 2 deoxyribonucleic acid ribonucleic acid NH 2 N C C N N C C nucleotide N HC HC N C CH base N C CH N N sugar guanine G phosphate guanine G O backbone O N C C N C NH C NH HC HC N C N C N C C NH 2 N NH 2 cytosine C NH 2 cytosine C NH 2 HC C N HC C N HC N C O HC N C O thymine T O base pair uracil U O CH 3 C C NH HC C NH HC C O HC C O N N DNA has one function: It RNAs have various Nucleotide permanently stores a cell s functions. Some serve Nucleotide bases of DNA genetic information, which as disposable copies of bases of RNA is passed to offspring. DNA s genetic message; others are catalytic. Fig. 14-3, p. 217

12 RNA in Protein Synthesis Messenger RNA (mrna) Contains information transcribed from DNA Ribosomal RNA (rrna) Main component of ribosomes, where polypeptide chains are built Transfer RNA (trna) Delivers amino acids to ribosomes

13 Converting mrna to Protein Translation The information carried by mrna is decoded into a sequence of amino acids, resulting in a polypeptide chain that folds into a protein mrna is translated to protein rrna and trna translate the sequence of base triplets in mrna into a sequence of amino acids

14 Gene Expression A cell s DNA sequence (genes) contains all the information needed to make the molecules of life Gene expression A multistep process including transcription and translation, by which genetic information encoded by a gene is converted into a structural or functional part of a cell or body

15 14.1 Key Concepts DNA to RNA to Protein Proteins consist of polypeptide chains The chains are sequences of amino acids that correspond to sequences of nucleotide bases in DNA called genes The path leading from genes to proteins has two steps: transcription and translation

16 14.2 Transcription: DNA to RNA RNA polymerase assembles RNA by linking RNA nucleotides into a chain, in the order dictated by the base sequence of a gene A new RNA strand is complementary in sequence to the DNA strand from which it was transcribed

17 DNA Replication and Transcription DNA replication and transcription both synthesize new molecules by base-pairing In transcription, a strand of mrna is assembled on a DNA template using RNA nucleotides Uracil (U) nucleotides pair with A nucleotides RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the transcript

18 Base-Pairing in DNA Synthesis and Transcription

19 DNA template New DNA strand DNA template RNA transcript Stepped Art Fig. 14-4, p. 218

20 The Process of Transcription RNA polymerase and regulatory proteins attach to a promoter (a specific binding site in DNA close to the start of a gene) RNA polymerase moves over the gene in a 5' to 3' direction, unwinds the DNA helix, reads the base sequence, and joins free RNA nucleotides into a complementary strand of mrna

21 Transcription

22 gene region newly forming RNA transcript RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyzes transcription DNA template winding up DNA template unwinding A RNA polymerase binds to a promoter in the DNA, along with regulatory proteins. The binding positions the polymerase near a gene in the DNA. In most cases, the nucleotide sequence of the gene occurs on only one of the two strands of DNA. Only the complementary strand will be translated into RNA. B The polymerase begins to move along the DNA and unwind it. As it does, it links RNA nucleotides into a strand of RNA in the order specified by the base sequence of the DNA. The DNA double helix winds up again after the polymerase passes. The structure of the opened DNA molecule at the transcription site is called a transcription bubble, after its appearance. Fig. 14-5a, p. 218

23 Fig. 14-5b, p. 219

24 transcription site 5 growing RNA transcript 3 C What happened in the gene region? RNA polymerase catalyzed the covalent bonding of many nucleotides to one another to form an RNA strand. The base sequence of the new RNA strand is complementary to the base sequence of its DNA template a copy of the gene. Fig. 14-5b, p. 219

25 Animation: Gene transcription details

26 Transcription Many RNA polymerases can transcribe a gene at the same time

27 RNA transcripts DNA molecule Fig. 14-6, p. 219

28 14.2 Key Concepts DNA to RNA: Transcription During transcription, one strand of a DNA double helix is a template for assembling a single, complementary strand of RNA (a transcript) Each transcript is an RNA copy of a gene

29 14.3 RNA and the Genetic Code Base triplets in an mrna are words in a proteinbuilding message Two other classes of RNA (rrna and trna) translate those words into a polypeptide chain

30 Post-Transcriptional Modifications In eukaryotes, RNA is modified before it leaves the nucleus as a mature mrna Introns Nucleotide sequences that are removed from a new RNA Exons Sequences that stay in the RNA

