Muscles of the Lower Limb Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes. toe; flexes the metatarsophalage al joint

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1 Muscles of Lower Limb Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes and side of abducts 5th abductor digiti sides base of toe; flexes minimi forms of metatarsophalage of al joint margin of 5th digit sole of foot calcaneus abductor digiti minimi (foot) abductor hallucis brevis hallucis magnus minimus side of of calcaneus pubic ramus oblique head: bases of s 2-4; transverse head: heads of s 3-5 portion of pubic ramus ischiopubic ramus and ischial lower portion of side of base of great toe (hallux) pectineal line and linea aspera (deep to pectineus and m) side of base of great toe linea aspera of femur linea aspera of femur; ischiocondyla r part inserts on tubercle of femur gluteal ridge and upper part of abducts great toe; flexes metatarsophalage al joint adducts, flexes, and ly rotates femur adducts great toe (moves it toward midline of foot; i.e.toward 2nd digit) adducts, flexes, and ly rotates femur adducts, flexes, and ly rotates femur; extends femur (ischiocondylar part) adducts and ly rotates femur deep branch of ; tibial (ischiocondy lar part), deep arterial arch, deep, deep, x, abductor hallucis forms margin of sole of foot and divisions of lie on and surfaces of brevis arterial arch passes to oblique head of hallucis most of group of muscles ischiocondylar part of magnus is a hamstring muscle by embryonic origin and action, so it is innervated by tibial minimus is uppermost 1

2 articularis genu biceps femoris dorsal interosseous (foot) brevis pubic ramus femur above patellar surface long head: ischial ; short head: lip of linea aspera shafts of adjacent bones superolatera l calcaneus condyle of tibia, fibula, portion of interosseous linea aspera of femur articular capsule of knee head of fibula and condyle of tibia bases of phalanges for digit 2 (both sides) & digits 3,4 ( side) expansion of toes toes via expansions (central slip inserts on base of middle phalanx, elevates articular capsule of knee joint extends thigh, flexes leg abduct digits 2-4 (move se digits away from midline as defined by a plane passing through 2nd digit); flex eal joints and extend joints of those digits extends toes 1-4 extends eal, and distal joints of 4 toes long head: tibial ; short head: common deep branch of deep deep x, deep descendi ng genicular perforati ng branches of deep dorsal metatars al a dorsalis pedis tibial fibers of magnus articularis genu is formed by muscle fascicles deep to vastus intermedius one of "hamstring" muscles four in number; remember DAB (Dorsal ABduct) and PAD (Plantar ADduct), n logic can tell you where se muscles insert part of brevis that goes to great toe is called hallucis brevis one of muscles involved in compartment syndrome 2

3 hallucis brevis hallucis is (peroneus) brevis is (peroneus) is (peroneus) tertius flexor digiti minimi brevis (foot) membrane superolatera l calcaneus middle half of fibula and interosseous membrane lower one third of fibula upper two/thirds of fibula distal part of fibula base of 5th bone slips on base of distal phalanx) base of great toe base of distal phalanx of great toe of base of 5th after crossing foot deep to intrinsic muscles, it inserts on cuneiform and base of 1st bone shaft of 5th bone side of base of extends great toe extends eal joints of great toe extends ( flexes) and everts foot extends ( flexes) and everts foot everts foot flexes eal joint of 5th digit deep deep superficial superficial deep dorsalis pedis tibial (peronea l) (peronea l) tibial usually considered to be -most part of brevis one of muscles involved in compartment syndrome stress fracture of base of 5th bone is a common runner's injury is lies superficial to is brevis in compartment of leg is tertius is in compartment of leg, not compartment (which contains is and brevis) none 3

