The Adaptive Immune System

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Adaptive Immune System"

Transcription

1 Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity Differentiate humoral from cellular immunity.

2 Immunity Innate immunity: defenses against any pathogen Adaptive immunity: induced resistance to a specific pathogen ANIMATION Host Defenses: The Big Picture Historical Development Pasteur observed immunity in chickens injected with weakened pathogens Von Behring received the Nobel prize for development of antitoxin Ehrlich s work led to the identification of antibodies in serum

3 Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity T and B cells develop from stem cells in red bone marrow Figure 17.8 Differentiation of T cells and B cells. Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity Humoral immunity Due to antibodies B cells mature in the bone marrow Chickens: bursa of Fabricius Cellular immunity Due to T cells T cells mature in the thymus ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Overview

4 Antigens and Antibodies Learning Objectives 17-3 Define antigen, epitope, and hapten Explain the function of antibodies, and describe their structural and chemical characteristics Name one function for each of the five classes of antibodies. The Nature of Antigens Antigen (Ag): a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells Antibodies (Ab) interact with epitopes, or antigenic determinants Hapten: antigen is combined with carrier molecules

5 Antigens Figure 17.1 Epitopes (antigenic determinants). Haptens Figure 17.2 Haptens.

6 The Nature of Antibodies Globular proteins called immunoglobulins The number of antigen-binding sites determines valence Antibodies Antigenbinding site Heavy chain Light chain Fc (stem) region Hinge region Antibody molecule Epitope (antigenic determinant) Antigen Antigenbinding site Enlarged antigen-binding site bound to an epitope Figure 17.3ab The structure of a typical antibody molecule.

7 Antibodies Antibodies Antibody molecules shown by atomic force microscopy (see page 64) Figure 17.3c The structure of a typical antibody molecule. IgG Antibodies Monomer 80% of serum antibodies Fix complement In blood, lymph, and intestine Cross placenta Enhance phagocytosis; neutralize toxins and viruses; protect fetus and newborn Half-life = 23 days

8 IgM Antibodies Pentamer 5 10% of serum antibodies Fix complement In blood, in lymph, and on B cells Agglutinate microbes; first Ab produced in response to infection Half-life = 5 days IgA Antibodies Dimer 10 15% of serum antibodies In secretions Mucosal protection Half-life = 6 days

9 IgD Antibodies Monomer 0.2% of serum antibodies In blood, in lymph, and on B cells On B cells, initiate immune response Half-life = 3 days IgE Antibodies Monomer 0.002% of serum antibodies On mast cells, on basophils, and in blood Allergic reactions; lysis of parasitic worms Half-life = 2 days

10 B Cells and Humoral Immunity Learning Objectives 17-6 Compare and contrast T-dependent and T-independent antigens Differentiate plasma cell from memory cell Describe clonal selection Describe how a human can produce different antibodies Describe four outcomes of an antigen antibody reaction.

11 Activation of B Cells Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expressed on mammalian cells T-dependent antigens Ag presented with (self) MHC to T H cell T H cell produces cytokines that activate the B cell T-independent antigens Stimulate the B cell to make Abs ANIMATION Antigen Processing and Presentation: Overview Activation of B Cells Figure 17.6 T-independent antigens.

12 Activation of B Cells Extracellular antigens Ag fragment MHC class II with Ag fragment MHC class II with Ag fragment displayed on surface Antibodies B cell B cell B cell Immunoglobulin receptors coating B cell surface T H cell Cytokines Plasma cell Immunoglobulin receptors on B cell surface recognize and attach to antigen, which is then internalized and processed. Within the B cell a fragment of the antigen combines with MHC class II. MHC class II antigenfragment complex is displayed on B cell surface. Receptor on the T helper cell (T H ) recognizes complex of MHC class II and antigen fragment and is activated producing cytokines, which activate the B cell. The T H cell has been previously activated by an antigen displayed on a dendritic cell (see Figure 17.10). B cell is activated by cytokines and begins clonal expansion. Some of the progeny become antibody-producing plasma cells. Figure 17.4 Activation of B cells to produce antibodies. Clonal Selection ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Clonal Selection and Expansion

13 Activation of B Cells B cells differentiate into: Antibody-producing plasma cells Memory cells Clonal deletion eliminates harmful B cells Antigen Antibody Binding Agglutination Opsonization Activation of complement Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity Neutralization ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Antibody Function

14 The Results of Ag-Ab Binding Figure 17.7 The results of antigen antibody binding. T Cells and Cellular Immunity Learning Objectives Describe at least one function of each of the following: M cells, T H cells, T C cells, T reg cells, CTLs, NK cells Differentiate T helper, T cytotoxic, and T regulatory cells Differentiate T H 1, T H 2, and T H 17 cells Define apoptosis.

