PROFESSOR MARIAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST

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1 Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae (2007), vol. 77: PROFESSOR MARIAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST Andrzej ŒL CZKA & El bi eta MO RY COWA In sti tute of Geo logi cal Sci ences, Jagiel lo nian Uni ver sity, Kraków, Ole an dry 2a, Po land Œl¹czka, A. & Morycowa, E., Professor Marian Ksi¹ kiewicz Carpathian geologist. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 77: Professor Marian Ksi¹ kiewicz was noticeable among nu mer ous Car pa thian ge olo gists by ver sa til ity of his geo - logical achievements, scrupulosity, and ability to create new syn the ses. He not only pre pared geo logi cal maps, but also worked on lithos tra tigra phy, sedi men tol ogy, pa lae on tol ogy, tec ton ics, palaeo geog ra phy, and geo dy nam ics. In all these top ics he ob tained out stand ing re sults, rec og nised both in Po land and abroad. Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz con sid ered geo logi cal map ping as a prin ci ple geo logi cal task that al lowed to un der stand prop - erly not only static geo logi cal struc tures, but also geo logi cal pro cesses. He cre ated a spe cific school of geo logi cal map - ping and edu cated a number of ex cel lent field ge olo gists. He car ried out geo logi cal map ping mainly in the West ern Car pa thi ans, and as a re sult pre sented sev eral out stand ing maps. Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz also stressed the im por tance of geo logi cal trips to other ar eas and coun tries to broaden geo - logi cal knowl edge. He of ten trav elled out side the North ern Car pa thi ans to study other flysch ba sins, for in stance, in Wienerwald and Cau ca sus, and usu ally pub lished in ter est - ing de duc tions and com para tive pa pers (Ksi¹ kiewicz & Soko³owski, 1934a; Ksi¹ kiewicz & Skoczylas-Ciszewska,1937; Ksi¹ kiewicz & Leško, 1959a; Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1962, 1973). Mar ian Ksi¹ kiewicz started geo logi cal re search al - ready dur ing his uni ver sity edu ca tion and car ried out geo - logi cal map ping in the area of Wadowice (West Car pa thi - ans) be tween Radziszów and An drychów (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1929, 1930, 1931b, 1932a and c). Later on, his re searches in cluded the whole sheet Wadowice and ad ja cent ar eas, up to the Olza River to wards the west (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1931b, 1932b, 1959a, 1964), and up to the Babia Góra Range to - wards the south (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1935d). As an ef fect of his map ping, sev eral new mod ern maps were pre sented, for ex am ple the map of the north ern most part of the West ern Car pa thi ans be tween Ci eszyn and Biel - sko (Bur tan et al., 1938), the map of a part of the Ma gura Nappe in the Be skid Œredni Mts. (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1935a, 1958b), and of the Babia Góra Range (Bieda & Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1963). Par ticu larly fa mous was his map of the Wadowice sheet, scale of 1: 25,000, fin ished be fore the World War II, which was il le gally printed by Ger mans dur ing the war (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1941). For a long time it was the best geo logi cal map of the Car pa thi ans. Dur ing his field work, Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz not only very pre cisely lo cal ised ex po - sures, but also, first of all, stud ied litho logi cal suc ces sions, their mu tual re la tion ships and age based on analy sis of mi - cro- and macrofaunal species, sedimentological processes, and tec ton ics. He de served the credit for the dis tinc tion of sev eral new lithos tra tigraphic units and re am bu la tion of some older units within the West ern Flysch Car pa thi ans. He dis tin guished, among oth ers, geize sand stones (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1936, 1938, 1951a) within the Lower Cre ta ceous se - quences and proved that they are re plac ing a part of the Grodziszcze and Lgota beds, cherty marls be tween the mid- Cretaceous varie gated shales and Go dula sand stones, and cor re lated them with simi lar de pos its from the East Car - pa thi ans (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951a). He also dis tin guished the Up per Cre ta ceous Jas trzêbia Marls, Gor zeñ beds, Szyd³owiec Sand stones, and the Eo cene Przy bradz beds (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951a). With co- workers, he dis tin guished the mid- Cretaceous radiolaritic layer (Burtan et al., 1933) bear ing dis tinct re sem blance to the de scribed later Bonar elli ho ri - zon of Cen tral Ap en ni nes. He proved that the thick- bedded Ciê kowice Sand stones could be re placed by varie gated shales and marls (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1932c), and the Go dula Sand stones by red shales (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1936). Later on (Geroch et al., 1967), he pre sented a model of fa cies changes in the West ern Flysch Car pa thi ans (Fig. 1). An other achieve ment of Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz was the dis tinc tion of the WoŸniki Unit (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1936a) and its suc ces sion, that later pro vided the ba sis for the dis tinc - tion by him of a new Outer Car pa thi ans unit, the Sub- Silesian Unit (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951b, 1953 ed.) It should be stressed that, al ready in 1936, Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz sug gested that a part of the varie gated marls in the Wadowice area could be of Late Cre ta ceous age, but un for tu nately later he re signed from this opin ion. How ever, af ter suc ces sive in -

