HISTORY EXAM REVISION BOOK

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1 HISTORY EXAM REVISION BOOK GERMANY

2 Things you NEED to know about: Part 1- Weimar Germany ( ) Treaty of Versailles [ ] Weimar Germany [ ] Hyper Inflation [ ] Wall Street Crash and Great Depression [ ] Rise of the Nazi Party [ ] How Hitler came to power [ ] How Hitler went from Chancellor (1933) [ ] to Fuhrer (1934) Part 2 Life in Nazi Germany ( ) Role of Women in society [ ] Life for children [ ] Nazi Economic policies & goals [ ] Use of propaganda [ ] Use of terror and violence [ ] Persecution of the Jews [ ]

3 Terms of the Treaty of Versailles 1) Land Changes 2) Military No Tanks No planes No submarines 100,000 soldiers 15,000 sailors only 6 battleships De-militarised Rhineland 3) Economic Germany had to pay 6.6 billion in compensation to France, Belgium and Britain 4) Other things Article 231 Germany accepted full blame for the war Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria The League of Nations was created Task Which was the worst part of the Treaty of Versailles for Germany and why?

4 Weimar Germany Even before the end of WWI Germany had suffered badly many were starving and an outbreak of the flu had killed thousands. A NEW GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER WHEN THE KAISER ABDICATED The government was lead by Freidrich Ebert Germany was now a Republic. Ebert was leader of a social democratic party, a moderate party of socialists. They signed the Armistice on 11 th November The new Government was a Democracy they believed everyone should vote on how the country was run. The Weimar Government Proportional Representation is where the number of seats a party wins in Parliament is worked out as a proportion of the number of votes they get. However this lead to lots and lots of political parties getting seats and they tended to argue with each other making it difficult to get laws passed Problems 1) Weimar was blamed for the Treaty of Versailles (The November Criminals), many Germans hated the loss of military power land and that they were blamed for the war (Article 231) 2) Violence was common and the Communists attempted a revolution. The Weimar Government was not strong enough and so relied upon the Freikorps, a gang of thugs who were mostly unemployed ex-soldiers 3) Little got done because of the system of proportional representation which lead to arguments rather than action. Important point Weimar was set up as a result of defeat in WWI this made it unpopular from the start as it was blamed for losing the war and signing the Treaty of Versailles. Many thought it weak and disorganised. TASK Scribble some quick notes or a spider diagram on how the Weimar Republic was set up. What was the major problem for the Weimar government?

5 Years of Unrest in Weimar Germany Why were people unhappy? 1) Many people were poor, unemployed and starving 2) Many Germans believed they should have won the war and blamed defeat on the November Criminals (Ebert and his government) 3) Others blamed it on the Jews and Communists 4) The Government seemed weak and living conditions got worse in Germany after the Treaty of Versailles Riots and Rebellions 1) 1919 the Communists led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg tried to take over Berlin in the Spartacist revolt but were stopped by the Freikorps. 2) In 1920 some of the right wing Freikorps, led by Wolfgang Kapp tried to take over Berlin. The workers went on strike and the Freikorps gave up. However the government did not punish them as many in the police and courts supported them. The Ruhr and Hyper-inflation (1923) Germany could not afford to pay reparation in The French and Belgium army occupied the Ruhr the richest industrial part of Germany. The German government called a general strike and printed money to pay the workers the more money that was printed the less it was worth which resulted in Hyper-inflation. In 1918 an egg cost ¼ of one mark In August 1923 it cost 5000 marks In November 1923 it cost 80,000,000 marks Money became worthless Impact of Hyper-inflation 1) Wages had to be paid twice a day as the cost of goods went up so quickly 2) Savings became worthless and previously rich people were left with nothing 3) The German Mark became worthless and was often used to burn to keep warm. Throughout the economy got worse and people got poorer and so became unhappy. The Weimar Government was blamed Task Give a list of reasons why people were discontent in this period.

