Determining the Molar Mass of an Unknown Carbonate Using the Ideal Gas Law

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Determining the Molar Mass of an Unknown Carbonate Using the Ideal Gas Law"

Transcription

1 Determining the Molar Mass of an Unknown Carbonate Using the Ideal Gas Law In this lab you will determine the molar mass of an unknown carbonate by using the ideal gas law to determine the number of moles of carbon dioxide produced when the carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid. Knowing the moles of carbon dioxide will allow you to calculate the moles of the unknown. Combined with the mass of the unknown this will allow you to calculate the molar mass of the unknown carbonate. Stockroom You will need 1 Florence flask with 2 hole stopper and glass tubing inserted, a 1 hole rubber stopper for your 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask with glass tubing inserted, 2 pieces of rubber tubing, a pinch clamp, a digital thermometer, and 3 cuvettes. The class will need several 500 ml graduated cylinders and a barometer. Equipment You will need your 600 ml beaker, your 150 ml beaker, and your 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Chemicals You will need about 6 grams of an unknown carbonate and about 35 ml of 6M HCl (with a 10 ml graduated cylinder by the bottle). Introduction In this experiment you will react your unknown carbonate with hydrochloric acid. The general reaction is X 2 CO3 (s)+2 HCl( aq ) 2 XCl( aq )+H 2 O (l )+CO 2 ( g ) or XCO3 (s)+2 HCl( aq ) XCl2 ( aq )+ H 2 O( l )+CO2 (g ) depending on the charge on the cation. +3 cation. There are no unknowns with a The important thing here is that there is always a 1:1 mole ratio between the carbonate and carbon dioxide. This means that knowing the moles of carbon dioxide produced gives you the moles of your unknown. NAME: 1 of 14

2 Because you will weigh your unknown, you will know both the mass and the number of mole of your unknown in that mass. This means you can calculate the molar mass of your unknown. Molar mass of unknown = Mass of unknown Moles of unknown (Equation 1) To find the moles of carbon dioxide produced by your unknown you will use the ideal gas law. PV =nrt or PV n= RT (Equation 2) The variables in this equation and their units are: P=pressure in of the gas in atm V=volume of the gas in liters L atm R= K mol T=temperature of the gas in Kelvins You will measure the pressure, volume, and temperature of the carbon dioxide allowing you to calculate the moles of the carbon dioxide, which gives you the moles of your unknown. Because you will be collecting the carbon dioxide gas over water, there will also be gaseous water molecules mixed in with the carbon dioxide molecules. This means the pressure we measure, the atmospheric pressure, will come from both carbon dioxide and water. We need to know the pressure of the carbon dioxide by itself. To do this, we will subtract the pressure of the water from the total pressure (which is the same as the atmospheric pressure). Patm = P CO +PH O or PCO = Patm PH O (Equation 3) 2 You will read the atmospheric pressure from the barometer in the hallway. It looks like this: NAME: 2 of 14

3 You will use the inner scale, which reads inches of mercury (inhg). The smallest marks are 0.02 inhg apart. The small numbers are 0.1 inhg. In this picture the atmospheric pressure reads as inhg. The number you read from the barometer is the atmospheric pressure (Patm). To use equation 3 you will need to look up the vapor pressure of water at the temperature you measure for your carbon dioxide. Do that using the following table. To find the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of your gas, find the temperature to the integer place in the left column and the tenths place in the top row. For example, if your temperature is 37.3 oc then the vapor pressure of water is 47.7 mmhg. The integer value (37) is the blue box, the tenths (0.3) is the yellow box, and the pressure (47.7 mmhg) is the green box. NAME: 3 of 14

4 Vapor Pressure of Water in mmhg from the Antoine Equation T (oc) To find the volume of carbon dioxide produced you will use the following glassware, set up as in the picture below. NAME: 4 of 14

5 Glassware for Finding the Volume of Gas Produced in a Chemical Reaction The chemical reaction occurs in the Erlenmeyer flask on the left. The gas produced travels through the rubber tubing into the Florence flask in the middle. The gas exerts a pressure on the water in the middle flask, causing the water to travel through the rubber tubing on the right. The water is collected in the 600 ml beaker on the right. The volume of water pushed over is the same as the volume of gas that is evolved in the chemical reaction. You will measure the temperature of the water in the Erlenmeyer flask on the left as soon as the reaction is complete. We can assume that the temperature of the gas is the same as the temperature of the water. NAME: 5 of 14

