AP Chemistry Summer Work

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1 AP Chemistry Summer Work Welcome to AP Chemistry! This rigorous course will prepare you for the AP Chemistry test currently scheduled for May 1 st, Throughout the scope of this course we will cover many new topics including thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry as well as review the topics covered in chemistry one and chemistry two. I promise to provide you with all the tools you need to succeed in this course if you promise to provide an open mind and willingness to learn. I m very excited for this opportunity to enrich your lives even further with chemistry and am confident that we will have both a fun and educational experience together! Your summer work focuses on reviewing the theories of the topics covered in chemistry one. These topics include: Chapter 1: Chemical Foundations Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 7: Periodicity Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts As far as actual summer work, you must complete the attached: Naming Review Differentiate between type I, II, and III compounds and be able to go from name to formula and formula to name. Periodicity Review Quantum numbers, electron configuration, and periodic trends. Periodic trends are referred to often over the course and need to be known. Stoichiometry review This includes all of your conversions, naming, writing, chemical formulas (empirical, molecular, hydrates), and balancing equations and stoichiometry problems. VSEPR review It s important to always remember how to draw our compounds and classify things as covalent or ionic at all points of the course. In the second document, you will find many resources to help aid you in your work. The attached periodic table is the only one that will ever be allowed to be used on a test or quiz and polyatomics will never be available or given. We will discuss the equation sheets upon your return but you should begin to use them and become familiar with them now. Feel free to find others in the class to work together and problem solve any topics you are struggling with. You are also able to contact me: over the summer I will be sure to check my . I would also like to set aside Monday August 29 th and Tuesday August 30 th from 9-11 am as voluntary study dates at JLHS in my room B121. If you are having a hard time with any portion of the packet please make an effort to attend one or both of these study sessions. If you would like to get a head start for September, after we review chem. one material, we will be starting with chapter 5 gas laws. Again, I look forward to a great experience this year! Enjoy your summer and come back ready to learn and have fun Mrs. Szoke

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3 1. Complete the chart: Name of the element Atomic symbol Atomic number Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic mass Charge Ion/Isotope/ Atom Copper Kr Antimony Calcium In a type one compound the first element is a metal / nonmetal with a varying / definite charge. It always forms a positive / negative ion. The second element is a metal / nonmetal that always forms a positive / negative ion. Polyatomics are seen as either ion / as only positive ions / as only negative ions / never. Ruman Numerals are / are not used to indicate charge. Finally, prefixes are / are not included in the naming of these compounds. 3. In a type two compound the first element is a metal / nonmetal with a varying / definite charge. It always forms a positive / negative ion. The second element is a metal / nonmetal that always forms a positive / negative ion. Polyatomics are seen as either ion / as only positive ions / as only negative ions / never. Ruman Numerals are / are not used to indicate charge. Finally, prefixes are / are not included in the naming of these compounds. 4. In a type three compound both elements are metals / nonmetals. Charges do / do not play a part in this type of compound. In type threes, prefixes / Roman Numerals are used to indicate how many of each element are needed. Polyatomics are seen as either ion / as only positive ions / as only negative ions / never.

4 5. Complete the following table: Name Formula Type zinc phosphate lithium nitrate tungsten(vi) sulfite SnBr 2 P 4 O 10 barium nitride Hg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Rb 2 CrO 4 lead(iv) sulfate aluminum hydroxide PtO 2 ammonium sulfate Fe 2 O 3 PtCl 2 silver bromide dinitrogen pentoxide Mg 3 N 2 iron (II) acetate NiCO 3 CO 2 6. Define: a. atomic radius b. ionization energy c. electron affinity

5 d. electronegativity 7. What are the trends (AND WHY) for: a. Atomic radius i. Down a group ii. Across a period (left to right) b. Ionization energy i. Down a group ii. Across a period (left to right) c. Electron affinity i. Down a group ii. Across a period (left to right) d. Electronegativity i. Down a group ii. Across a period (left to right) 8. Order the following in order of smallest to largest atomic radius: a. Cs, Si, F, Ca, Ga 9. Order the following in order of increasing ionization energy: a. P, Kr, Mg, Li