6 STRESEMANN AND RECOVERY In 1923 Stresemann became Chancellor and from things got better The Munich Putsch November 1923 As a result of Hyper-inflation Hitler attempts a Revolution and marches on Munich. The army opened fire on them and the revolution was stopped. Hitler went to prison and was forgotten. GERMANY AND INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION Streseman was chancellor for only a few months, before he became the foreign minister. 1) In September 1923 he told workers in the Ruhr to go back to work 2) He accepted the Dawes Plan in 1924 under this America would lend Germany money to pay to Belgium and France who would give the money back to America for the money they borrowed to fight WWI 3) In 1925 French and Belgium troops left the Ruhr 4) The Locarno Settlement where Germany promised it would not alter its western borders by force 5) 1926 Germany joined the League of Nations 6) The Young Plan Re-parations were cut by 25% and Germany was given 58 years to pay. Thanks to American money Germany was now back on her feet and becoming prosperous again. The Nazi party had almost disappeared. Task Explain how Germany recovered between 1923 and Task How will the Wall Street Crash in 1929 affect this?

7 THE NAZI PARTY Adolf Hitler was born in Austria but lived in Germany from He was a brave soldier in the German army in WWI and won the Iron Cross. He could not accept that Germany had lost the war. He joined the German workers party in He renamed it National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) He was a good speaker. He was imprisoned after the failure of the Munich Putch and wrote his book Mein Kampf. Hitlers Beliefs: 1) The Aryan peoples of Northern Europe were a master Race. 2) Germans had a right to more land (by stealing it from the inferior Russians) Lebensraum 3) Wanted Germany to be the dominant power in the world 4) Reverse all of the Treaty of Versailles 5) Have Austria merge with Germany to create a greater Germany. 6) The Jews were a danger and had to be removed from Germany. Who supported the Nazi party? 1) The Military who disliked losing WWI and the Military terms of the Treaty of Versailles 2) The Middle classes who lost their money under hyper-inflation 3) Business men and the rich who feared the Communists might come to power 4) Farmers because food prices were so low 5) Anti-Semites and other racists 6) Thugs and the Young who found the violence of the Nazis exciting (especially after the events of WWI) 7) Some of the Church who liked their conservative values about family Most people did NOT support the Nazi party in 1925 they had only 30,000 members and only 13 members of the Reichstag the Communists had 54. Important Nazis Hermann Goering deputy leader and a WWI fighter pilot and war hero Josef Goebbels was in charge of Propaganda Heinrich Himmler was in charge of The S.S. secret police and concentration camps Ernst Rohm was in charge of the S.A. a large military force who used violence on the streets to intimidate opponents. Task Why did people support the Nazi Party?

8 HOW DID HITLER BECOME CHANCELLOR IN 1933? The Wall Street Crash in 1929 the Wall Street Crash caused the American Economy to collapse. The Americans could no longer afford to lend money to Germany under the Young Plan. From is known as the Great Depression. Number of Unemployed Nazi votes in percentage million 2.6 % million no election million 18.3 % million no election million 33.1 % million 43.9 % As millions of people became unemployed, and fell into poverty people were reminded of the Treaty of Versailles and reparations and Hyper-inflation. It appeared that Weimar could not manage the economy. None of the main political parties knew what to do so people started to look at the Nazi party. Hitler promised jobs and told people it was the fault of the Jews that they were poor. The New Chancellor Bruning could not control the Reichstag as there were so many Nazi s, Communists and others arguing with each other. Presidential Elections President Hindenburg and Hitler stood for the post of President in June Hindenburg was expected to win with ease but actually struggled to defeat Hitler. Hindenburg Hated Hitler and refused to give him the job of Chancellor However by 1932 Hitler was so popular he could demand the job and Hindenburg let him have a go as Chancellor in January Germany The key point here is that Hitler did jump straight into power. His support increased over time as the economy got worse and the other political parties failed to solve Germany s problems Task Did Hitler come to power because of his own skill or did he come to power because of the weakness of Weimar?