6 Procedure 1.) Get your unknown from the stockroom. the data section at the top of page 8. Tape your unknown number in 2.) Fill your Florence flask with tap water and insert the two hole rubber stopper. Connect the rubber tubing to the glass tubing in the two hole rubber stopper. It helps to get the inside of the tubing wet. 3.) Connect the piece of rubber tubing that is connected to the short piece of glass tubing in the Florence flask to the one hole stopper for the Erlenmeyer flask. The piece of rubber tubing that is connected to the long piece of glass tubing in the Florence flask should be placed in your 600 ml beaker. 4.) Get a clean, dry cuvette and place it on the balance. Tare the balance. Add about 1.5 grams of your unknown to the cuvette and place it back on the balance. Record the mass of your unknown in the data section (A1), (B1), (C1). 5.) Carefully place the cuvette with your unknown in it into the Erlenmeyer flask making sure to not spill it. 6.) You will need to get help from another student for this step. One person push air through the rubber tubing from the glass tubing in the one hole rubber stopper. When water is coming out from the rubber tubing in the 600 ml beaker the other person clamps off the rubber tubing as close to the end as they can using a pinch clamp. 7.) Pour the water that was pushed into the 600 ml beaker back into the Florence flask. Take the Florence flask, rubber stoppers, and rubber tubing over to a sink and make sure the Florence is filled completely. Over the sink insert the two holw rubber stopper into the Florence flask. Bring this back to your lab bench. 8.) Obtain a little more than 10 ml of 6M hydrochloric acid. 9.) Pour the hydrochloric acid into the Erlenmeyer flask, making sure it does not touch your unknown yet. 10.) Place the one hole rubber stopper into the Erlenmeyer flask. Make sure that both rubber stoppers are in securely. You might need NAME: 6 of 14

7 to hold them to keep the rubber stoppers tight during the reaction. 11.) Tilt the Erlenmeyer flask so that your unknown carbonate spills into the hydrochloric solution. 12.) Immediately remove the pinch clamp from the rubber tubing in the 600 ml beaker. MAKE SURE TO HOLD BOTH RUBBER STOPPERS DOWN SO THAT THE GAS DOESN'T LEAK OUT! 13.) Continue to shake the Erlenmeyer flask to make sure all of your unknown reacts. 14.) When the reaction is complete place the pinch clamp back on the rubber tubing in the 600 ml beaker. 15.) Measure the temperature of the water in the Florence flask using a digital thermometer. Record this in the data section (A2), (B2), (C2). 16.) Read the atmospheric pressure in inhg in the hallway. this in the data section (A3), (B3), (C3). Record 17.) Pour the water that collected in your 600 ml beaker into a 500 ml graduated cylinder. Record the volume of water in the data section (A4), (B4), (C4). 18.) Repeat steps 2.) 17.) 2 more times. NAME: 7 of 14

8 Data and Analysis DATA Unknown Number Mass of unknown 1st trial (A1) Temperature 1st trial (A2) Atmospheric pressure 1st trial (A3) Volume of water collected 1st trial (A4) Mass of unknown 2nd trial (B1) Temperature 2nd trial (B2) Atmospheric pressure 2nd trial (B3) Volume of water collected 2nd trial (B4) Mass of unknown 3rd trial (C1) Temperature 3rd trial (C2) Atmospheric pressure 3rd trial (C3) Volume of water collected 3rd trial (C4) NAME: 8 of 14

9 Analysis Show all work including significant figures and units. Record your answer in the blank provided to the correct number of significant figures with the correct units. 1.) Convert the temperature from trial 1 to Kelvins. (A2) (A5) 2.) Convert the atmospheric pressure from trial one to mmhg. 760 mmhg (A3) (29.92 inhg) (A6) 3.) Find the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of your reaction from the table on page 4. Record it here. (A7) 4.) Find the vapor pressure the CO2 by subtracting the vapor pressure of water from the atmospheric pressure. (A6) (A7) (A8) 5.) Convert the pressure of your CO2 in trial 1 to atmospheres. 1 atm (A8) 760 mmhg (A9) NAME: 9 of 14