31 Alternative Splicing Alternative splicing Allows one gene to encode different proteins Some exons are removed from RNA and others are spliced together in various combinations After splicing, transcripts are finished with a modified guanine cap at the 5' end and a poly- A tail at the 3' end

32 Post-Transcriptional Modifications

33 gene DNA exon intron exon intron exon cap transcription into RNA poly-a tail RNA 5 3 snipped out snipped out mrna Fig. 14-7, p. 220

34 gene DNA exon intron exon intron exon cap transcription into RNA poly-a tail RNA 5 3 snipped out snipped out mrna Stepped Art Fig. 14-7, p. 220

35 Animation: Pre-mRNA transcript processing

36 mrna The Messenger mrna carries protein-building information to ribosomes and trna for translation Codon A sequence of three mrna nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid The order of codons in mrna determines the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

37 Genetic Information From DNA to mrna to amino acid sequence

38 DNA mrna mrna amino acids proline glutamic acid threonine lysine Fig. 14-8, p. 220

39 Genetic Code Genetic code Consists of 64 mrna codons (triplets) Some amino acids can be coded by more than one codon Some codons signal the start or end of a gene AUG (methionine) is a start codon UAA, UAG, and UGA are stop codons

40 Codons of the Genetic Code

41 Animation: Genetic code

42 rrna and trna The Translators trnas deliver amino acids to ribosomes trna has an anticodon complementary to an mrna codon, and a binding site for the amino acid specified by that codon Ribosomes, which link amino acids into polypeptide chains, consist of two subunits of rrna and proteins

43 Ribosomes

44 tunnel large subunit small subunit intact ribosome Fig , p. 221

45 trna

46 Fig a, p. 221

47 anticodon trp amino acid attachment site Fig a, p. 221

48 Fig b, p. 221

49 14.3 Key Concepts RNA Messenger RNA carries DNA s protein-building instructions Its nucleotide sequence is read three bases at a time Sixty-four mrna base triplets codons represent the genetic code Two other types of RNA interact with mrna during translation of that code

50 14.4 Translation: RNA to Protein Translation converts genetic information carried by an mrna into a new polypeptide chain The order of the codons in the mrna determines the order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain

51 Translation Translation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells Translation occurs in three stages Initiation Elongation Termination

52 Initiation An initiation complex is formed A small ribosomal subunit binds to mrna The anticodon of initiator trna base-pairs with the start codon (AUG) of mrna A large ribosomal subunit joins the small ribosomal subunit

53 Elongation The ribosome assembles a polypeptide chain as it moves along the mrna Initiator trna carries methionine, the first amino acid of the chain The ribosome joins each amino acid to the polypeptide chain with a peptide bond

54 Termination When the ribosome encounters a stop codon, polypeptide synthesis ends Release factors bind to the ribosome Enzymes detach the mrna and polypeptide chain from the ribosome

55 Polysomes Many ribosomes may simultaneously translate the same mrna, forming polysomes

56 polysome p. 222

57 Translation in Eukaryotes

58 Initiation A A mature mrna leaves the nucleus and enters cytoplasm, which has many free amino acids, trnas, and ribosomal subunits. An initiator trna binds to a small ribosomal subunit and the mrna. mrna initiator trna small ribosomal subunit large ribosomal subunit B A large ribosomal subunit joins, and the cluster is now called an initiation complex. Stepped Art Fig (a-b), p. 222

59 Translation in Eukaryotes

60 Fig c, p. 223

61 Elongation C An initiator trna carries the amino acid methionine, so the first amino acid of the new polypeptide chain will be methionine. A second trna binds the second codon of the mrna (here, that codon is GUG, so the trna that binds carries the amino acid valine). A peptide bond forms between the first two amino acids (here, methionine and valine). Fig c, p. 223

62 Fig d, p. 223

63 D The first trna is released and the ribosome moves to the next codon in the mrna. A third trna binds to the third codon of the mrna (here, that codon is UUA, so the trna carries the amino acid leucine). A peptide bond forms between the second and third amino acids (here, valine and leucine). Fig d, p. 223

64 Fig e, p. 223

65 E The second trna is released and the ribosome moves to the next codon. A fourth trna binds the fourth mrna codon (here, that codon is GGG, so the trna carries the amino acid glycine). A peptide bond forms between the third and fourth amino acids (here, leucine and glycine). Fig e, p. 223