9 HITLER FROM CHANCELLOR TO FUHRER Hitler was made Chancellor in January 1933 but he was not that strong he did not control: The Police the Courts the Army the newspapers The Reichstag and could be sacked at anytime by President Hindenburg. Hitler at this point is a long way from being a dictator. 1) Hitler is made Chancellor in Jan ) The Reichstag is burnt down Hitler is quick to blame the Communists and insist they are unfinished 3) Hitler bans the Communist party and without them he can control the Government 4) Hitler passes the Enabling Act 5) The Enabling Act gives Hitler control of the newspapers and allows him to arrest anyone he dislikes 6) Night of the Long Knives all Nazis that are not 100% loyal to Hitler Like Ernst Rohm are executed 7) Hindenburg dies and Hitler assumes the role of Chancellor and President in the new title Der Fuhrer 8) In gratitude for killing Ernst Rohm The army swears an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler Hitler becomes dictator and absolute master of Germany which has become a police state. Remember Hitler was elected to power and used the democratic process to achieve his aims. Task what was: The Reichstag fire The enabling Act The Night of the Long Knives Which of these events was the most important for Hitler to secure his power over Germany?

10 THE JEWS IN NAZI GERMANY Hitler believed the Germans were the superior race and all other races were inferior. Goebbels (head of propaganda) tried to convince as many people of this as possible. The Jews were portrayed as dangerous vermin, harming the German people and nation The Nuremburg Laws 1) The Law declared that Jews were no longer German Citizens 2) All marriages between Germans and Jews were banned 3) Jews and Germans were banned from having sex with each other 4) All Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David Many Jews left Germany, such as the physicist Albert Einstein, they spoke out against the Nazi s, but little was done to help the Jews left in Germany. Kristallnacht 1938 The Night of the Broken Glass 1) A Jew killed a German diplomat in Paris in November ) Riots occurred across Germany, thousands of Jewish shops were smashed up and many Jews were arrested 3) Nazi Propaganda said the Jews were bad people and had to be sent to special work camps to work for the German people. From late 1941 these camps became extermination camps. 4) The Jews were charged to pay for all the damage that occurred on Kristallnacht. From this point on the law no-longer protected the Jews. Why did people not protest against how the Jews were treated? 1) Many were scarred of the S.S. and Gestapo 2) Many people were better off than before the Nazi s so kept quiet 3) Propaganda mislead the German people 4) Key opponents like the communists were already in concentration camps. Remember it was not just the Jews who were persecuted in Nazi Germany Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavic (eastern European) peoples, the disabled, communists, some Church leaders Task How did the lives of Jewish people change between 1933 and 1939? Why didn t more people stand up for the Jewish people?

11 German Economy One of the main reasons Hitler kept peoples support was that the economy did recover in this period. Jobs 1) All men between 18 and 25 could be recruited into the National Labour service and given jobs building the Autobahns or other public works 2) All trade unions were merged in to the Nazi controlled Labour Front they were not allowed to strike but wages did rise. 3) The organisation Strength through Joy gave rewards like holidays to the best workers 4) The Nazis created the Volkswagen (peoples car) and many workers saved up to buy one (but the money was taken from them and no cars were given) 5) Output increased and unemployment was almost ended. The Military The German army was at first secretly and then publically (1935) rebuilt creating jobs in the Army, Navy and Airforce. There were also jobs created in factories producing Tanks, Artillery and other military equipment. Why was Hitler popular? 1) He created jobs after the struggles of the 1920 s this made Hitler a hero to many 2) Propaganda 3) Made German look strong to other countries, which gave people back their pride after WWI 4) People were better off 5) Mass Rallies gave the appearance of strength and order something Weimar did not have 6) The Army supported him due to the extra money they received. 7) Business liked the prosperity 8) People were frightened to protest. Task Which people benefitted from Nazi rule? Explain why many German people would have supported the Nazi Party in the 1930 s

12 THE FAMILY IN NAZI GERMANY The Nazi party s image of the ideal family was A father who was a farmer or soldier A mother who stayed home to cook, clean and make more children Lots and lots (8+) of children, who were fit, active and strong to become future mothers, soldiers and farmers. All would be white, blond haired and blue eyed. Role of Women Role of Children 1) The Nazi s did not want women to work or go to university (However once the war started and Germany needed war supplies, many women did go to work). The role of women was to stay at home, cook, clean and have babies. 2) They were to have many children, women were given medals when they had 4, 6 and 8 children 3) Women were encouraged to dress plainly, no make up, simple clothes and no smoking. Boys were to be rough and enjoy active out door, group hobbies like rugby, hiking, camping and playing war games All boys had to join the Hitler Youth where they would spend evenings and holidays away form their families to be taught Nazi ideology and trained to be future soldiers. Girls Were to be physically fit and taught how to sew, cook and other household duties. Girls were made to join the League of German maidens and taught to be good house wives and mothers. School School was used to teach Nazi ideology and racism against the Jews. Hitler saw school as an ideal way to train children to become good Nazi s when they became adults. Task Describe the ideal family in Nazi Germany Explain the role of women in Nazi society