10 6.) Convert the volume of water collected in trial 1 (which is the same as the volume of CO2) to liters. 1L (A4) 1000 ml (A10) 7.) Using the ideal gas law (Equation 2) calculate the moles of CO2 produced in the first trial. This is equal to the moles of your unknown that you reacted. (A9)(A10) (R)(A5) (A11) 8.) Calculate the molar mass of your unknown for trial 1 using (Equation 1). (A1) (A11) (A12) NAME: 10 of 14

11 9.) Convert the temperature from trial 2 to Kelvins. (B2) (B5) 10.) Convert the atmospheric pressure from trial two to mmhg. 760 mmhg (B3) ( inhg) (B6) 11.) Find the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of your reaction from the table on page 4. Record it here. (B7) 12.) Find the vapor pressure the CO2 by subtracting the vapor pressure of water from the atmospheric pressure. (B6) (B7) (B8) 13.) Convert the pressure of your CO2 in trial 2 to atmospheres. 1 atm (B8) 760 mmhg (B9) NAME: 11 of 14

12 14.) Convert the volume of water collected in trial 2 (which is the same as the volume of CO2) to liters. 1L (B4) 1000 ml (B10) 15.) Using the ideal gas law (Equation 2) calculate the moles of CO2 produced in the second trial. This is equal to the moles of your unknown that you reacted. (B9)(B10) (R)(B5) (B11) 16.) Calculate the molar mass of your unknown for trial 2 using (Equation 1). (B1) (B11) (B12) NAME: 12 of 14

13 17.) Convert the temperature from trial 3 to Kelvins. (C2) (C5) 18.) Convert the atmospheric pressure from trial three to mmhg. 760 mmhg (C3) (29.92 inhg) (C6) 19.) Find the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of your reaction from the table on page 4. Record it here. (C7) 20.) Find the vapor pressure the CO2 by subtracting the vapor pressure of water from the atmospheric pressure. (C6) (C7) (C8) 21.) Convert the pressure of your CO2 in trial 3 to atmospheres. 1 atm (C8) 760 mmhg (C9) NAME: 13 of 14

14 22.) Convert the volume of water collected in trial 3 (which is the same as the volume of CO2) to liters. 1L (C4) 1000 ml (C10) 23.) Using the ideal gas law (Equation 2) calculate the moles of CO2 produced in the third trial. This is equal to the moles of your unknown that you reacted. (C9)(C10) (R)(C5) (C11) 24.) Calculate the molar mass of your unknown for trial 3 using (Equation 1). (C1) (C11) (C12) 25.) Calculate the average molar mass of your unknown. (A12) + (B12) + (C12) 3 AVERAGE MOLAR MASS OF UNKNOWN: TURN IN PAGES 8 14 ONLY! NAME: 14 of 14

The Molar Mass of a Gas

The Molar Mass of a Gas The Molar Mass of a Gas Goals The purpose of this experiment is to determine the number of grams per mole of a gas by measuring the pressure, volume, temperature, and mass of a sample. Terms to Know Molar

More information

Gas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am

Gas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am Gas Laws v101613_10am Objective: In this lab you will become familiar with the Ideal Gas Law and Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures. You will be able to use the information collected along with stoichiometry

More information

Name Lab # 3: Gases Percent Yield of Hydrogen Gas from Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid

Name Lab # 3: Gases Percent Yield of Hydrogen Gas from Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Name Lab # 3: Gases Percent Yield of Hydrogen Gas from Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Introduction For chemical reactions involving gases, gas volume measurements provide a convenient means of determining

More information

Where the exp subscripts refer to the experimental temperature and pressure acquired in the laboratory.

Where the exp subscripts refer to the experimental temperature and pressure acquired in the laboratory. Molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Reading assignment: Julia Burdge, Chemistry 3rd edition, Chapter 10. Goals To determine the molar volume of carbon dioxide gas and the amount of sodium carbonate in a sample.