2 106 A. ŒL CZKA & E. MORYCOWA Fig. 1. Model of change of lithofacies from the in ner (Silesian Se ries) to outer (Sub-Silesian Se ries) part of the West ern Carpathian Flysch Ba sin, pre sented by Ksi¹ kiewicz (Geroch et al., 1967) ves ti ga tions, es pe cially mi cro pa lae on to logi cal ones, and the dis cov ery of Glo botrun cana sp., he re turned to the pri mary opin ion (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1950a). He was also the first who de scribed in the West ern Car pa thi ans the Eo cene green ish marls be low the Menil ite beds (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1932c, 1967), an equiva lent of the Glo bi gerina Marls from the Cen tral and Eastern Carpathians. Another achievement of Prof. Ksi¹ - kiewicz was the sys tema ti sa tion of the Ma gura Nappe suc - ces sion and the dis tinc tion of the Eo cene Osielec Sand - stones, Sub- Magura, and Supra- Magura beds (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1935a, 1948b, 1958b, 1967a, Bieda et al., 1968). The re sults of his stud ies con ducted be fore and di rectly af ter the Word War II were pre sented in the above men - tioned unique ex plana tory text to the Wadowice sheet (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951). In this mono graphic pa per, he pre - sented and thouroughly dis cussed sev eral prob lems, rang - ing in scale from in di vid ual ex po sures up to the palaeo geog - ra phy and geo dy namic prob lems of the West ern Flysch Car - pa thi ans. Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz de voted much of his in ter est to the ge ol ogy of cal care ous klip pen within the outer part of the Flysch Car pa thi ans, in the An drychów area (Fig. 2) known Fig. 2. Sche matic sec tion across Inwa³d Klippen (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1935a) and sub se quent sec tions drawn af ter drill ing of two bore holes (Ksi¹ kiewicz & Liszkowa, 1972)

3 PRO FES SOR MAR IAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST 107 Fig. 3. Draw ings of fauna by Ksi¹ kiewicz from cal car e ous exotics from Bachowice: A ammonite lobe-line Calliphylloceras disputabile, B Globotruncana lapparenti (1963b) from the 19th cen tury. He es tab lished their geo logi cal set - ting and es pe cially lithos tra tigra phy (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1935a, b, c; Ksi¹ kiewicz & Lisz kowa,1972), and re garded them as the rem nants of a cor dil lera Ur an tik li nale von Inwa³d within the West Car pa thian ba sin. Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz also ex am ined in de tail a pre vi ously un known sec tion of the shallow- water Ju ras sic and Cre ta - ceous se ries from the ex otic rocks in the Bachowice vil lage area, situ ated north of An drychów (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1955, 1956b). These stud ies al lowed to re con struct the Ju ras sic and partly Cre ta ceous se quences, dif fer ent both from the fore land and from those known in the Car pa thi ans. It was a strong proof that a sig nifi cant part of the de pos its of the Car - pa thian ba sin could have com pletely dis ap peared from the sur face dur ing later tec tonic move ments. Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz re lated the sedi men ta tion of the Bachowice ex otic rocks with vol canic ac tiv ity in the West ern Car pa thian ba sin dur ing the Pa laeo cene. He also pub lished sev eral pa pers on other vol canic ac tivi ties in the Car pa thi ans, but not all of them are still valid (Ksi¹ kiewicz & Gawe³, 1936; Ksi¹ - kiewicz & Wie ser, 1954a, b; Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1958). Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz sup ple mented his lithos tra tigraphic stud ies by de ter mi na tion of macro- and mi cro fauna. The most im por tant pa pers re lated to this topic re fer to the macro- and mi cro fauna (Fig. 3) from Bachowice (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956b), Early Cre ta ceous fauna from Lanck orona Fig. 4. One of new ichnosp. (Desmograpton fuchsi) de scribed by Ksi¹ kiewicz (1977) (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1938), Early Cre ta ceous am mon ites from the Grodziszcze beds at WoŸniki (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1963b), Glo botrun cana from the up per varie gated lime stones of Bachowice (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956a) and from varie gated marls in the West Car pa thi ans (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1950a). Very im por tant and of ten pio neer stud ies car ried out by Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz were de voted to trace fos sils (Fig. 4) Fig. 5. Changes of depth in the Carpathian Flysch Ba sin (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1976)