15 T Cells and Cellular Immunity T cells mature in the thymus Thymic selection eliminates many immature T cells T cells respond to Ag by T-cell receptors (TCRs) T cells require antigen-presenting cells (APCs) Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through M (microfold) cells over Peyer s patches, which contain APCs M Cells on Peyer s Patch Figure 17.9 M cells.

16 M Cells ANIMATION Cell-Mediated Immunity: Overview Figure 17.9 M cells. T Helper Cells CD4 + or T H cells TCRs recognize Ags and MHC II on APC TLRs are a costimulatory signal on APC and T H T H cells produce cytokines and differentiate into: T H 1cells T H 2 cells T H 17 cells Memory cells

17 T Helper Cells T H 1 produce IFN-γ, which activates cells related to cell-mediated immunity, macrophages, and Abs T H 2 activate eosinophils and B cells to produce IgE T H 17 stimulate the innate immune system TF stimulate B cells to produce plasma cells and are involved in class switching ANIMATION Antigen Processing and Presentation: Steps Antibodies Recruits neutrophils; provides protection against extracellular bacteria and fungi B cell T H cell T H 1 cells T H 2 cells T H 17 cells Cell-mediated immunity; control of intracellular pathogens, delayed hypersensitivity reactions (page 535); stimulates macrophages. T H 17 cells IL-17 IFN-γ T H 1 cells Fungi IL-4 T H 2 cells Extracellular bacteria Neutrophil Macrophage Intracellular bacteria and protozoa Mast cell Basophil Eosinophil Important in allergic responses, especially by production of IgE Stimulates activity of eosinophils to control extracellular parasites such as helminths (see ADCC, page 495). Helminth Figure Lineage of effector T helper cell classes and pathogens targeted.

18 Activation of CD4 + T Helper Cells Figure Activation of CD4 + T helper cells. ANIMATION Cell-Mediated Immunity: Helper T Cells T Cytotoxic Cells CD8 + or T C cells Target cells are self-cells carrying endogenous antigens Activated into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) CTLs recognize Ag + MHC I Induce apoptosis in target cell CTL releases perforin and granzymes ANIMATION Cell-Mediated Immunity: Cytotoxic T Cells

19 T Cytotoxic Cells Figure Killing of virus-infected target cell by cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Apoptosis Figure Apoptosis.

20 T Regulatory Cells T reg cells CD4 and CD25 on surface Suppress T cells against self T Cells and Cellular Immunity Learning Objectives Define antigen-presenting cell Describe the function of natural killer cells Describe the role of antibodies and natural killer cells in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity Identify at least one function of each of the following: cytokines, interleukins, chemokines, interferons, TNF, and hematopoietic cytokines.

21 Antigen-Presenting Cells Digest antigen Ag fragments on APC surface with MHC B cells Dendritic cells Activated macrophages ANIMATION Antigen Processing and Presentation: MHC Figure A dendritic cell.

22 Activated macrophages Resting (inactive) macrophage Figure Activated macrophages. Natural Killer (NK) Cells Granular leukocytes destroy cells that don t express MHC I Kill virus-infected and tumor cells Attack parasites

23 ADCC Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

24 ADCC Figure Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cytokines Chemical messengers Overproduction leads to cytokine storm

25 Cells Communicate via Cytokines Cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Representative Activity Stimulates T H cells in presence of antigens; attracts phagocytes Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Interleukin-12 (IL-12) Proliferation of antigen-stimulated CD4 + T helper cells, proliferation and differentiation of B cells; activation of CD8 + T cells and NK cells Inhibits humoral immunity; activates T H 1 cellular immunity Cells Communicate via Cytokines Cytokine Chemokines Representative Activity Induce the migration of leukocytes TNF-α Hematopoietic cytokines IFN-α and IFN-β IFN-γ Promotes inflammation Influence differentiation of blood stem cells Response to viral infection; interfere with protein synthesis Stimulates macrophage activity