66 Fig f, p. 223

67 Termination F Steps d and e are repeated over and over until the ribosome encounters a stop codon in the mrna. The mrna transcript and the new polypeptide chain are released from the ribosome. The two ribosomal subunits separate from each other. Translation is now complete. Either the chain will join the pool of proteins in the cytoplasm or it will enter rough ER of the endomembrane system (Section 4.9). Fig f, p. 223

68 Animation: Translation

69 14.4 Key Concepts RNA to Protein: Translation Translation is an energy-intensive process by which a sequence of codons in mrna is converted to a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

70 14.5 Mutated Genes and Their Protein Products If the nucleotide sequence of a gene changes, it may result in an altered gene product, with harmful effects Mutations Small-scale changes in the nucleotide sequence of a cell s DNA that alter the genetic code

71 Common Mutations Base-pair-substitution May result in a premature stop codon or a different amino acid in a protein product Example: sickle-cell anemia Deletion or insertion Can cause the reading frame of mrna codons to shift, changing the genetic message Example: Huntington s disease

72 Common Mutations

73 part of DNA mrna transcribed from DNA resulting amino acid sequence base substitution in DNA altered mrna altered amino acid sequence deletion in DNA altered mrna altered amino acid sequence THREONINE PROLINE GLUTAMATE GLUTAMATE LYSINE THREONINE PROLINE VALINE GLUTAMATE LYSINE THREONINE PROLINE GLYCINE ARGININE A Part of the DNA, mrna, and amino acid sequence of the beta chain of a normal hemoglobin molecule. B A base-pair substitution in DNA replaces a thymine with an adenine. When the altered mrna is translated, valine replaces glutamate as the sixth amino acid of the new polypeptide chain. Hemoglobin with this chain is HbS sickle hemoglobin (Section 3.6). C Deletion of the same thymine causes a frameshift. The reading frame for the rest of the mrna shifts, and a different protein product forms. This mutation results in a defective hemoglobin molecule. The outcome is thalassemia, a type of anemia. Fig , p. 224

74 part of DNA mrna transcribed from DNA resulting amino acid sequence base substitution in DNA altered mrna altered amino acid sequence deletion in DNA altered mrna altered amino acid sequence THREONINE PROLINE GLUTAMATE GLUTAMATE LYSINE THREONINE PROLINE VALINE GLUTAMATE LYSINE THREONINE PROLINE GLYCINE ARGININE A Part of the DNA, mrna, and amino acid sequence of the beta chain of a normal hemoglobin molecule. B A base-pair substitution in DNA replaces a thymine with an adenine. When the altered mrna is translated, valine replaces glutamate as the sixth amino acid of the new polypeptide chain. Hemoglobin with this chain is HbS sickle hemoglobin (Section 3.6). C Deletion of the same thymine causes a frameshift. The reading frame for the rest of the mrna shifts, and a different protein product forms. This mutation results in a defective hemoglobin molecule. The outcome is thalassemia, a type of anemia. Stepped Art Fig , p. 224

75 Animation: Base-pair substitution

76 Animation: Frameshift mutation

77 What Causes Mutations? Transposable elements Segments of DNA that can insert themselves anywhere in a chromosomes Spontaneous mutations Uncorrected errors in DNA replication Harmful environmental agents Ionizing radiation, UV radiation, chemicals

78 McClintock s Transposable Elements

79 Mutations Caused by Radiation Ionizing radiation damages chromosomes, nonionizing (UV) radiation forms thymine dimers

80 Inherited Mutations Mutations in somatic cells of sexually reproducing species are not inherited Mutations in a germ cell or gamete may be inherited, with evolutionary consequences

81 14.5 Key Concepts Mutations Small-scale, permanent changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA may result from replication errors, the activity of transposable elements, or exposure to environmental hazards Such mutation can change a gene s product

82 Summary: Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotic Cells

83 Transcription Assembly of RNA on unwound regions of DNA molecule mrna processing mrna rrna trna proteins mature mrna ribosomal transcripts subunits mature trna Translation At an intact ribosome, synthesis of a polypeptide chain at the binding sites for mrna and trnas Convergence of RNAs cytoplasmic pools of amino acids, ribosomal subunits, and trnas Protein Fig , p. 226