4 108 A. ŒL CZKA & E. MORYCOWA Fig. 6. De vel op ment of the idea of tec ton ics of the Wadowice re gion. A map from year 1932 (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1932); B map from year 1951 (Ksi¹ kiewicz 1951a), C cross-sec tions through the Wadowice area (West ern Flysch Carpathians): up per af ter Ksi¹ kiewicz (1932c), lower af ter Ksi¹ kiewicz (1952) within the flysch ba sin (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1958b, 1960a, 1961b, 1968a, 1970, 1977c). His col lec tion is one of the larg est in the world. He de scribed 57 ich no genera and 147 ich no spe cies (see Uch man, 1998). He also was a pro mo tor of re searches on life con di tion in flysch ba sins (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1959a, 1961a). He docu mented an im por tant role of re de po si tion of fauna, the in flu ence of ma rine cur rents for the dis tri bu tion of mi cro fauna, and the de pend ence of mi - cro fau nal as sem blages on the type of sedi ments. He also gave some ex pla na tions of un fa vour able life con di tions in the flysch ba sins. On the ba sis of fau nal as sem blages, trace fos sils and sedi men tary struc tures, Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz made

5 PRO FES SOR MAR IAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST 109 Fig. 7. Tec tonic map of the Carpathians (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956) an analy sis of the changes of ba thyme try within the Car pa - thian flysch ba sins (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1975, 1976). Ac cord ing to him, the Car pa thian flysch was de pos ited mostly in epiand meso- bathyal zone, but some ho ri zons could have been de pos ited at infra- bathyal and abys sal depths in proxi mal ar eas. Moreo ver, a part of flysch could have been de pos ited in shal low-wa ter, neritic con di tions (Fig. 5 ). Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz was the ini tia tor and co- author of mono graphs dedi cated to litho- and bi os tra tigra phy of the Polish Flysch Carpathians (Bieda et al., 1963; Geroch et al., 1967), in which on the ba sis of de tailed data and the de vel - op ment of li tho fa cies their se quences and ages were de - fined. These mono graphs are valid up to now, al though new nan no plank ton data de fined the age of some li tho fa cies more accurately. The next im por tant con tri bu tion of Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz to the knowl edge of the Car pa thi ans is the elu ci da tion of the tec ton ics of the Pol ish West ern Car pa thi ans. On the ba sis of careful analysis of lithostratigraphy and tectonic structures, he pro posed a new tec tonic sub di vi sion of the area. His ear - lier stud ies dem on strated a long and la bo ri ous way to find a proper re la tion be tween lithos tra tigraphic units, their age and tec tonic af filia tion. An ex am ple of this can be the de vel - op ment of Prof. Ksi¹ kiewi cz s ideas on the tec ton ics of the Wadowice sheet (Fig. 6). Bas ing on pri mary con cep tions of Jan Nowak (1927), he re garded the outer flysch as auto - chthonous or parauto chthonous (Fig. 6), and only more in - ter nal units (Ci eszyn, Go dula and Ma gura units) as nap pes (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1929, 1930, 1932c). Later on, he dis tin - guished the next over thrust WoŸnice Unit, in front of the Go dula Unit. Sub se quently, af ter the dis cov ery of tec tonic win dows within the Go dula Nappe (1936), that showed sim i lar Up per Cre ta ceous de pos its as in the WoŸnice Nappe, he in tro duced and de fined a new Sub- Silesian Unit Fig. 8. Or i gin of overthrusting in the ax ial zone of the outer flysch ba sin (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956) (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951a, 1953). Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz, af ter join ing sev eral subunits, dis tin guished and de fined the Sile - sian Nappe (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951a, 1953) and proved that this nappe con tin ues into the East ern Car pa thi ans (Fig. 7) be tween the Skole and more in ter nal, Dukla and Ma gura, nap pes. There fore, Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz can be re garded as the founder of a mod ern tec tonic model of the West ern Flysch Car pa thi ans (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1952c, 1953). He also at tempted to ex plain the ori gin of Flysch Car pa thi ans. Im - por tant fac tors, be sides un der thrust ing of the fore land be -

6 110 A. ŒL CZKA & E. MORYCOWA Fig. 9. A Spread ing and subduction in the Carpatho-Bal kan area dur ing Ju ras sic Early Cre ta ceous times (A. Bal kan area, B. Carpathian area, F. Carpathian Flysch Ba sin); B Underthrusting and or i gin of mag mas in the Carpathians (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1977) low the Carpathians, were lithological differences across the flysch ba sin (Fig. 8). He de vel oped his tec tonic model in later pa pers (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956a, ), and es pe - cially in the mono graph on the tec ton ics of the en tire Pol ish Car pa thi ans (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1972). In the Eng lish ver sion of this mono graph (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1977b) and in a spe cial pa - per (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1977a), he pre sented new plate tec tonic ideas on the geo dy nam ics of the Car pa thi ans; pos tu lat ing, for in stance, that sub duc tion dur ing the Ju ras sic and Early Cre ta ceous was di rected to wards the north and only later on to wards the south (Fig. 9). How ever, he gen er ally stated that is very dif fi cult in a sim ple way to ap ply the con cept of plate tec ton ics to the ori gin of the Car pa thi ans. This opin - ion was con firmed in part by re cent re sults of the deep seis - mic pro file CEL05 (Grad et al., 2006). Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz was also in ter ested in tec tonic mesostruc tures and was a pio neer of sys tem atic stud ies of joints in the Car pa thian flysch (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1968b). He sug gested that the de vel op ment of all joints was gen er ally con nected with oro genic move ments, but in sev eral in - stances he showed that in the cases where fold ing took place twice, the sec ond set of joints is cut ting the rocks al ready de formed. He also sug gested the in flu ence of neo tec tonic move ments in cases of ab nor mally pref er en tial strike of joints. Very de tailed knowl edge of the Carpathian ge ol ogy ob - tained by Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz dur ing his field works, ex cel - lent ori en ta tion in in ter na tional geo log i cal pa pers, and the abil ity to cre ate syn thetic mod els en abled him to pre pare sev eral mono graphs, pub lished both in Pol ish (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951b, 1953, 1972; Ksi¹ kiewicz & Samsonowicz, 1952) and Eng lish (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956a, 1977b). Very im por tant and fruit ful were the works of Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz on sedimentology and palaeo ge ogra phy. Al - ready af ter re turn ing from abroad in 1945, he cre atively com bined the stud ies of sedimentological pro cesses and the struc tures of flysch de pos its (turbidites). He was one of the first who no ticed fre quent oc cur rences of cross-bed ding in the flysch (turbiditic) rocks (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1948b), though in that pe riod it was be lieved that the cross-bed ding rarely oc curs in geosynclinal bas ins (Pettijohn, 1943). He de - scribed, for the first time from the flysch rocks of the Carpathians, the oc cur rence of se quences (Fig. 10) ex hib it ing fea - tures from par al lel lam i na tion, through cross lam i na tion, to once again par al lel lam i na tion (1948b), and from graded to Fig. 10. A Types of graded bed ding in the de pos its of the flysch Carpathians; B Re la tion of cross bed ding to graded and lam i nated bed ding (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1954b)

7 PRO FES SOR MAR IAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST 111 Fig. 11. A Flat ten ing of flute casts ow ing to the sub si dence of the sand beds (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1961); B Ex am ples of struc tures de vel - oped dur ing slid ing and roll ing up of sand stone lay ers (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1958) lam i nated bed ding (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1954b). He sug gested (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1950) that some con torted lami na tions within the sandy lay ers could have re sulted from creep ing, and that the di rec tion of creep ing of de pos ited ma te rial was not al ways show ing the gen eral in cli na tion of the sea bot - tom, but could be a re sult of lo cal up lift of the lat ter. In the quoted pa per, he for first time con sid ered flysch as a deep-wa ter sed i ment and stated that the oc cur rence of shal - low-wa ter fauna within flysch strata was caused by sub ma - rine slumps. The fol low ing pa pers were de voted to the ex - pla na tion of the or i gin of flat tened sedimentary structures (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1950) and slump deposits (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1958c) (Fig.11). Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz also paid at ten tion to the im por tance of microfacies anal y sis of cal car e ous turbidites (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1971c) and ex otic lime stones (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1971d), in or der to de ter mine shal low-wa ter fa cies around cor dil - leras. He con cluded that ex otic lime stones could be re - garded as Bahamite-type sed i ments, and that clastic ma te - rial for the Late Ju ras sic Cieszyn Lime stones was de rived from the sed i ments of shoals and banks bor der ing the ba sin. In his opin ion, the con di tions of de po si tion could be com - pared with cal car e ous turbidite sed i men ta tion in a deep basin adjoining to the Bahama Banks. Very im por tant and mas terly was his ba sin anal y sis of flysch of the Carpathians. Al ready in his early pa pers he stressed on im por tance of the study of oc cur rence and dis tri - bu tion of ex otic rocks for palaeogeographic anal y sis and for the re con struc tion and po si tion of source ar eas re garded by him as pre-carpathian moun tain chains. In a pa per pub - lished in 1931, he pre sented a map of dis tri bu tion of ex otic rocks in the West ern Carpathians and con nected them with intrabasinal is lands. In Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz s opin ion, the de tailed study of ex otic rocks and klippen, with in ter pre ta - tion of lithofacies changes, was a key to un der stand ing the palaeo ge ogra phy of the West ern Carpathians. On the ba sis of these early in ves ti ga tions, he pre sented in 1951 the first model (Fig. 12) of de vel op ment of the West ern Carpathians flysch ba sin (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951b). He al ready ac cen tu ated the sim i lar ity of sed i ments within the whole ba sin dur ing the Early Cretaceous and diversification of sediments after mid-cre ta ceous. It was caused by sud den up lifts of source ar eas, both mar ginal and intrabasinal ones (Silesian, Andrychów and Bachowice ridges) (Figs 13, 14 A). As an ef fect, sev eral subbasins (Magura, Silesian, Sub-Silesian, Skole) were de vel oped in dif fer ent lithofacies. Sub se quent in ves ti ga tions car ried out by Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz, in clud ing de tailed mea sure ments of trans port of clastic ma te rial, al - Fig D model of the West ern Carpathian Flysch Ba sin (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1951a); M Magura sub-ba sin, is lands: Gl "Silesian", A Andrychów, B Bachowice

8 112 A. ŒL CZKA & E. MORYCOWA Fig. 13. Principal source areas of the Carpathian Flysch (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956) Fig. 14. Successive palinspastic sketches of the Carpathian Flysch Basin, elaborated by Ksi¹ kiewicz: A facies of the Late Cretaceous (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1956); facies of the Late Senonian: B Ksi¹ kiewicz (1960), C Ksi¹ kiewicz, Ed. (1962)

9 PRO FES SOR MAR IAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST 113 lowed him to cre ate (Fig. 14 B and C) a syn thetic palaeogeo graphic model for the Flysch Carpathians (Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1954a, 1956a, 1960b, c, 1963a, 1965) as a prom i nent tectonically active basin. He emphasized the importance of in ter nal ridges (cor dil leras) as one of the main source ar eas for clastic ma te rial. It was not a pop u lar idea at that time. It ought to be stressed out that Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz was the first who adopted and wide spread the mea sure ments of cur rent di rec tions (flute marks, cross-bed ding) for the re con struc - tion of palaeo ge ogra phy of orogenic bas ins and showed that the tur bid ity cur rents were flow ing both along the axis of the ba sin and obliquely to it, down mar ginal slopes. In some of these maps it is al ready pos si ble to re cog nise sub ma rine fans, al though he did not use this term (Fig. 14C). The best ex am ple of this kind of map was, ini ti ated by him, un - equalled Palaeogeographic At las of the Flysch Carpathians (Ksi¹ kiewicz, Ed., 1962). It contains 13 facies maps with palinspastic sketches, practically for every stage of the Cretaceous and Palaeogene. His anal y sis of turbiditic sed i men ta tion in deep wa ter bas ins brought him an in ter na tional rec og ni tion and con se - quently a num ber of sedimentologists from abroad vis ited him to learn his meth ods of ba sin anal y sis. Among them was the out stand ing sedimentologist Ph. F. Kuenen. As a re - sult of this visit, a joint trea tise (also with Stan D u³ynski) on turbidites in flysch of the Pol ish Carpathian Moun tains (D u³yñski et al., 1959) was pre pared, where among oth ers, the or i gin of structureless sand stones within turbidite se - quences was pre sented and the term fluxoturbidites was pro posed for them. Even re cently, his palaeogeographic re - con struc tions are cited (see Okada & Kenyon-Smith, 2005) as an ex cel lent ex am ple of basin analysis of that period. Dur ing the 1950s and 1960s, Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz grouped his stu dents in ter ested in sed i men tary struc tures as - so ci ated with turbidites and ba sin anal y sis, what led to the for ma tion of the world wide rec og nized Kraków Flysch School ( see the pa per of Kelling et al., this vol ume). The above pre sen ta tion of the achieve ments of Prof. Ksi¹ kiewicz shows clearly the out stand ing role, which he played in the prog ress of Carpathian ge ol ogy and turbidite sedimentology. It ought to be un der lined that he al ways re - garded as his duty to pres ent new ideas for dis cus sion dur - ing nu mer ous lec tures and field conferences. REFERENCES Bieda, F. & Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., On the age of the Babia Góra sand stone. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 2: Bieda, F., Geroch, S., Koszarski, L., Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & ytko, K., Stratigraphie des Karpates externes po lo naises. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 181: Bieda, F., Jednorowska, A. & Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Stra tig ra - phy of the Magura Se ries around Babia Góra. (In Pol ish, Eng - lish sum mary). Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 211: Burtan, J., Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Soko³owski, S., Über das Auftreten der Radiolaritschiefer in der mittleren Kreide der West-Beskiden (In Pol ish, Ger man sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 9: Burtanówna, J., Konior, K. & Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Carte geologique des Karpates de Silesie, 1: 50,000. (In Pol ish, French sum mary). PAU, Wydawnictwa Œl¹skie. D u³yñski, S., Kuenen, Ph. H. & Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Turbidites in Flysch of the Pol ish Carpathian Moun tains. Bul - le tin of the Geo log i cal So ci ety of Amer ica, 70: Gawe³, A. & Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Die Porphyritgesteine aus den Westkarpathen. (In Pol ish, Ger man sum mary) Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 12: Geroch, S., Jednorowska, A., Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Liszkowa, J., Stra tig ra phy based upon micro fauna in the West ern Polish Carpathians. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 211: Grad, M., Guterch, A., Randy Keller, G., Janik, T., Hegedus, E., Vozar, J., Œl¹czka, A., Tura, T. & Yliniemi, J., Lithospheric struc ture be neath trans-carpathian transect from Pre cam brian plat form to Pannonian ba sin: CEL E BRA TION 2000 seis mic pro file CEL05. Journal of Geophysical Re - search, 111, BO3301: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Spostrze enia nad budow¹ geologiczn¹ wschodniego Beskidu Ma³ego. (In Pol ish). Sprawozdania Komisji Fizjograficznej PAU, 63: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Geologische Untersuchungen in den Wadowicer Karpathen. I Teil. Stratigraphisch-tektonische Verhältnisse. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1931a. Beobachtungen über das Auftreten der Gerölle der urkarpathischen Gesteine in der Wadowicer Karpathen. (In Pol ish, Ger man sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 7: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1931b. Sprawozdanie z badañ geologicznych wykonanych w 1930 r. w pó³nocnej czêœci arkusza Wadowice. (In Pol ish). Posiedzenia naukowe Pañstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 30: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1931c. Tektonika po³udniowej czêœci strefy cieszyñskiej miêdzy Olz¹ a Wis³¹. (In Pol ish). Sprawozdania Komisji Fizjograficznej PAU, 36: 40. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1932a. Sprawozdanie z badañ geologicznych wykonanych w 1931 r. na arkuszu Wadowice. (In Pol ish). Posiedzenia naukowe Pañstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 33: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1932b. Der Bau des südlichen Teiles der Teschener Zone zwischen der Olsa and der Weichsel. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1932c. Der Bau der randlichen Wadowicer Beskiden und ihr Verhältnis zum Vorlande. (In Pol ish, Ger - man sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 8: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Beitrag zur Kenntnis der mittleren Kreide der Godula-Decke in der West-Karpaten (In Pol ish, Ger man summary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 9: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1934a. Zones des Klippes carpathiques aux en - vi rons d Andrychów. I. Klippes d lnwa³d et de Roczyny. C. R. Acad. Pol., 2: 7. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1934b. Zones des Klippes carpathi¹ues aux en - vi rons d Andrychów. II. Klippes de Pañska Góra et de Targanice. C. R. Acad. Pol., 3: 5. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1935a. Sur la struc ture des masses marginales de la nappe de Magura en tre Su³kowice et Sucha (In Pol ish,

10 114 A. ŒL CZKA & E. MORYCOWA French sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 11: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1935b. Die äussere Karpathische Klippenzone bei Andrychów. I. Die Klippen von Inwa³d und Roczyny. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1935c. Die äussere Karpathische Klippenzone bei Andrychów. II. Die Klippen in Pañska Góra und Targanice. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1935d. Die äussere Karpathische Klippenzone bei Andrychów. III. Die Stratigraphie der Klippenserie und ihre Stellung im Bau der West-Karpaten. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., La struc ture de la zone de Lanckorona. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Fauna górnoneokomska z Lanckorony. (In Pol ish). Sprawozdania Komisji Fizjograficznej PAU, 72: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Geologische Karte des Generalgouvernements, Bl Wadowice, 1: Amt für Bodenforschung, Krakau (printed with out knowl edge of the au thor). Map ping con ducted in years. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1948a. Cur rent bed ding in Carpathian Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 17: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1948b. Stra tig ra phy of the Magura se ries north of the Babia Góra (West ern Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish summary). Biuletyn Pañstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 48: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1950a. On the age of var ie gated marls in the flysch on the West ern Carpathians. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum - mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 19: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1950b. Slip-bed ding in the Carpathian Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 19: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1951a. Objaœniena arkusza Wadowice. Ogólna mapa geologiczna Polski 1: (In Pol ish). Pañstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa, 283 pp. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. (Ed.), 1951b. Regionalna geologia Polski, T. 1. Karpaty, Z. 1. Stratygrafia. (In Pol ish). Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne, Kraków, 206 pp. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. (Ed.), Regionalna geologia Polski, T. 1. Karpaty, Z. 2. Tektonika. (In Pol ish). Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne, Kraków: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1954a. Evo lu tion of the Carpathian Flysch geosyncline. C. R. XIX Ses sion, Congrés géologique in ter na - tional, Alger 1952, 14: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1954b. Graded and lam i nated bed ding in the Carpathian Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 22: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1954c. Zagadnienia stratygrafii Karpat na tle paleogeografii (in Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Przegl¹d Geologiczny, 4: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Stra tig ra phy of the Ju ras sic and Cre ta - ceous of Bachowice. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences, Cl. III, 3: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1956a. Ge ol ogy of the north ern Carpathians. Geologische Rundschau, 45: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1956b. The Ju ras sic and Cre ta ceous of Bachowice (West ern Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum - mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 24 (1954): Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1958a. Sed i men ta tion in the Carpathian Flysch sea. Geologische Rundschau, 41: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1958b. Stra tig ra phy of the Magura se ries in the Œredni Beskid (Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 135: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1958c. Sub ma rine slump ing in the Carpathian Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 28: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1958d. Ther mal con tact with vol ca nic rock at Kamionna near Bochnia (Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish summary). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 24: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1959a. Life con di tion in Flysch bas ins. Ab - stracts, 1 st International Oceanographical Congress. New York: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1959b. The Cre ta ceous of the Pol ish Carpathians. In: El sistema cretacico. Un sym po sium sobre el cretacio en el hemisfere oc ci den tal y su correlatión mundial, T. 1: , Congreso Geol. In tern. XX Sesión Ciudad de Mexico Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Évolution structurale des Carpathes polonaises. In: Livre á la mémoire du Professeur Paul Fallot, 2: , Paris Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1960a. On some prob lem atic or ganic traces from the Flysch of the Pol ish Carpathians. Part. I. (In Pol ish, English summary). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 4: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1960b. Out line of the paleogeography in the Pol ish Flysch Carpathians. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Prace Instytutu Geologicznego, 30: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1960c. Pre-orogenic sed i men ta tion in the Carpathian geosyncline. Geologische Rundschau, 50: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1961a. Life con di tions in flysch bas ins. (In Pol - ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 31: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1961b. On some prob lem atic or ganic traces from the Flysch of the Pol ish Carpathians. Part II. (In Pol ish, English summary). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 5: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1961c. On some sed i men tary struc tures on the Carpathians Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 31: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Sur quelques anal o gies lithostratigraphiques en tre les Carpates roumaines et po lo naises. Bul le - tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences, Sér. Sc. géol. géogr., 10: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. (Ed.), Geological Atlas of Poland, Strati - graphic and fa cial prob lems. Fasc.13 Cre ta ceous and Early Ter tiary in the Pol ish Ex ter nal Carpathians, 1: Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1963a. Evo lu tion structurale des Carpathes po - lonaises. In: Livre a la memoire du Professeur Paul Fallot, II: Soc. Geol. France, Paris. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1963b. La faune tithonique de WoŸniki (Carpathes Po lo naises Occidentales). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 33: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., On the tec ton ics of the Cieszyn zone. A re in ter pre ta tion. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci - ences, Sér. Sc. géol. géogr., 12, 4: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Les cordilleres dans les mers cretacées et paléogens des Carpathes du Nord. Bul le tin Soc. Géol. France, Sér. 7, 7: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Con tri bu tions to the ge ol ogy of the

