Bones of the Lower Extremity

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1 Bones of the Lower Extremity

2 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The pelvic (or hip) girdle: Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton Transmits the weight of the upper body to the lower limbs Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis Some of the strongest ligaments of the body support the pelvic girdle Formed by a pair of hip bones called coxal bones, and the sacrum

3 Each os coxae has an: Illium: The large upper portion, often called your hip bone. Ishium: The posterior/inferior bone, often called your seat bone. Pubis: The anterior/inferior bone, which connects in front at the pubic symphysis. Acetabulum: point of fusion of all three, also called your hip socket.

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7 Landmarks for the Ilium Iliac crest: the thick, upper margin Iliac fossa: anterior smooth surface Anterior superior/ Anterior inferior Iliac spine: sites for muscle attachments Posterior superior/ Posterior inferior Iliac spine: sites for muscle attachments Greater sciatic notch Auricular surface

8 Landmarks for the Ishium: Ishial tuberosity: site for attachment of hamstring muscles Ishial spine: site for ligament attachment, measurement site for pelvic opening. Obturator foramen: the only hole or opening for nerves/blood vessels. Ishial ramus: point of connection with inferior ramus of pubis.

9 Landmarks for the pubis: Superior/inferior ramus Pubic crest and tubercle: site of attachment for abdominal muscles Pubic symphysis: articulation point that connects the two pubic bones together Pubic arch: helps to determine male vs. female pelvis

10 Bones of the Lower Limb Femur: Single bone of the thigh; is the largest, longest, and strongest bone in the body. The femur cannot be palpated (felt) because it is covered by large muscles. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the os coxae, and has a small, pit shaped depression called the fovea capitis, which is where the ligamentum teres helps to secure the head into the acetabulum.

11 Landmarks of the femur: Head; fovea capitis Neck: often a site for fracture Greater and lesser trochanter: attachment site for muscles Intertrochanteric line and crest: line is anterior, crest is posterior Linea aspera: rough line on the posterior aspect of shaft Medial and lateral condyle: articulation with the tibia Medial and lateral epicondyle: only part of the femur that can be felt at the knee Intercondylar fossa or notch: cruciate ligaments attach here. Patellar surface: the smooth surface above the condyles on the anterior side that articulates with the patella Popliteal surface: surface above the condyles on the posterior side

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13 Patella The patella is a triangular shaped sesamoid bone encased in the patellar tendon. The patellar tendon attaches the quadriceps femoris muscle to the tibia. It has two surfaces; the rounded, convex anterior surface, and the smooth, articular posterior surface.

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15 Tibia The bone on the medial side of the lower leg it is the weight-bearing bone of the lower leg. ( Tough Tibia ) Landmarks of proximal tibia (upper portion) Medial and lateral condyle Articulates with the medial and lateral condyle of the femur. Intercondylar emminence: The ridge of bone that projects upwards between the condyles. It is the attachment site for the cruciate ligaments, medial meniscus, and lateral meniscus Fibular facet: Just below the lateral condyle where the head of the fibula articulates.

16 Other Landmarks: Tibial tuberosity: Tibia roughened protuberance on the anterior surface just below the condyles. Is the attachment site of the patellar ligament. Anterior crest On the anterior surface of the body. Can palpate the entire length, also called your shin. Medial malleolus Large bony prominence on the medial side of your ankle Fibular notch Distal end of tibia, where it articulates with the distal end of the fibula

17 Fibula The slender bone on the lateral side of the lower leg. Fine Fibula. Landmarks: Head: The enlarged proximal end, articulating with the fibular facet of the tibia Shaft or body: Long slender portion Lateral malleolus: Large prominence on the lateral, distal end. Articulates with the lateral surface of the talus. Malleolar fossa Small fossa on the distal end opposite lateral malleolus

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20 Bones of the Foot Bones of the ankle are TARSALS Bone of the ball of your foot are called METATARSALS In-between the tarsals and your toes (phanges). Bones of your toes are called Phalanges (plural). A singular bone is called a phalanx.

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