84 Animation: Protein synthesis summary

85 Animation: Structure of a ribosome

86 Animation: Structure of a trna

87 between prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis

88 Animation: Transcription

89 Animation: Uracil-thymine comparison

90 Video: Ricin and your ribosomes

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes

More information

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled Biology 101 Chapter 14 Name: Fill-in-the-Blanks Which base follows the next in a strand of DNA is referred to. as the base (1) Sequence. The region of DNA that calls for the assembly of specific amino

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

Protein Synthesis How Genes Become Constituent Molecules

Protein Synthesis How Genes Become Constituent Molecules Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis How Genes Become Constituent Molecules Mendel and The Idea of Gene What is a Chromosome? A chromosome is a molecule of DNA 50% 50% 1. True 2. False True False Protein

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

Coding sequence the sequence of nucleotide bases on the DNA that are transcribed into RNA which are in turn translated into protein

Coding sequence the sequence of nucleotide bases on the DNA that are transcribed into RNA which are in turn translated into protein Assignment 3 Michele Owens Vocabulary Gene: A sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein Promoter a control sequence near the start of a gene Coding sequence the sequence of

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

Lecture Series 7. From DNA to Protein. Genotype to Phenotype. Reading Assignments. A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides

Lecture Series 7. From DNA to Protein. Genotype to Phenotype. Reading Assignments. A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides Lecture Series 7 From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype Reading Assignments Read Chapter 7 From DNA to Protein A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides Genes are made up of DNA and are expressed

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis Name lass Date RN and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information fl ow from DN to RN to direct the synthesis of proteins? 13.1 What is RN? WHT I KNOW SMPLE NSWER: RN is a nucleic

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation Prior Knowledge Questions

More information

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis 13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Introduction: *A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids (there are 20 different types of amino acid).

More information

From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i

From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i How do the genes in our DNA influence our characteristics? For example, how can a gene determine whether a person is an albino with very pale skin and

More information

Translation Study Guide

Translation Study Guide Translation Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. In translation, the cell uses the genetic information contained in mrna to

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN Name: B5. Describe DNA replication 1) Label each base given in the diagram below and describe the 4 primary characteristics

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing

To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Thursday 8th March COPY LO: To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Starter Explain the difference between transcription and translation BATS Describe and explain

More information

Thymine = orange Adenine = dark green Guanine = purple Cytosine = yellow Uracil = brown

Thymine = orange Adenine = dark green Guanine = purple Cytosine = yellow Uracil = brown 1 DNA Coloring - Transcription & Translation Transcription RNA, Ribonucleic Acid is very similar to DNA. RNA normally exists as a single strand (and not the double stranded double helix of DNA). It contains

More information

RNA & Protein Synthesis

RNA & Protein Synthesis RNA & Protein Synthesis Genes send messages to cellular machinery RNA Plays a major role in process Process has three phases (Genetic) Transcription (Genetic) Translation Protein Synthesis RNA Synthesis

More information

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why?

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? BONUS - History of DNA Structure of DNA 3.3.1 - Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and

More information

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Each organism has a unique combination

More information

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary Protein Synthesis Vocabulary Transcription Translation Translocation Chromosomal mutation Deoxyribonucleic acid Frame shift mutation Gene expression Mutation Point mutation Page 41 Page 41 Page 44 Page

More information

Transcription Study Guide

Transcription Study Guide Transcription Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the transcription unit. The cell s DNA contains the instructions for carrying out the work of

More information

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein Name Period This is going to be a very long journey, but it is crucial to your understanding of biology. Work on this chapter a single concept at a time, and expect to spend at least 6 hours to truly master

More information

Provincial Exam Questions. 9. Give one role of each of the following nucleic acids in the production of an enzyme.

Provincial Exam Questions. 9. Give one role of each of the following nucleic acids in the production of an enzyme. Provincial Exam Questions Unit: Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis (B7 & B8) 2010 Jan 3. Describe the process of translation. (4 marks) 2009 Sample 8. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis? A.

More information

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E.

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide

More information

From DNA to Protein

From DNA to Protein Nucleus Control center of the cell contains the genetic library encoded in the sequences of nucleotides in molecules of DNA code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins determines which specific proteins

More information

Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided.

Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. Name lass Date hapter 12 DN and RN hapter Test Multiple hoice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. Pearson Education, Inc. ll rights reserved.

