環境生態學題庫 1. Describe the interactions among soil, agriculture, and ecological environment.

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1 環境生態學題庫 1. Describe the interactions among soil, agriculture, and ecological environment. 2. Enumerate in detail the environmental factors that can affect crop production. 3. Describe the interrelations between global warming and agricultural production. 4. Enumerate in detail the flow direction of major components of surface energy balance at daytime. 5. Enumerate in detail the flow direction of major components of surface energy balance at nighttime. 6. Explain the diurnal change of micrometeorological environment within a crop canopy. 7. Describe the temporal and spatial variation of climate in Taiwan. 8. Explain the basis of Köppen s classification and discuss its advantages and disadvantages. 9. Enumerate in detail two anthropogenic influences that changed our climate. 10. Explain the causes of El Niño phenomenon, and describe the change of climate around Pacific region. 11. Explain the causes of La Niña phenomenon, and describe the change of climate around Pacific region. 12. Explain the causes of rapid global warming since 1970 s, and describe the possible consequences. 13. Enumerate in detail the goals of precision agriculture. 14. Enumerate in detail the importance of understanding soil with regard to application of precision agriculture.

2 15. Enumerate in detail an application of remote sensing in soil and environmental sciences related studies. 16. Illustrate, diagrammatically, the typical reflectance spectrum of bare soil, vegetation, and water during wavelength range from 400nm to 2500nm. 17. List the name of two commonly used wavebands, with the corresponding wavelength ranges, in remote sensing and their possible applications. 18. List the name of one space or airborne remote sensing instruments, and its uniqueness. 19. Describe the following ecological concepts. a) Succession b) Energy flow between trophic levels c) Limiting factors d) Carrying capacity 20. Why are aggregates important in determining the quality of the soil as a habitat for organisms? 21. What is soil quality? 22. How would you define a healthy agricultural soil? 23. How can biological diversity and crop rotation benefit soil quality? 24. Describe the biogeochemical cycles of carbon. 25. Describe the role of earthworms in soils. 26. Describe the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen. 27. What are the impacts of agricultural activities and practices (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, physical disturbance) on soil biodiversity and the capacity of the soil to undertake its functions? 28. Describe the relationship between land management and greenhouse effect?

3 29. What are the ecological consequences for nitrification in soils? 30. How can organic farming increase farmer wealth and biological diversity? 31. What is the risk of gene flow from GM (genetic modified) plants to microbes? 32. Describe the roles of soil biodiversity in ecosystem function, resilience and recovery? 33. Describe the interactions between soil organisms. 34. Describe the differences between r-strategy and K-strategy organisms. 35. What are the roles of phosphorus and nitrate in the eutrophication of rivers and lakes? 36. List the chemicals that will cause ozone destruction, and deduce the mechanism for at least one of the chemicals, which you give, leading to O 3 disappearance. 37. Photochemical smog has become one of air pollution problems in many urban areas in the world. Demonstrate the reactions causing photochemical smog and propose the methods to reduce it. 38. In December 1997, world leaders met in Kyoto, Japan, to develop a strategy for controlling carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale. As part of the agreement, an overall goal of reducing greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels by was set. However, the objective of the Kyoto Protocol may be defeated if some events occur. What are the events? 39. Give the advantages and disadvantage of using solar energy as an energy source. 40. What is bioconcentration factor (BCF) and biomagnification? For a chemical HCB with log K ow = 5.3. What would be the predicted concentration of HCB due to bioconcentration in the fat of fish that swim in waters containing ppm of the chemical?

4 41. Given the standard reduction potentials at 298 o K: O 2 (g) + 4H + + 4e - 2H 2 O E o = 1.23 V (1) HCrO H + + 3e - Cr H 2 O E o = 1.20 V (2) Cr 2 O H + + 6e - 2Cr H 2 O E o = 1.33 V (3) Fe 3+ + e - Fe 2+ E o = 0.77 V (4) Answer the following questions: (1) If it is assumed that all chemical species are present in their standard states, will H 2 O molecules be capable of reducing which species of Cr(VI) in acid solution to Cr 3+? (2) Using Nernst equation to calculate the reduction potential of H 2 O at 25 o C with H + concentration of 0.1 M. (3) Evaluate the concentration ratio of [Cr 3+ ]/[HCrO - 4 ] for the occurrence of HCrO - 4 reduction by splitting H 2 O molecules at ph 1. (4) Calculate the equilibrium constant at 25 o C for the reaction - HCrO 4 + 3Fe H + Cr Fe H 2 O 42. The Henry s Law constant KH is mol L -1 atm -1 for oxygen at 25 o C. What is the solubility of oxygen in water at 25 o C? 43. Many valuable metals, such as nickel, occur in nature as sulfide ores. The sulfur is usually removed using a roasted technique to recover metals. During the roasted process, SO 2 is produced. Associated with the combustion of coal, these two anthropogenic activities have been considered major sources of SO 2 causing acid rain on a global scale. Give the methods for eliminating the release of SO 2 from roasted and combustion of coal activities. 44. Most people spend more time indoors than outdoors. Therefore, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental problem. List indoor pollutants commonly found and specify their sources. 45. In Bangladesh, poor people are suffering arsenic toxicity because they utilize high As-containing groundwater as their drinking water. The UN introduces an efficient but very cheap method to help these people by providing iron oxides to them. Explain how the iron mineral can solve their problems?

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