More information

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

More information

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate

The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Small quantities of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) can be obtained from the thermal decomposition of certain oxides, peroxides, and salts of oxoacids. Some examples of

More information

Experiment 4. Determination of The Atomic Weight of a Metal

Experiment 4. Determination of The Atomic Weight of a Metal CHEM 103 GENERAL CHEMISTRY Experiment 4 Determination of The Atomic Weight of a Metal Purpose: To determine atomic weight of a metal by measuring the volume of the hydrogen gas liberated from the reaction

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE

DETERMINATION OF THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE DETERMINATION OF THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTRODUCTION Molar masses of gases can be determined in a number of ways, many of them indirect. In this experiment you will find the molar mass directly,

More information

Lab 3: The molar mass of carbon dioxide

Lab 3: The molar mass of carbon dioxide Lab 3: The molar mass of carbon dioxide Objectives: 1. Apply the ideal gas law to determine the molar mass of a gaseous compound 2. Think about the design of such an experiment Skills: -Set up and execute

More information

Molar Mass and the Ideal Gas Law Prelab

Molar Mass and the Ideal Gas Law Prelab Molar Mass and the Ideal Gas Law Prelab Name Total /10 SHOW ALL WORK NO WORK = NO CREDIT 1. What is the purpose of this experiment? 2. Determine the mass (in grams) of magnesium metal required to produce

More information

Experiment 1 1 Composition of an Aluminum-Zinc Alloy

Experiment 1 1 Composition of an Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Experiment 1 1 Composition of an Aluminum-Zinc Alloy In 1886, a relatively inexpensive electrolytic process capable of massproducing aluminum was invented by Charles Hall and Paul Héroult. Today the widespread

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 8 Chem.1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 8 Chem.1A EXPERIMENT #8 Name: PRE-LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT: Lab Section 1. The alkali metals are so reactive that they react directly with water in the absence of acid. For example, potassium reacts with water as follows:

More information

DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE

DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE PURPOSE: The goal of the experiment is to determine the molar mass of carbon dioxide and compare the experimentally determined value to the theoretical value.

More information

Working with the Ideal Gas Law Prelab

Working with the Ideal Gas Law Prelab Working with the Ideal Gas Law Prelab NOTE: AT THIS POINT YOU WILL ANSWER ALL PRELAB QUESTIONS IN YOUR CARBON COPY LAB NOTEBOOK. BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT AND THE QUESTIONS ASKED. AT

More information

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed: Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams

More information

STOICHIOMETRY II UNIT

STOICHIOMETRY II UNIT STOICHIOMETRY II UNIT Assignment #1 (Conversions with compounds) 1. Convert 1.806 x 10 23 molecules of Cl2 to moles. 2. Convert 1000 molecules of P4O10 to moles. 3. Convert 360 grams of NH3 (ammonia gas)

More information

Figure 1: Experimental Set-up with Leveling Bulb

Figure 1: Experimental Set-up with Leveling Bulb Gas Laws Equipment Set-up and Leveling bulb discussion: A buret will be used to collect our gas product, so we can measure the volume of gas produced accurately. A leveling bulb (a plastic bottle with

More information

THE STOICHIOMETRY AND ATOMIC MASS OF ALUMINUM

THE STOICHIOMETRY AND ATOMIC MASS OF ALUMINUM THE STOICHIOMETRY AND ATOMIC MASS OF ALUMINUM Prior to the invention of the mass spectrogram by the British scientist, Francis William Aston in 1919, the atomic mass of an element was determined by stoichiometry.

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of butane using Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures

More information

Determine whether the metal is magnesium, iron, or zinc based on the value of the calculated molar mass.

Determine whether the metal is magnesium, iron, or zinc based on the value of the calculated molar mass. Gases Part A: A student working at METAL Company found an unlabelled bottle of a metal in the lab. The metal could be magnesium, iron, or zinc. Each of these metals react with dilute hydrochloric acid

More information

Investigating a Gas-Forming Reaction

Investigating a Gas-Forming Reaction Investigating a Gas-Forming Reaction Purpose of the Experiment Prepared by M.L. Holland and A.L. Norick, Foothill College To use the ideal gas law and stoichiometry to calculate the amount of reactants

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Suggested reading: Chang 10 th edition text pages 175-201 Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine

More information

14. Double Replacement Reaction

14. Double Replacement Reaction DOUBLE TROUBLE 14. Double Replacement Reaction Double Trouble Student Instruction Sheet Challenge Use stoichiometry to determine the molar concentration of an acid solution by using it as an excess and