4 flexor brevis flexor flexor hallucis brevis flexor hallucis gastrocnemius gemellus, of calcaneus, aponeurosis, intermuscul ar septae middle half of tibia cuboid, cuneiform, side of first lower 2/3 of fibula femur; head: above condyle; head: above condyle ischial 5th digit base of middle digits 2-5 after splitting to allow passage of flexor s bases of distal phalanges of digits 2-5 belly: side of great toe; belly: side of great toe base of distal phalanx of great toe calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') internus flexes eal & joints of digits 2-5 flexes eal, and distal joints of digits 2-5; flexes foot flexes eal joint of great toe flexes eal and joints of great toe; flexes foot flexes leg; flexes foot ly rotates femur and a flexor brevis in foot is equivalent to flexor superficialis of arm tibial tibial flexor in leg is equivalent to flexor profundus of arm ( belly occasionally receives innervation from ) tibial tibial to (peronea l) and tibial sural a (from popliteal ), tibial gluteal each of insertion contains a sesamoid bone flexor hallucis is very important in "push off" part of normal gait calcaneal of gastrocnemius and soleus is thickest and strongest in body gemellus is a Latin word that 4

5 gemellus, gluteus maximus gluteus medius gluteus minimus gracilis iliacus ischial spine gluteal line, sacrum and coccyx, sacrotubero us ligament external ilium between and gluteal lines external ilium between and gluteal lines pubic symphysis and pubic ramus iliac fossa and iliac crest; ala of sacrum femoris means "little twin" ly rotates to gemellus is a internus femur gluteal Latin word that internus means "little upper fibers: iliotibial tract; lowermost fibers: gluteal of femur greater femur greater femur tibia (via pes anserinus) lesser femur extends thigh; ly rotates femur abducts femur; ly rotates thigh abducts femur; ly rotates thigh adducts thigh, flexes and ly rotates thigh, flexes leg flexes thigh; if thigh is fixed it flexes pelvis on thigh gluteal gluteal gluteal and gluteal a gluteal gluteal iliolumba r twin" gluteus maximus is a site of intramuscular injection angle at which gluteus medius approaches greater femur is to axis of rotation of thigh, resulting in rotation angle at which gluteus minimus approaches greater femur is to axis of rotation of thigh, resulting in rotation pes anserinus is common insertion of gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus m inserts in company with psoas major via iliopsoas iliopsoas iliac fossa; lesser flexes thigh; branches of iliolumba a combination of 5

6 gemellus interosseous, dorsal (foot) interosseous, lumbricals (foot) externus bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae ischial shafts of adjacent bones base and side of s 3-5 s of flexor external femur internus bases of phalanges for digit 2 (both sides) & digits 3,4 ( side) bases of phalanges and expansions of digits 3-5 side of expansion of digits 2-5 trochanteric fossa of flexes and ly bends lumbar vertebral column ly rotates femur abduct digits 2-4 (move se digits away from midline as defined by a plane passing through 2nd digit); flex eal joints and extend joints of those digits adduct digits 3-5 (move se digits toward midline of foot as defined by a plane through second digit); flex metacarpophalan geal and extend joints of digits 3-5 flex eal joint, extend & distal joints of digits 2-5 ly rotates thigh ventral primary rami of spinal s L2- L4; branches of to femoris deep branch of deep branch of (1st) lumbrical: ; three lumbricals: r gluteal dorsal metatars al a metatars al a and a iliacus and psoas major m gemellus is a Latin word that means "little twin" four in number; remember DAB (Dorsal ABduct) and PAD (Plantar ADduct), n logic can tell you where se muscles insert remember PAD (Plantar ADduct) and DAB (Dorsal ABduct), and logic will tell you where se muscles must insert lumbricals of foot have same action on toes that lumbricals in hand have on fingers of 6

7 internus pectineus peroneus m (SEE is m) piriformis interosseous is membrane and and pubic rami internal membrane and margin of foramen pecten of pubis sacrum base and side of s 3-5 above femur externus passes to neck of femur to reach its insertion site greater trochanter on its surface above trochanteric fossa pectineal line of femur upper border of greater femur bases of phalanges and expansions of digits 3-5 calcaneus to ly rotates and abducts thigh adducts, flexes, and ly rotates thigh ly rotates and abducts thigh adduct digits 3-5 (move se digits toward midline of foot as defined by a plane through second digit); flex metacarpophalan geal and extend joints of digits 3-5 flexes leg; flexes foot to internus and possibly ventral rami of S1-S2 deep branch of tibial x metatars al a popliteal internus leaves pelvis by passing through lesser sciatic foramen; and gemellus m insert on internus pectineus often has a dual innervation peroneus is old terminology used for is m piriformis leaves pelvis by passing through greater sciatic foramen remember PAD (Plantar ADduct) and DAB (Dorsal ABduct), and logic will tell you where se muscles must insert is has a long slender that is 7

