Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ. Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008

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1 Basic Nutrient Removal from Water Beta Edition Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008

2 Presentation Outline Salt Lake County waters / 303(d) listings Nutrient Control Phosphorous Removal Nitrogen Removal Potential Costs

3 Salt Lake County Watershed

4 Salt Lake County Watershed 303(d) listed waters 2008

5 Watershed Assessment Beneficial Management Unit Unit Use Use Pollutant Stream Unit Name Name Class Support Miles Jordan River/ Utah Lake Jordan River-1 Jordan River from Farmington Bay upstream contiguous with the Davis County line. 3B NS Dissolved Oxygen 7.6 Jordan River/ Utah Lake Jordan River-2 Jordan River from Davis County line upstream to North Temple Street. 3B NS Dissolved Oxygen 4.46 Jordan River/ Utah Lake Jordan River-3 Jordan River from North Temple to 2100 S 2B NS Dissolved Oxygen 4.2 Jordan River/ Utah Lake Jordan River-3 Jordan River from North Temple to 2100 S 3B NS Total Phosphorus 4.2 Jordan River / Utah Lake Utah Lake 396,900 acres 3B PS TP,TDS

6 Salt Lake County Watershed Wastewater Treatment Plants Magna 3.3 MGD Salt Lake 56 MGD Central Valley 75 MGD South Valley 38 MGD - 48 MGD 182 MGD

7 What are nutrients? Chemical elements/compounds needed by organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce. Carbon 25-40% dry weight found in everything natural fixation decomposition Nitrogen 1-5% dry weight found in proteins nitrate (NO 3- ) ammonium (NH 4+ ) natural fixation decomposition Phosphorus 0.1-1% dry weight found in lipids, DNA phosphate (PO 3-4 ) mineral weathering decomposition Measured ratio of C:N:P can indicate organisms needs (106:16:1) Slide courtesy Dr. Michelle A. Baker - USU

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11 Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus If enough phosphorus is present Cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen from the air. Nitrogen control is needed for ammonia toxicity, for nitrate reduction in drinking water, and for waters where phosphorus levels are normally low.

12 So Now You Want Me To Treat for NUTRIENTS!

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14 Why remove phosphorus Eutrophication Excess nutrients Nitrogen, phosphorus Algal blooms Hypoxic conditions

15 Why remove phosphorus Eutrophication Phosphate is the main cause of eutrophication as it accumulates with time, while nitrate, tends to denitrify with time and so does not accumulate to the same extent

16 Phosphorus forms 11 th most abundant mineral Highly reactive so NOT found as P Particulate Soluble Gaseous not of any significant

17 Phosphate forms Organic phosphates ATP-ADP Inorganic phosphates Orthophosphates PO -3 4 Pyrophosphates P 2 O -4 7 Tripolyphosphate P 3 O -5 10

18 Wastewater Influent 10 Total Phosphorus mg/l Organic phosphate Pyrophosphate Tripolyphosphate Orthophosphate

19 Treatment technologies Phosphorus removal rules Assume no gaseous forms 100% goes out as a solid or liquid Must be converted or attached to a solid to be removed from the liquid stream

20 Treatment technologies Soluble P Soluble P Particulate P Particulate P

21 Treatment technologies Converting soluble P to particulate P Biologically Chemically

22 Biological P Removal Some bacteria store higher levels of phosphorus than normal Excess phosphorus stored as polyphosphates These bugs are called phosphorus accumulating organisms PAOs

23 Biological P Removal Process discovered in 1974 Anaerobic phosphorus is released PAOs uptake in aerobic zone Fat man on a diet ONLY the activated sludge process

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26 Biological P Removal Anaerobic Zone

27 Biological P Removal Aerobic Zone

28 Biological P Removal Luxury uptake Anaerobic Aerobic Orthophosphate concentration

29 Chemical P Removal Basic Reaction Metal ions + Phosphate Metal Phosphate + Acid Side Reaction Metal ions + Bicarbonate Metal Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide

30 Chemical P Removal Ca +2 Al +3 Fe +3 Fe +2 lime alum, sodium aluminate ferric chloride, ferric sulfate ferrous sulfate

31 Chemical P Solids Ca +2 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2, Ca 5 (OH)(PO 4 ) 2 Al +3 Fe +3 Al X (OH) Y (PO 4 ) Z Fe X (OH) Y (PO 4 ) Z Fe +2 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2