More information

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Julia Keller 12d Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein 1. What is gene expression? Gene expression is the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

Specific problems. The genetic code. The genetic code. Adaptor molecules match amino acids to mrna codons

Specific problems. The genetic code. The genetic code. Adaptor molecules match amino acids to mrna codons Tutorial II Gene expression: mrna translation and protein synthesis Piergiorgio Percipalle, PhD Program Control of gene transcription and RNA processing mrna translation and protein synthesis KAROLINSKA

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section BCOR 011, Exam 3 Name KEY Section Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. 1. A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the nuclear process of mitosis. For mitosis

More information

2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY

2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY 2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, October 13, 2006. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Which reaction is catalyzed by each

More information

DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam

DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam DO NOT WRITE ON EXAM EXAM # VER. B Multiple choice Directions: Answer the following questions based on the following diagram. (1pt. each) 5. The above nucleotide is purine

More information

BCH401G Lecture 39 Andres

BCH401G Lecture 39 Andres BCH401G Lecture 39 Andres Lecture Summary: Ribosome: Understand its role in translation and differences between translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Translation: Understand the chemistry of this

More information

Translation. Translation: Assembly of polypeptides on a ribosome

Translation. Translation: Assembly of polypeptides on a ribosome Translation Translation: Assembly of polypeptides on a ribosome Living cells devote more energy to the synthesis of proteins than to any other aspect of metabolism. About a third of the dry mass of a cell

More information

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Nucleic acids play an important role in the storage and expression of genetic information. They are divided into

More information

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix DNA Replication DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix A. 1950 s B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin s X-ray. What is DNA? Question:

More information

Prep Time: 1 hour. Class Time: 45 minutes

Prep Time: 1 hour. Class Time: 45 minutes ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students use edible models of the DNA molecule to transcribe an mrna sequence, then translate it into a protein. Module: The Basics and Beyond Prior Knowledge Needed: A basic

More information

Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes

Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Kun-Mao Chao 1,2,3 1 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics 2 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering 3 Graduate

More information

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER 1 Mutation A heritable change in the genetic material Essential to the continuity of life Source of variation for natural selection New mutations are more likely to be harmful

More information

TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION - GENETIC CODE AND OUTLINE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION - GENETIC CODE AND OUTLINE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION - GENETIC CODE AND OUTLINE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Central Dogma of Protein Synthesis Proteins constitute the major part by dry weight of an actively growing cell. They are widely

More information

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated

More information

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized:

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized: Module 3F Protein Synthesis So far in this unit, we have examined: How genes are transmitted from one generation to the next Where genes are located What genes are made of How genes are replicated How

More information

Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation

Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation The Flow of Genetic Information The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of

More information

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life 1 2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life Nucleic acids information molecules of the cells form new cells stored in chromosomes in nucleus of the cell in the form of a code in DNA / parts of the code are

More information

Concluding lesson. Student manual. What kind of protein are you? (Basic)

Concluding lesson. Student manual. What kind of protein are you? (Basic) Concluding lesson Student manual What kind of protein are you? (Basic) Part 1 The hereditary material of an organism is stored in a coded way on the DNA. This code consists of four different nucleotides:

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Sample Questions for Exam 3

Sample Questions for Exam 3 Sample Questions for Exam 3 1. All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except a. the centrioles move toward opposite poles. b. the nucleolus can no longer be seen. c.

More information

Modeling DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis

Modeling DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis Skills Practice Lab Modeling DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis OBJECTIVES Construct and analyze a model of DNA. Use a model to simulate the process of replication. Use a model to simulate the process

More information

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

More information

Lecture 4. Polypeptide Synthesis Overview

Lecture 4. Polypeptide Synthesis Overview Initiation of Protein Synthesis (4.1) Lecture 4 Polypeptide Synthesis Overview Polypeptide synthesis proceeds sequentially from N Terminus to C terminus. Amino acids are not pre-positioned on a template.

More information

Replication Study Guide

Replication Study Guide Replication Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. Self-reproduction is a function of life that human-engineered systems have

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Ruth Sundeen. Lesson 9 Part 1. Help Your Students Learn. Greetings and felicitations from Mrs. Ruth!