26 T Cells and Cellular Immunity Learning Objectives Distinguish a primary from a secondary immune response Contrast the four types of adaptive immunity. Immunological Memory Antibody titer is the amount of Ab in serum Primary response occurs after initial contact with Ag Secondary (memory or anamnestic) response occurs after second exposure ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Primary Immune Response ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Secondary Immune Response

27 Immune Responses to an Antigen Figure The primary and secondary immune responses to an antigen. Types of Adaptive Immunity Naturally acquired active immunity Resulting from infection Naturally acquired passive immunity Transplacental or via colostrum Artificially acquired active immunity Injection of Ag (vaccination) Artificially acquired passive immunity Injection of Ab

28 Figure Terminology of Adaptive Immunity Serology: the study of reactions between antibodies and antigens Antiserum: the generic term for serum because it contains Ab Globulins: serum proteins Immunoglobulins: antibodies Gamma (γ) globulin: serum fraction containing Ab

29 Serum Proteins Figure The separation of serum proteins by gel electrophoresis. Figure The dual nature of the adaptive immune system. Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune system Control of freely circulating pathogens Check Your Understanding Extracellular antigens Cellular (cell-mediated) immune system Control of intracellular pathogens Intracellular antigens are expressed on the surface of an APC, a cell infected by a virus, a bacterium, or a parasite. A B cell binds to the antigen for which it is specific. A T-dependent B cell requires cooperation with a T helper (T H ) cell. B cell Cytokines activate T helper (T H ) cell. Cytokines T cell Cytokines activate macrophage. Cytokines A T cell binds to MHC antigen complexes on the surface of the infected cell, activating the T cell (with its cytokine receptors). The B cell, often with stimulation by cytokines from a T H cell, differentiates into a plasma cell. Some B cells become memory cells. Cytokines from the T H cell transform B cells into antibody-producing plasma cells. T H cell Activation of macrophage (enhanced phagocytic activity). Plasma cell Plasma cells proliferate and produce antibodies against the antigen. Memory cell Some T and B cells differentiate into memory cells that respond rapidly to any secondary encounter with an antigen. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte The CD8 + T cell becomes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) able to induce apoptosis of the target cell. Lysed target cell

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51 The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

Immunology. Lecture- 3

Immunology. Lecture- 3 Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.

More information

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self

More information

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders

More information

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense 22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and

More information

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT Fogarty-IBRO School Nairobi-KENYA May 22 nd 25 th 2007 Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By Ahmed El-Gohary, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT The

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Review of lecture 7 Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,

More information

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13 SECTION 13 HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES CONTACT INFORMATION Jason Cyster, PhD (Email) READING Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System. Abbas,

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets

More information

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity IMMUNOLOGY An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity Tapasya Srivastava and Subrata Sinha Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 CONTENTS Concept

More information

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES

LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES Introduction to immunology. LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES Today we will get to know: The antibodies How antibodies are produced, their classes and their maturation processes Antigen recognition

More information

Immune System. Chapter 24

Immune System. Chapter 24 Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System Cells and Tissues of the Immune System Cells normally present as circulating cells in the blood and lymph, as collections in lymphoid organs, and as scattered cells in all tissues except the CNS The immune

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015 Innate immunity: Definition and Importance Updated: July 2015 1 Contents INNATE IMMUNITY... 3 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE... 3 Overview of innate immunity in animals... 3 The innate immune system acts early

More information

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs

More information

Lecture 7 Immunology

Lecture 7 Immunology Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope;

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes

More information

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity B cell activation and Humoral Immunity Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies and its physiological function is defense against extracellular microbes (including viruses) and microbial exotoxins.

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Molecules, cells, tissues and organs which provide non-specific and specific protection against

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Molecules, cells, tissues and organs which provide non-specific and specific protection against Immune system Acknowledgement Material used in some of the slides was taken from open websites and personnel communications. Help from these sites and providers is acknowledged. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Molecules,

More information

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.