More information

EXPERIMENT 16: Charles Law of Gases V vs T

EXPERIMENT 16: Charles Law of Gases V vs T EXPERIMENT 16: Charles Law of Gases V vs T Materials: Thermometer Bunsen burner Ring stand Clamps 600ml beakers (2) Closed-tip syringe Ice Water Objectives 1. To put to work the model to verify Charles

More information

Determining Equivalent Weight by Copper Electrolysis

Determining Equivalent Weight by Copper Electrolysis Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the equivalent mass of copper based on change in the mass of a copper electrode and the volume of hydrogen gas generated during an electrolysis reaction.

More information

Determination of the Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid

Determination of the Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.2 Determination of the Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid Learn about the Gas Laws. Learn about the Dumas Method of Molecular Weight determinations.

More information

Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid

Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid One of the important applications of the Ideal Gas Law is found in the experimental determination of the molecular weight of gases and vapors. In order to measure

More information

6 Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant

6 Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant 6 Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant Name: Date: Section: Objectives Measure the value of the gas constant R Use Dalton s Law to calculate the partial pressure of hydrogen in a closed container Learn to

More information

Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS

Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS FV 3-31-16 MATERIALS: Dry 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, piece of foil (~3 x 3 ), 800 ml beaker, 500 ml graduated cylinder, iron ring, ring stand, wire gauze,

More information

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Introduction Many metals react with acids to form hydrogen gas. In this experiment, you will use the reactions

More information

MOLECULAR WEIGHT DETERMINATION OF AN ORGANIC LIQUID

MOLECULAR WEIGHT DETERMINATION OF AN ORGANIC LIQUID 1 MOLECULAR WEIGHT DETERMINATION OF AN ORGANIC LIQUID I. OBJECTIVES In this experiment the molecular weight of a volatile, unknown organic liquid will be determined. From this information and quantitative

More information

Determining Equivalent Weight by Copper Electrolysis

Determining Equivalent Weight by Copper Electrolysis Purpose To determine the equivalent mass of copper based on change in the mass of a copper electrode and the volume of hydrogen gas generated during an electrolysis experiment. The volume of hydrogen gas

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R

EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R Outcomes EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Determine universal gas constant using reaction of an acid with a metal.

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

CHM 130LL: Vinegar Titration

CHM 130LL: Vinegar Titration CHM 130LL: Vinegar Titration In one type of acid-base neutralization reaction, an acid can react with a metal hydroxide base to produce water and a salt: HX (aq) + MOH (aq) H 2 O (l) + MX (aq) (1) acid

More information

Tutorial 6 GASES. PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg. STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mm Hg)

Tutorial 6 GASES. PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg. STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mm Hg) T-41 Tutorial 6 GASES Before working with gases some definitions are needed: PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg TEMPERATURE: Kelvin, K, which is o C + 273 STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure:

More information

Using the Ideal Gas Law

Using the Ideal Gas Law Lab 9 Using the Ideal Gas Law Using the Ideal Gas Law Learning Objectives Determine the relationship between pressure and temperature Understand how to use Charles s Law Understand how to use the Ideal

More information

AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (10 points) A student was assigned the task of determining the molar mass of an unknown gas. The student measured the mass of a sealed 843 ml rigid flask

More information

Bellevue College CHEM& 121 Experiment: Stoichiometric Analysis of an Antacid 1

Bellevue College CHEM& 121 Experiment: Stoichiometric Analysis of an Antacid 1 Experiment: Stoichiometric Analysis of an Antacid 1 Introduction In this lab, you will use the concept of stoichiometry to solve two sequential problems. First, you will try to determine the products of

More information

Chemistry 143 Experiment #10 Freezing Point Depression. Depressing the Freezing Point of Cyclohexane

Chemistry 143 Experiment #10 Freezing Point Depression. Depressing the Freezing Point of Cyclohexane Depressing the Freezing Point of Cyclohexane In this lab you will determine the molar mass of an unknown by determining the freezing point depression of a sample of cyclohexane after dissolving your unknown

More information

Chemistry 101 Generating Hydrogen Gas

Chemistry 101 Generating Hydrogen Gas Chemistry 101 Generating Hydrogen Gas Objectives To experimentally verify the molar volume of hydrogen gas at STP To gain experience in collecting gas over water Discussion The molar volume of a gas is

More information

The technique used to measure the volume of sodium hydroxide solution required to react with the acid solution is called titration.