8 popliteus psoas major psoas minor femoris plantae quadriceps femoris condyle (above head of gastrocnemi us) condyle of femur bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae bodies of T12 & L1 vertebrae border of ischial portion of calcaneus and long ligament femur and calcaneal tibia above soleal line lesser femur (with iliacus) via iliopsoas iliopubic eminence at line of junction of ilium and pubic ramus quadrate line of femur below intertrochante ric crest s of flexor tibial via patellar ligament flexes and rotates leg ly (with foot planted, it rotates thigh ly) flexes thigh; flexes & ly bends lumbar vertebral column flexes & ly bends lumbar vertebral column ly rotates thigh assists flexor in flexing toes extends knee; rectus femoris flexes thigh tibial branches of ventral primary rami of spinal s L2- L4 branches of ventral primary rams of spinal s L1- L2 to femoris popliteal subcostal, lumbar a lumbar a gluteal x equivalent to of palmaris of arm; its is often called "freshman " because it is often misidentified by freshman medical student has a round of origin; popliteus unlocks knee joint to initiate flexion of leg genito pierces surface of psoas major absent in 40% of cases to femoris also innervates gemellus plantae changes line of force of flexor to bring it in line with long axis of foot composed of 4 muscles: rectus femoris, vastus is, vastus 8

9 rectus femoris sartorius semimembrano sus semitendinosus soleus gemellus side of and intermuscul ar septa straight head: iliac spine; reflected head: above rim of acetabulum iliac spine upper, outer ischial lower, ischial (common with biceps femoris ) head and upper shaft of fibula, soleal line of tibia ischial spine patella and tibial (via patellar ligament) tibia (pes anserinus) condyle of tibia tibia (via pes anserinus) calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') internus extends leg, flexes thigh flexes, abducts and ly rotates thigh; flexes leg extends thigh, flexes leg extends thigh, flexes leg flexes foot ly rotates femur tibial tibial tibial to internus, deep x x, sapheno us perforati ng branches of deep perforati ng branches of deep tibial gluteal intermedius and vastus is rectus femoris is part of quadriceps femoris muscle sartorius means "tailor"; its actions put lower limb in traditional crosslegged seated position of a tailor one of "hamstring" muscles pes anserinus is common insertion for gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus m soleus, gastrocnemius, and is m are sometimes called triceps surae muscle gemellus is a Latin word that means "little twin" 9

10 tensor fasciae latae tibialis tibialis vastus intermedius vastus is vastus is part of iliac crest, iliac spine tibial condyle and upper tibia interosseous membrane, posteromedi al fibula, posterolater al tibia and femur intermuscul ar septum, lip of linea aspera and gluteal intermuscul ar septum, lip of linea aspera iliotibial tract cuneiform and 1st of navicular and cuneiform, s 2-4 flexes, abducts, and ly rotates thigh dorsiflexes and inverts foot flexes foot; inverts foot gluteal deep tibial patella extends leg patella and patellar retinaculum patella and patellar retinaculum extends leg extends leg gluteal tibial (peronea l) and tibial x x, perforati ng branches of deep x tensor fascia latae redirects rotational forces of gluteus maximus acts as both an antagonist (dorsiflexion/pla ntar flexion) and a synergist (inversion) of tibialis acts as both an antagonist (dorsiflexion/pla ntar flexion) and a synergist (inversion) of tibialis vastus intermedius is part of quadriceps femoris muscle vastus is is part of quadriceps femoris muscle vastus is is part of quadriceps femoris muscle 10

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