11 PRO FES SOR MAR IAN KSI KIEWICZ CARPATHIAN GEOLOGIST 115 Wadowice re gion. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 36: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Globigerina marls at Skawinki. (In Pol - ish, Eng lish sum mary). Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 211: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1968a. On some prob lem atic or ganic traces from the Flysch of the Pol ish Carpathians. Part III. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 38: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1968b. Ob ser va tions on joint ing in the Flysch Carpathians. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 38: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1970 Ob ser va tions of the ichnofauna in the Pol - ish Carpathians. In: Crimes, T. P. & Harper, C. (eds), Trace Fos sils. Geo log i cal Jour nal, Spe cial Is sue, 3: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1971a. Con tri bu tions to the ge ol ogy of the Wadowice re gion. Part II. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 40: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1971b. Ge ol ogy of Sidzina near Jordanów (West ern Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 40: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1971c. On the or i gin of the Cieszyn Lime stone in the Carpathian F³ysch. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences, Ser. Sc. Terre, 19, 2: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1971d. On the or i gin of the Inwa³d Lime stone (Outer Carpathian Klippes). Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo - naise des Sci ences, Ser. Sc. Terre, 19, 2: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Karpaty. In: Budowa geologiczna Polski, T. 4. Tektonika, Czêœæ 3. (In Pol ish). Wydawnictwa Geologiczne,Warszawa, 228 pp. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., On some anal o gies be tween the Cau ca - sian and Carpathian Flysch. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 43: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Con tri bu tion a l étude de la faune du Tithonique de WoŸniki (Carpathes Po lo naises Occidentales). Acta Geologica Polonica, 24: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., Bathymetry of the Carpathian Flysch Ba - sin. Acta Geologica Polonica, 25: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., La profondeur du bassin du flysch carpathique. Bull. Soc. Géol. France, Ser. 7, 18, 1: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1977a. Hy poth e sis of Plate Tec ton ics and the Or i gin of the Carpathians. (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 47: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1977b. The Tec ton ics of the Carpathians. In: Ge ol ogy of Po land, vol. 4. Tec ton ics. The Al pine Tec tonic Epoch. Geological Institute, Warsaw: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., 1977c. Trace Fos sils in the Flysch of the Pol ish Carpathians. Palaeontologia Polonica, 36: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Leško, B., On the re la tion be tween Krosno- and Magura-Flysch. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo - naise des Sci ences, Cl. III, Sér. Sc. chim., 7: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M., & Liszkowa, J., Subsilesian se ries near Goleszów (Silesia). (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 3: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Liszkowa, J., On the beds un der ly ing the Andrychów Klippen (West ern Carpathians). (In Pol ish, English summary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 42: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Liszkowa, J., Fa cies changes of the Lgota Beds (Albian) in the Wadowice area (West ern Carpathians). (In Pol ish, Eng lish sum mary). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 49: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Samsonowicz, J., Zarys geologii Polski. (In Pol ish). Pañstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa, 212 pp. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Skoczylas-Ciszewska, K., Ein Vergleich des Wienerwald-Flysches mit dem Karpaten- Flysch. Bul le tin del Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences et des Let tres, Serie A: ; Spraw. PAU, 42: 170; C. R. Acad. Pol., 6: 11. Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Soko³owski, S., Remarques sur la géologie des montagnes de Czywczyn (Carpathes Orientales). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 10: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Wieser, T., 1954a. Occurence of tuffites in the Krosno beds of Carpathian Flysch. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences, Cl. III, 2: Ksi¹ kiewicz, M. & Wieser, T., 1954b. Up per Cre ta ceous vol ca - nism in the Carpathian Flysch geosyncline. Bul le tin de l Académie Po lo naise des Sci ences, Cl. III, 2: Nowak, J., Esquisse de la tectonique de la Pologne. (In Pol - ish, French sum mary). II Zjazd S³owiañskich Geografów, Kraków: Pettijohn, F. J., Archean sed i men ta tion. Bul le tin of the Geo - log i cal So ci ety of Amer ica, 54. Uchman, A., Tax on omy and ethol ogy of the flysch trace fos sils: re vi sion of the Mar ian Ksi¹ kiewicz col lec tion and stud ies of com ple men tary ma te rial. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 68:

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