The technique used to measure the volume of sodium hydroxide solution required to react with the acid solution is called titration. Experiment 12 Chem 110 Lab TITRATION I. INTRODUCTION In this experiment you will be determining the molarity of an unknown acid solution by measuring the volume of a sodium hydroxide solution of known

More information

Please Return! Gas Laws: LAB Directions

Please Return! Gas Laws: LAB Directions Gas Laws: LAB Directions Please Return! Background Applications of the gas laws are important in physiology, meteorology, scuba diving, tire manufacturing, even hot-air ballooning. Robert Boyle built a

More information

Determination of Citric Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

Determination of Citric Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes Determination of Citric Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes Citric acid and its salts (sodium citrate and potassium citrate) are found in many foods, drinks, pharmaceuticals, shampoos, and cosmetics. The tartness

More information

AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (10 points) 2 H 2 O 2 (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) The mass of an aqueous solution of H 2 O 2 is 6.951 g. The H 2 O 2 in the solution decomposes completely

More information

Titration of Hydrochloric Acid with Sodium Hydroxide

Titration of Hydrochloric Acid with Sodium Hydroxide Cautions: Hydrochloric acid solution is a strong acid. Sodium hydroxide solution is a strong base. Both are harmful to skin and eyes. Affected areas should be washed thoroughly with copious amounts of

More information

Heat of Neutralization

Heat of Neutralization Cautions HCl and NaOH are corrosive and toxic Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the heat of neutralization for a reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. Introduction Chemical

More information

Mixtures and Pure Substances

Mixtures and Pure Substances Unit 2 Mixtures and Pure Substances Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances. They

More information

Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others?

Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others? CHAPTER 5: Gases Chemistry of Gases Pressure and Boyle s Law Temperature and Charles Law The Ideal Gas Law Chemical Calculations of Gases Mixtures of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases Gases The

More information

EXPERIMENT 13: THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF GASES

EXPERIMENT 13: THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF GASES Name Section EXPERIMENT 13: THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF GASES PRE-LABORATORY QUESTIONS The following preparatory questions should be answered before coming to lab. They are intended to

More information

Experiment 20 - Acid-Base Titration: Standardization of KOH and Determination of an Acid Solution

Experiment 20 - Acid-Base Titration: Standardization of KOH and Determination of an Acid Solution Experiment 20 - Acid-Base Titration: Standardization of KOH and Determination of an Acid Solution In this experiment, you will determine the precise concentration of a weak acid solution that has an unknown

More information

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 Standard Enthalpy Change Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction, symbolized as H 0 298, is defined as The enthalpy change when the molar quantities of reactants

More information

Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction

Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction Prelab Assignment: You will complete the Title, Purpose, Background information, Storyboard, and BLANK data table portion of your lab

More information

MOLAR VOLUME OF A GAS

MOLAR VOLUME OF A GAS MOLAR VOLUME OF A GAS LAB PS 4 Adapted from Juniata College Science in Motion. INTRODUCTION In chemistry many of the materials worked with are gases. It is often easier to measure the volume of a sample

More information

Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES The learning objectives of this experiment are to explore the relationship between the temperature and vapor pressure of water. determine the molar

More information

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Procedure Each Part of lab requires a separate data table. You might want to put each table on a separate page so you can leave room to show equations and calculations.

More information

Experiment 11 The Gas Laws

Experiment 11 The Gas Laws 11-1 Experiment 11 The Gas Laws Introduction: In this experiment you will (1) determine whether Boyle s Law applies to a mixture of gases (air) and (2) calculate the gas constant, R, by determining the

More information

AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward

AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Signed in as Daniel Semenick, Instructor Help Sign Out AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Instructor Resources

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3 Experiment 3 PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, DETERMINATION OF PURITY OF IMPURE KHP AND STANDARDIZATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID 2 lab periods Reading: Chapter 1 (pg 22-24), Chapter 8,

More information

Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density

Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density One of the properties that helps characterize a substance is its molar mass. If the substance in question is a volatile liquid, a common method to determine

More information

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the pressure of the sample of gas trapped in the open-tube mercury manometer

More information

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure.