More information

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER OVERVIEW: This chapter introduces the lymphatic system including diffuse lymphatic tissues. Inflammation, non-specific immunity and specific immunity are

More information

A Necessarily Incomplete Overview of the Immune System

A Necessarily Incomplete Overview of the Immune System Brown University BIOL 0380 Fall 2015 Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease A Necessarily Incomplete Overview of the Immune System Friday, September 25 th, 2015 Richard Bungiro, Ph.D. Richard_Bungiro@Brown.edu

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

and Antigen Presentation

and Antigen Presentation 1 Innate Immunity and Antigen Presentation Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Innate immunity Receptors and mechanisms Roles in disease Antigen

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and

More information

Immune System and how Vaccines Work

Immune System and how Vaccines Work Immune System and how Vaccines Work Kevin Connolly Waterford, August 30 th, 2012 Causes of death, 1811, Boston The Battle Between Us and the Bugs: What we can do We recognize them as something different

More information

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES An understanding of the distinct families of molecules present on different cells of the immune system provides the tools for distinguishing

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 Adaptive Immunity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 34.6 B-cell Biology 1. Describe the B-cell receptor structure and function

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003 Edward Jenner http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/ephemera/pubhealt.html

More information

Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide

Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide What are the two branches of the immune system? Which is the first to respond? Which is more specific? Give examples of components

More information

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key Term Acquired Immunity Adenoids Antibody Antigen Axillary nodes B cell (B lymphocyte) Cervical nodes Complement system Cytokines Cytotoxic T cell Dendritic cell Helper T cell Immunity Immunoglobulins Immunotherapy

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Chapter 43: Immune System

Chapter 43: Immune System AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Julia Keller 12d Chapter 43: Immune System 1. Briefly explain the six steps to ingestion and destruction of a microbe by a phagocytic cell. First, pseudopodia

More information

Amphibian Immunology. Vertebrate Immunology. Lymphoid Organs 3/4/14

Amphibian Immunology. Vertebrate Immunology. Lymphoid Organs 3/4/14 Amphibian Immunology Heather Williamson University of Tennessee Department of Microbiology March 4, 2014 Vertebrate Immunology Lymphoid Organs 1 3/4/14 Immunity First Line of Defense 2 Innate Immunity:

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital CATEGORIES OF PATHOGENS Viruses (~0.2 microns) Bacteria (1-2 microns) Parasites (Millimeters)

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive

More information

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect

More information

Diseases of the Immune System

Diseases of the Immune System See Targeted Therapy available online at studentconsult.com Diseases of the Immune System C H A P T E R 4 CHAPTER CONTENTS Innate and Adaptive Immunity 99 Cells and Tissues of the Immune System 100 Lymphocytes

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The Nomenclature, General Properties, and Components of the Immune System Innate and Adaptive Immunity 3 Types of Adaptive Immunity 4 Properties of Adaptive

More information

Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses. M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University

Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses. M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University Subjects Innate Defenses Innate immunity so not acquired Always prepared Responds quickly Prevents

More information

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid

More information

Primer on the Immune System

Primer on the Immune System Primer on the Immune System Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS, is a senior staff member with CSR, Incorporated, and contributing editor to Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

More information

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.

More information

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology - Definition The study of the link between

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IMMUNIZING AGENTS VACCINE IMMUNE RESPONSE GLOSSARY REFERENCES...

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IMMUNIZING AGENTS VACCINE IMMUNE RESPONSE GLOSSARY REFERENCES... TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM... 1 1.1 Introduction... 1 1.2 Cells of the Immune System... 1 1.3 Lymphatic system... 1 1.4 Types of Immunity (See Figure 3)... 2 1.5 Active Immunity... 4 1.6 Innate

More information

The Immune System. Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland

The Immune System. Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland The Immune System Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland albert.urwyler@unibas.ch Outline Invaders and Physical Barriers Innate Immune System AdapAve Immune System AnAbodies B Cells Clonal

More information

Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity

Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity Immunologie II für Naturwissenschaftler Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity Beda M. Stadler Institute of Immunology Inselspital Bern, Switzerland http://www.immunology.unibe.ch/teaching/imm2/immuno2.htm

More information

Med Chem 535P Diagnostic Medicinal Chemistry. Hematology ~ Leukocytes (White Blood Cells, WBC)

Med Chem 535P Diagnostic Medicinal Chemistry. Hematology ~ Leukocytes (White Blood Cells, WBC) Med Chem 535P Diagnostic Medicinal Chemistry Hematology ~ Leukocytes (White Blood Cells, WBC) I. Cell Types and Characteristics A. Granulocytes 1. Neutrophils (Polys or PMNs) 2. Eosinophils (Eosins) 3.