13 OPPOSITION IN NAZI GERMANY As a result of the Night of the Long Knives, propaganda, the enabling act, the banning of opposition parties, the S.S., Gestapo, concentration camps and wide support for Hitler for rescuing the German economy, resistance and protest was not a major problem for the Nazi regime. The Church At first the Church was keen to work with the Nazi regime, they liked the traditional family values and like the Nazi s hated the Communist party as it was Atheist. In 1933 the Church and Hitler signed a Concordat and agreed that the Nazi s would not interfere with the Church and the Church would not criticise the Nazi s. In 1937 Pope Pius XI called Nazism un-christian. In return Hitler sent priests and nuns to concentration camps. The army All generals who were seen as anti Nazi like General Ludwig Beck were sacked Children The Edelweiss pirates were groups of children who disliked the Nazi party taking too much control of their lives. In protest they listened to black Jazz music, grew long hair and wrote graffiti. Many of them were hanged by the Nazi s. There was very little outright opposition to the Nazi regime. Instead those who opposed the Nazi party told anti-nazi jokes, wrote anti Nazi graffiti and tried to undermine the regime but without being openly defiant. Task Explain why there was so little opposition to the Nazi government?

14 FOREIGN POLICY Aims 1) Reverse the Treaty of Versailles 2) Create a Greater Germany by uniting all German speaking peoples (in particular uniting Germany with Austria) 3) Create Lebensraum (Living space) by conquering eastern Europe and Russia and building a German Empire. Events 1933 Germany left the League of Nations 1935 Germany began to publically re-arm and started conscription in breach of the Treaty of Versailles 1936 the army re-occupied the Rhineland in breach of T. of V Made an alliance with fascist Italy 1938 Anschless Germany and Austria merged (following a rigged vote) again in breach of T. of V Munich conference Britain, France, Italy and Germany agreed Germany could take the Sudetenland s from Czechoslovakia 1939 Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia 1939 Germany and Russia sign the Nazi Soviet non aggression pact which promised that Russia would not fight against Germany 1939 Germany invades Poland 1939 World War Two begins Task If Hitler had been challenged before 1939, say in 1936 when he occupied the Rhineland, do you think there would still have been a World War II?

15 SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS For the essays remember you should EXPLAIN 2 reasons and give a conclusion where you PRIORITISE then LINK arguments together To explain use the word because a lot Start your conclusion with THE MOST IMPORTANT REASON WAS. BECAUSE 1) Briefly describe the key features of the French occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 [6] 2) Describe the economic problems Germany faced in the years [6] 3) Explain why there was a period of recovery for Germany in the years ) Explain how the position of women changed in the years [6] 5) Briefly explain how the territorial terms of the treaty of Versailles affected Germany [6] 6) How did the Nazi party come to power by 1933? [10] 7) How did Hitler go from Chancellor to Fuhrer? [10] 8) Were attacks on Jewish business the worst effects of Nazi persecution of the Jews in the years ? Explain your answer [10] You may wish to include Attacks on Jewish Business, Education, 1935 Nuremberg Laws and 1938 Kristallnacht [10] 9) Was the use of propaganda the main reason Hitler established a dictatorship in Germany in the years ? Explain your answer [10] You may wish to include Propaganda, Censorship, the Police state and persecution of Churches For each of the following sources try to work out:

16 1) What the message of the cartoon is 2) What is the purpose of the Cartoon Who wrote and why did they write it? What did they want to achieve by doing so. Left A Nazi Cartoon that says Pumping blood Below A Cartoon published in Britain in 1939 Left a poster shown in Germany in the late 1930 s Below a German poster shown in 1930 s

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