Ruth Sundeen. Lesson 9 Part 1. Help Your Students Learn. Greetings and felicitations from Mrs. Ruth! Ruth Sundeen Lesson 9 Part 1 Help Your Students Learn Ages: Eighth grade to high school senior Topics: Protein Synthesis Enzymes Experiment to demonstrate fragility of enzymes Greetings and felicitations

More information

Microbial Genetics. Chapter 8. Structure and Function of the Genetic Material. Genotype and Phenotype. DNA and Chromosomes.

Microbial Genetics. Chapter 8. Structure and Function of the Genetic Material. Genotype and Phenotype. DNA and Chromosomes. Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics Structure and Function of the Genetic Material Chromosomes are cellular structures made up of genes that carry hereditary information. Genetics is the study of how genes carry

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Announcements. Chapter 15. Proteins: Function. Proteins: Function. Proteins: Structure. Peptide Bonds. Lab Next Week. Help Session: Monday 6pm LSS 277

Announcements. Chapter 15. Proteins: Function. Proteins: Function. Proteins: Structure. Peptide Bonds. Lab Next Week. Help Session: Monday 6pm LSS 277 Lab Next Week Announcements Help Session: Monday 6pm LSS 277 Office Hours Chapter 15 and Translation Proteins: Function Proteins: Function Enzymes Transport Structural Components Regulation Communication

More information

Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION. Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu.

Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION. Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu. Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu.au What is Gene Expression & Gene Regulation? 1. Gene Expression

More information

Prep Time: 15 minutes. Class Time: 30 minutes

Prep Time: 15 minutes. Class Time: 30 minutes ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students navigate the Basics and Beyond module to complete a web quest to learn about how proteins are made using the instructions contained in genes. Module: Basics and Beyond

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

The vast majority of RNA functions are concerned with protein synthesis.

The vast majority of RNA functions are concerned with protein synthesis. RNA Structure, Function, and Synthesis RNA RNA differs from DNA in both structural and functional respects. RNA has two major structural differences: each of the ribose rings contains a 2 -hydroxyl, and

More information

Transcription: RNA Synthesis, Processing & Modification

Transcription: RNA Synthesis, Processing & Modification Transcription: RNA Synthesis, Processing & Modification 1 Central dogma DNA RNA Protein Reverse transcription 2 Transcription The process of making RNA from DNA Produces all type of RNA mrna, trna, rrna,

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Lab # 12: DNA and RNA

Lab # 12: DNA and RNA 115 116 Concepts to be explored: Structure of DNA Nucleotides Amino Acids Proteins Genetic Code Mutation RNA Transcription to RNA Translation to a Protein Figure 12. 1: DNA double helix Introduction Long

More information

Mutations. Section 6.3

Mutations. Section 6.3 Section 6.3 Mutations Objectives Identify different changes to DNA within both genes and chromosomes Evaluate effects of changes to DNA on proteins produced and organisms overall survival New Vocabulary

More information

Module 3 Questions. 7. Chemotaxis is an example of signal transduction. Explain, with the use of diagrams.

Module 3 Questions. 7. Chemotaxis is an example of signal transduction. Explain, with the use of diagrams. Module 3 Questions Section 1. Essay and Short Answers. Use diagrams wherever possible 1. With the use of a diagram, provide an overview of the general regulation strategies available to a bacterial cell.

More information

CHAPTER 4: CELLULAR METABOLISM. 2. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy, and give examples of each.

CHAPTER 4: CELLULAR METABOLISM. 2. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy, and give examples of each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Compare and contrast the major divisions of metabolism, in terms of a general descriptive sentence, additional descriptive terms, how energy is involved, whether bonds or formed or broken,

More information

13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression

13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression 13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression Lesson Objectives Describe gene regulation in prokaryotes. Explain how most eukaryotic genes are regulated. Relate gene regulation to development in multicellular organisms.

More information

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA.

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Answer: 2. Uracil Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Thymine is found only in DNA; Uracil takes its (Thymine) place in RNA molecules. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds The complementary

More information

Complex multicellular organisms are produced by cells that switch genes on and off during development.