32 Chemical P Curve

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36 How low can we go? EBPR best case 0.5 mg/l Reliably 1.0 mg/l Chemically best case 0.01 mg/l Reliably 0.05 mg/l

37 Why Remove Nitrogen? Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate can be toxic Ammonia exerts an oxygen demand Ammonia and nitrate stimulate growth of algae and aquatic plants

38 Forms of Nitrogen in Water Ammonium and Ammonia ( NH 4 +,NH 3 ) ( ionized, un-ionized ) Organic Nitrogen ( -N ) Nitrite and Nitrate ( NO 2 -, NO 3 - ) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen ( TKN ) ( ammonia forms + organic nitrogen ) Total Inorganic Nitrogen ( TIN ) ( ammonia forms + nitrite + nitrate ) Total Nitrogen

39 Ammonia form depends on ph 100% 80% NH 4 + -N ammonium ionized ammonia NH 3 -N ammonia gas unionized ammonia percentage 60% 40% 20% 0% ph

40 Some Chemistry Ammonia is the third most produced chemical in U.S. Detectable odor from 25 to 50 mg/l NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) NH 4 + (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H + (aq)

41 Nitrification The major method for ammonia removal Conversion of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate by autotrophic bacteria Is an AREOBIC process ( Oxygen needed )

42 Nitrification Definitions All bacteria need carbon for growth Heterotrophic bacteria bugs that use organic compounds (BOD 5 ) for their carbon source Autotrophic bacteria bugs that use CO 2 as their carbon source ( nitrifiers )

43 Nitrification Definitions Heterotrophic bacteria will always out compete Autotrophic bacteria Carbon oxidizers are the top of the food chain (CBOD) So if a system is nitrifying it must have a LOW CBOD

44 Some Chemistry Typically a 2 step process ( peel the orange! ) Nitrite formation ( Nitroso-bacteria) 2 NH O 2 2 NO H H 2 O Nitrate formation ( Nitro-bacteria ) 2 NO O 2 2 NO 3 2 NH O 2 2 NO H H 2 O

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50 Nitrite - Nitrate Con 10 mg/l drinking water

51 Nitrite - Nitrate Pro Estrogen removal 2,4-nitro EE2 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)

52 De-nitrification The major method for nitrate removal Conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas by heterotrophic bacteria Is an ANOXIC process ( Carbon needed )

53 De-nitrification Since it is heterotrophic growth, organic carbon is used Substrate consumption ratio (SCR) Theoretical SCR is 2.86 g COD/gram nitrate nitrogen Typical influent has about 4.2 g COD/gram nitrate nitrogen

54 De-nitrification Oxygen equivalent of NO 3 - is 2.86 mg Alkalinity produced due to the consumption of the nitric acid Alkalinity equivalent of NO 3 - is 3~3.2 mg

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61 Wait till you see the costs of low nutrient removal!

62 What are the Costs? DWQ needs to know EPA needs survey curves Numerous white papers Conduct Statewide study

63 2000 CWNS Results 138 wastewater projects next 20 years No nutrient projects 793 million dollars needed Average cost 5.7 million (2000 dollars)

64 Unit Cost of TP for existing facilities (2005) for 1 mg/l $ / kg TP Capacity MGD

65 White Paper Example Q = 182 MGD TP i = 5.0 mg/l TP e = 1.0 mg/l Load Reduced 3.00 tons/day Costs 250 million Costs $25/person

66 State Study DWQ plans to evaluating the feasibility and economic impacts of establishing state-wide discharge standards for the nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen in treated wastewater discharged to surface waters

67 State Study Treatment facilities and nutrient removal treatment costs will be assessed with respect to the need to treat wastewater to a range of nutrient standards. The following discharge standards will be considered for each facility:

68 State Study Effluent Nutrient Requirement Scenarios Total Phosphorus Only Total Phosphorus & Total Nitrogen 1.0 ppm 0.1 ppm 1.0 ppm & 20 ppm 0.1 ppm & 10 ppm

69 State Study Selected consultant CH 2 M Hill Data gathering from POTWs Schedule meetings with POTWs Complete report Presentations to Councils/Boards

70 Questions?

Nutrient Removal at Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Gary M. Grey HydroQual, Inc. ggrey@hydroqual.com 201 529 5151 X 7167

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