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure. Characteristics of Gases Practice Problems A. Section 10.2 Pressure Pressure Conversions: 1 ATM = 101.3 kpa = 760 mm Hg (torr) SAMPLE EXERCISE 10.1 Converting Units of Pressure (a) Convert 0.357 atm to

More information

Experiment # 6 Determining the percent composition of a mixture by acid-base

Experiment # 6 Determining the percent composition of a mixture by acid-base Experiment # 6 Determining the percent composition of a mixture by acid-base Objective Determine the percent composition of a mixture of sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and

More information

Chapter 5 Practise Test

Chapter 5 Practise Test Chapter 5 Practise Test 1. An open end mercury manometer was constructed from a U shaped tube. In a particular measurement, the level in the end connected to the gas manifold, on which the experiment was

More information

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

More information

Lab Manual Introductory Chemistry: A Green Approach Version 4.1. 2010, escience Labs, Inc. All rights reserved esciencelabs.com 888.375.

Lab Manual Introductory Chemistry: A Green Approach Version 4.1. 2010, escience Labs, Inc. All rights reserved esciencelabs.com 888.375. Lab Manual Introductory Chemistry: A Green Approach Version 4.1 2010, escience Labs, Inc. All rights reserved esciencelabs.com 888.375.5487 Table of Contents Lab 1: Introduc on and Safety Lab 2: The Scien

More information

What is the Percent Copper in a Compound?

What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? Lab 9 Name What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? Pre-Lab Assignment Complete this pre-lab on this sheet. This written pre-lab is worth 15% (3 points) of your lab report grade and must be initialed

More information

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477 Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 477 1. Problem At 19 C and 100 kpa, 0.021 mol of oxygen gas, O 2(g), occupy a volume of 0.50 L. What is the molar volume

More information

STANDARDIZATION OF A SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EXPERIMENT 14

STANDARDIZATION OF A SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EXPERIMENT 14 STANDARDIZATION OF A SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EXPERIMENT 14 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment will be the standardization of sodium hydroxide using potassium hydrogen phthalate by the titration

More information

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown solid using the colligative property of freezing point depression. Background: When

More information

Chemistry 12. Determining the Amount of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in a Sample

Chemistry 12. Determining the Amount of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in a Sample Chemistry 12 Determining the Amount of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in a Sample Abstract Redox reactions are involved in a wide variety of techniques for quantitative analysis of chemical substances. The

More information

Experiment 3 Limiting Reactants

Experiment 3 Limiting Reactants 3-1 Experiment 3 Limiting Reactants Introduction: Most chemical reactions require two or more reactants. Typically, one of the reactants is used up before the other, at which time the reaction stops. The

More information

Titration of Aspirin Tablets

Titration of Aspirin Tablets Titration of Aspirin Tablets In this lab, you will determine the percent purity of two commercially available aspiring tablets using an acid-base titration. In general, an acid and a base react to produce

More information

A Determination of the Molecular Mass of an Unknown Gas

A Determination of the Molecular Mass of an Unknown Gas A Determination of the Molecular Mass of an Unknown Gas In 1811, Amadeo Avogadro, an Italian scientist, published his now famous theorem, called Avogadro s Hypothesis. Avogadro postulated that equal volumes

More information

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure Overview of Physical Properties of Gases! volume changes with pressure! volume changes with temperature! completely miscible! low density gases: < 2 g/l liquids and solids: 1000 g/l Gas Pressure force

More information

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 153-156. Goals We will use a titration to determine the concentration of acetic acid in a sample of

More information

The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1

The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1 The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave. Can be predicted by the theory. The Kinetic Theory Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical equations. The effect of adding gas. When we blow up a balloon

More information

ANALYSIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TABLETS

ANALYSIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TABLETS Experiment 9 ANALYSIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TABLETS Prepared by Ross S. Nord, Eastern Michigan University PURPOSE To perform a gravimetric exercise to determine weight percent of active ingredient in a

More information

CHE141 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Gases

CHE141 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Gases Chapter 0 Gases. A sample of gas (4.g) initially at 4.00 atm was compressed from 8.00 L to.00 L at constant temperature. After the compression, the gas pressure was atm. (a). 4.00 (b)..00 (c)..00 (d).