6 10. Complete the chart: NAME SYMBOL PROPERTY OF THE ORBITAL RANGE OF VALUES Principal Angular Momentum Magnetic Spin 11. How many electrons can have the value: a. 4f b. 1p c. 2s d. 2d e. 6p f. 4d 12. Write the longhand configuration and four quantum numbers for: a. Silver b. Tungsten 13. Write the shorthand configuration and four quantum numbers for: a. Astatine b. Holmium 14. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass (amu) Abundance Si Si % Si %

7 15. Calculate the mass of Ca 3(PO 4) 2 and percent composition of the elements in the compound. 16. What mass is present in 6.72 moles of (NH 4) 2S 17. How many atoms are present in g of AgCl? 18. How many grams are in 9.07 x atoms of BaSO A compound is found to have 46.67% nitrogen, 6.70% hydrogen, 19.98% carbon and 26.65% oxygen. What is its empirical formula? 20. A certain blue solid contains 36.84% N with the remainder being oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this compound?

8 21. A compound is analyzed and found to contain 68.54% carbon, 8.63% hydrogen, and 22.83% oxygen. The molecular weight of this compound is known to be approximately 140 g/mol. What is the empirical formula? What is the molecular formula? 22. During lab, 1.04 g of hydrated NiSO 4 were heated. After heating, only 0.61 g of NiSO 4 remained. What was the formula of the original hydrate? 23. Determine the percent of water in K 2S 5 H 2O. Balance and identify the type of reaction: 24. H 3BO 3 H 4B 6O 11 + H 2O 25. N 2O + H 2O NH 4NO C 4H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2O 27. BaCl 2 + Al 2(SO 4) 3 BaSO 4 + AlCl 3

9 Solve: 28. How many grams are necessary to make 100mL of 0.5 M solution of calcium hydroxide? 29. What is the molarity of a solution containing 11.2 grams of lithium bromide in 250 ml of solution? 30. Calculate how many grams of iron can be made from combining 16.5 grams of iron(iii) oxide with hydrogen gas forming solid iron and water. 31. The nitrite ion (NO 2 -) in potassium nitrite is changed to the nitrate ion (NO 3 -) by the action of potassium permanganate (KMnO 4) in sulphuric acid solution. 5KNO 2 + 2KMnO 4 + 3H 2SO > 5KNO 3 + 2MnSO 4 + K 2SO 4 + 3H 2O How many moles and how many grams of KMnO 4 are needed to carry out this reaction on 11.4 grams of KNO 2? 32. How many grams of calcium hydroxide will be form when you combine 4.44 g of calcium oxide and 7.77 g of water are available to react? Also identify the limiting and excess reactants.

10 33. Sulfur reacts with oxygen to produce sulfur trioxide gas. If 6.3 g of sulfur reacts with 10.0 g of oxygen, what is the limiting reactant? How many grams of sulfur trioxide will be produced? How many grams of excess reactant remain? 34. If 15 grams of copper (II) chloride react with 20 grams of sodium nitrate how much sodium chloride can be formed? If 12.2 grams of sodium chloride is collected in lab, what is your percent yield and percent error? grams of copper react with 1.8 grams of silver nitrate in a single replacement reaction. If this process is carried out in lab with a percent yield of silver of 83.7%, how many grams of silver were you able to recover? What was your percent error?

11 36. Differentiate between ionic, polar covalent and nonpolar covalent bonds. Include what happens with electrons, charges, dipole moments, who the bond forms between and electronegativity difference values. 37. What is a resonance structure? Draw the following and determine how many (if any) resonance structure the compound contains. a. CO 3 2- For the following compounds: a. Draw the Lewis Structures b. Identify the VSEPR geometry c. Identify the VSEPR shape d. Identify the hybridization 38. XeO NO BF 3

12 41. KrF 2Cl IF XeF TeF CO 2

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