Complex multicellular organisms are produced by cells that switch genes on and off during development. Home Control of Gene Expression Gene Regulation Is Necessary? By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection favoring

More information

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation 1 Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation I. Review of DNA structure and function you should already know this. A. The Central Dogma DNA mrna Protein where the mistakes are made. 1. Some definitions based

More information

DNA (genetic information in genes) RNA (copies of genes) proteins (functional molecules) directionality along the backbone 5 (phosphate) to 3 (OH)

DNA (genetic information in genes) RNA (copies of genes) proteins (functional molecules) directionality along the backbone 5 (phosphate) to 3 (OH) DNA, RNA, replication, translation, and transcription Overview Recall the central dogma of biology: DNA (genetic information in genes) RNA (copies of genes) proteins (functional molecules) DNA structure

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

Algorithms in Computational Biology (236522) spring 2007 Lecture #1

Algorithms in Computational Biology (236522) spring 2007 Lecture #1 Algorithms in Computational Biology (236522) spring 2007 Lecture #1 Lecturer: Shlomo Moran, Taub 639, tel 4363 Office hours: Tuesday 11:00-12:00/by appointment TA: Ilan Gronau, Taub 700, tel 4894 Office

More information

Genomes and SNPs in Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia

Genomes and SNPs in Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Genomes and SNPs in Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Introduction to Genome Browsing with Ensembl Ensembl The vast amount of information in biological databases today demands a way of organising and accessing

More information

The Puzzle of Life A Lesson Plan for Life S cien ce Teach ers From: The G reat Lakes S cien ce C ent er, C lev elan d, OH

The Puzzle of Life A Lesson Plan for Life S cien ce Teach ers From: The G reat Lakes S cien ce C ent er, C lev elan d, OH Introduction: The Puzzle of Life A Lesson Plan for Life S cien ce Teach ers From: The G reat Lakes S cien ce C ent er, C lev elan d, OH In the Puzzle of Life activity, students will demonstrate how the

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 8 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 8 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 8 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What did Hershey and Chase know

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

Lecture 5. 1. Transfer of proper aminoacyl-trna from cytoplasm to A-site of ribosome.

Lecture 5. 1. Transfer of proper aminoacyl-trna from cytoplasm to A-site of ribosome. Elongation & Termination of Protein Synthesis (5.1) Lecture 5 1. INITIATION Assembly of active ribosome by placing the first mrna codon (AUG or START codon) near the P site and pairing it with initiation

More information

Central Dogma. Lecture 10. Discussing DNA replication. DNA Replication. DNA mutation and repair. Transcription

Central Dogma. Lecture 10. Discussing DNA replication. DNA Replication. DNA mutation and repair. Transcription Central Dogma transcription translation DNA RNA Protein replication Discussing DNA replication (Nucleus of eukaryote, cytoplasm of prokaryote) Recall Replication is semi-conservative and bidirectional

More information

CHAPTER 30: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

CHAPTER 30: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS CHAPTER 30: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (Translation) Translation: mrna protein LECTURE TOPICS Complexity, stages, rate, accuracy Amino acid activation [trna charging] trnas and translating the Genetic Code - Amino

More information

DNA and Protein Synthesis Grade 10

DNA and Protein Synthesis Grade 10 Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 5 Illustrate the relationship of the structure and function of DNA to protein

More information

ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes

ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes Page 1 of 22 Introduction Indiana students enrolled in Biology I participated in the ISTEP+: Biology I Graduation Examination

More information

Proteins. Amino Acids. Chapter 3. Molecular Diagnostics Fundamentals, Methods and Clinical Applications Second Edition 2/5/2013

Proteins. Amino Acids. Chapter 3. Molecular Diagnostics Fundamentals, Methods and Clinical Applications Second Edition 2/5/2013 Proteins Chapter 3 Amino Acids Nonpolar Alanine, Ala, A Isoleucine, Ile, I Leucine, Leu, L Methionine, Met, M Phenylalanine, Phe, F Tryptophan,Trp, W Valine, Val, V Negatively Charged (Acidic) Aspartic

More information

Genetics Test Biology I

Genetics Test Biology I Genetics Test Biology I Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Avery s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by a. RNA. c. proteins.

More information

Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation

Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. Beadle and Tatum mutagenized Neurospora to find strains that required arginine

More information

DNA is a double helix with two sugar phosphate backbones and nucleotide bases bridging the two chains.

DNA is a double helix with two sugar phosphate backbones and nucleotide bases bridging the two chains. BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 3 SUMMARY Nucleic acids are linear polymers made up of monomer units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a pentose

More information

Control of Gene Expression

Control of Gene Expression Home Gene Regulation Is Necessary? Control of Gene Expression By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection favoring

More information

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY 2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, February 16, 2007. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Where in a eukaryotic cell do you

More information