More information

The Innate Immune Response

The Innate Immune Response The Innate Immune Response FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self components.

More information

Why use passive immunity?

Why use passive immunity? Vaccines Active vs Passive Immunization Active is longer acting and makes memory and effector cells Passive is shorter acting, no memory and no effector cells Both can be obtained through natural processes:

More information

Module 4 : Mechanism of immune response

Module 4 : Mechanism of immune response Module 4 : Mechanism of immune response Lecture 23: Cytokines (Part I) Cytokines are the proteins secreted by the cells of immune system that control the immune responses by interaction between the neighboring

More information

B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation. B cell maturation

B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation. B cell maturation B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation Naïve B cells- have not encountered Ag. Have IgM and IgD on cell surface : have same binding VDJ regions but different constant region leaves bone marrow

More information

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY. Pratima Adhikari Tim Mietzner

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY. Pratima Adhikari Tim Mietzner CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY Pratima Adhikari Tim Mietzner History. The immune system is a remarkable mosaic of anti-infective strategies. The word immunity (L: immunis, free of ) was originally used in the

More information

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity Chapter 16: Innate Immunity 1. Overview of Innate Immunity 2. Inflammation & Phagocytosis 3. Antimicrobial Substances 1. Overview of Innate Immunity The Body s Defenses The body has 2 types of defense

More information

Immunology. B lymphocytes & Antibodies. 20.10.2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Marcus Peters, marcus.peters@rub.de

Immunology. B lymphocytes & Antibodies. 20.10.2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Marcus Peters, marcus.peters@rub.de Immunology B lymphocytes & Antibodies 20.10.2014, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Marcus Peters, marcus.peters@rub.de What is an antibody? An antibody is a glycoprotein, which specifically binds to a substance,

More information

Immunology for 1 st Year Medical Students

Immunology for 1 st Year Medical Students Immunology for 1 st Year Medical Students for Timothy Lee PhD and Andrew Issekutz MD Department of Microbiology and Immunology Dalhousie University Medical School Nova Scotia Halifax, Nova Scotia Department

More information

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity

More information

IMMUNOLOGY FOR ANAESTHETISTS Part 1 Basic Immunology

IMMUNOLOGY FOR ANAESTHETISTS Part 1 Basic Immunology B A S I C S C I E N C E Tutorial 323 IMMUNOLOGY FOR ANAESTHETISTS Part 1 Basic Immunology Dr. Katharine Kennedy Anaesthetics Registrar, Mersey Deanery, UK Dr. Tushar Dixit Consultant Anaesthetist, St Helens

More information

Activation and effector functions of HMI

Activation and effector functions of HMI Activation and effector functions of HMI Hathairat Thananchai, DPhil Department of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Chiang Mai University 25 August 2015 ว ตถ ประสงค หล งจากช วโมงบรรยายน แล วน กศ กษาสามารถ

More information

T Cell Maturation,Activation and Differentiation

T Cell Maturation,Activation and Differentiation T Cell Maturation,Activation and Differentiation Positive Selection- In thymus, permits survival of only those T cells whose TCRs recognize self- MHC molecules (self-mhc restriction) Negative Selection-

More information

Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell

Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell Immune system - many different types of cells mediate the to destroy bacteria and viruses as well as pre-cancerous cells - all cells in the immune system, as well as all the red blood cells, arise from

More information

Hapten - a small molecule that is antigenic but not (by itself) immunogenic.

Hapten - a small molecule that is antigenic but not (by itself) immunogenic. Chapter 3. Antigens Terminology: Antigen: Substances that can be recognized by the surface antibody (B cells) or by the TCR (T cells) when associated with MHC molecules Immunogenicity VS Antigenicity:

More information