More information

Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions

Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions If a chemical reaction is carried out inside a calorimeter, the heat evolved or absorbed by the reaction can be determined. A calorimeter is an insulated container, and

More information

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter.

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter. Thermochemistry Experiment 10 Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy involved in chemical reactions and changes of physical state. Heat energy is always spontaneously transferred from hotter to

More information

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide E x p e r i m e n t The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Objectives To determine the general rate law of a reaction. To determine the rate constant for a reaction. To determine the activation of a reaction

More information

CHEM108 Lab Manual. Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments. Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes

CHEM108 Lab Manual. Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments. Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes CHEM108 Lab Manual Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes ! NAME: Pre-lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques Introduction to Measurements There are numerous

More information

Heats of Reaction lab. Enthalpy

Heats of Reaction lab. Enthalpy Heats of Reaction lab tonight s QuestiONs Is the amount of heat given off or absorbed, q sys, by a chemical reaction an intensive or extensive property? For an acid-base reaction, does the heat of reaction

More information

AP Lab 1 - Measurement, Units, and Significant Figures

AP Lab 1 - Measurement, Units, and Significant Figures AP Lab 1 - Measurement, Units, and Significant Figures Purpose: To understand the principles of metric measurement. To become familiar with laboratory equipment used to measure length, mass, and volume.

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

Determination of a Chemical Formula

Determination of a Chemical Formula 1 Determination of a Chemical Formula Introduction Molar Ratios Elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds. For example, consider the compound TiCl 4 (titanium chloride). Each molecule of TiCl

More information

CHM Accuracy and the Measurement of Volume

CHM Accuracy and the Measurement of Volume CHM 130 - Accuracy and the Measurement of Volume PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to practice using various types of volume measuring apparatus, focusing on their uses and accuracy. DISCUSSION:

More information

COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS

COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Beakers are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solid samples. They are also used to catch liquids from titrations and filtrates from filtering operations. Bunsen

More information

Scientific Measurements

Scientific Measurements Scientific Measurements Making measurements is common in general, such as taking our temperature, checking the tire pressure on a car, or measuring the ingredients when cooking. Taking measurements is

More information

The Empirical Formula of a Compound

The Empirical Formula of a Compound The Empirical Formula of a Compound Lab #5 Introduction A look at the mass relationships in chemistry reveals little order or sense. The ratio of the masses of the elements in a compound, while constant,

More information

Chemistry 12. Preparation and Standardization of Acid and Base Solutions, and Testing of Unknowns

Chemistry 12. Preparation and Standardization of Acid and Base Solutions, and Testing of Unknowns Chemistry 12 Preparation and Standardization of Acid and Base Solutions, and Testing of Unknowns Abstract A common laboratory procedure is to determine the concentration of an acid or a base solution by

More information

Analysis of Vitamin C

Analysis of Vitamin C Analysis of Vitamin C In today's experiment, you will be titrating samples that contain vitamin C with potassium iodate, KIO 3. The KIO 3 is added to the reaction mixture using a buret while stirring constantly

More information

Calcium Analysis by EDTA Titration

Calcium Analysis by EDTA Titration Calcium Analysis by EDTA Titration ne of the factors that establish the quality of a water supply is its degree of hardness. The hardness of water is defined in terms of its content of calcium and magnesium

More information

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are: a) To use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of regular geometric shapes, and to use these measurements

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 10 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A gas at a pressure of 10.0 Pa exerts a force of N on an area of 5.5 m2. A) 1.8 B) 0.55

More information

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once.

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. Gases Section 13.1 The Gas Laws In your textbook, read about the basic concepts of the three gas laws. Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. pressure

More information

The Densities of Solutions and Solids

The Densities of Solutions and Solids The Densities of Solutions and Solids Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To compare the precision of various types of volumetric glassware. To determine, and then compare, the

More information

AP CHEMISTRY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP CHEMISTRY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES AP CHEMISTRY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 A student is assigned the task of determining the mass percent of silver in an alloy of copper and silver by dissolving a sample of the alloy in excess nitric

More information