# PV (0.775 atm)( L) n = = = mol RT -1-1

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1 catalyst 2 5 g ¾¾¾¾ 2 4 g 2 g DH298 = rxn DS298 C H OH( ) C H ( ) + H O( ) 45.5 kj/mol ; = 126 J/(K mol ) ethanol ethene water rxn 1 atm 760 torr PV (0.775 atm)( L) n = = = mol RT -1-1 ( L atm mol K )(305 K) actual yield % yield = 100 = maximum possible yield mol mol

2 DG 298 e -D G ( ) RT

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12 AP CHEMISTRY 2015 SCORING COMMENTARY Overview Question 2 Question 2 was designed to evaluate student understanding and ability to analyze data generated empirically during common laboratory procedures. Students were presented with a picture of laboratory equipment arranged for the collection of gas over water in a dehydration experiment. The students were given the chemical equation for the reaction that occurs in the experiment. They were given data, and they were asked in part (a) to calculate the experimental yield in moles at a certain time in the experiment. Then they were asked to calculate the theoretical yield in moles if the reaction proceeded to completion. In part (b) students were asked to use their calculations to determine the percent yield. In part (c) students used given thermodynamic data to verify a student s claim about the K p of the reaction. In part (d) students were instructed to complete a Lewis electron-dot diagram for a molecule. In part (e) students were asked to give the value of the bond angle in a certain part of the molecule based on their Lewis diagram from part (d). Finally in part (f) students applied their conceptual understanding of intermolecular forces to explain experimental observations of the difference in the water solubilities of two gases. Sample: 2A Score: 10 One point was earned in part (a)(i) for the correct calculation of the pressure of the dry gas. The second point was earned for the correct calculation of the number of moles of ethene gas. The vapor pressure of water is given in torr and the pressure of the gaseous mixture in atmospheres. To earn this point, a conversion to the same units is required before subtracting the P HOg ( ) from P 2 total. The ideal gas law and an R value consistent with the units used for pressure are used to calculate the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment (actual yield). The R value must be consistent with the units for pressure. One point was earned in part (a)(ii) for correctly calculating the number of moles of ethene that could have been produced from a given number of grams of ethanol if the reaction had gone to completion (theoretical yield). The equation for the chemical reaction shows a one-to-one ratio of ethanol to ethene. One point was earned in part (b) for correctly calculating the percent yield using the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment (actual yield) and calculated in part (a)(i), and the theoretical yield calculated in part (a)(ii). One point was earned in part (c) for using the given information to correctly calculate G. The second point was earned for supporting the student s claim by stating that since G is positive, and the reaction is nonspontaneous, the reactants are favored, and K p is less than One point was earned in part (d) for correctly completing the Lewis electron-dot diagram given in the box. One point was earned in part (e) for stating that the C O H bond angle in ethanol is One point was earned in part (f) for comparing the solubility of ethene in water with the solubility of ethanol in water in terms of the differences in their polarity. The nonpolar nature of ethene is implied in the last sentence. The second point was earned for attributing the solubility of ethanol in water to ethanol s ability to break the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules, and the insolubility of ethene in water to the weaker London dispersion forces between ethene and water. Sample: 2B Score: 8 The first point was not earned in part (a)(i) because the response neglects to calculate the pressure of the water vapor, which is needed to determine the pressure of the dry gas. One point was earned for using the ideal gas law gas law and an R value consistent with the units for pressure to calculate the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment (actual yield). One point was earned in part (a)(ii) for correctly calculating the number of moles of ethene that could be produced (theoretical yield). One point was earned in part (b) for calculating the percent yield using the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment 2015 The College Board.

13 AP CHEMISTRY 2015 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 2 (continued) (actual yield) calculated in part (a)(i), and the theoretical yield calculated in part (a)(ii). One point was earned in part (c) for the correct calculation of G. A second point was earned for justifying that the student s claim was valid by stating that since G is positive, K p must be less than One point was earned in part (d) for correctly completing the Lewis electron-dot diagram. No point was earned in part (e) because the value given for the C O H bond angle in ethanol is incorrect. One point was earned in part (f) for using differences in polarity to compare the water solubilities of ethene and ethanol. The second point was earned in part (f) for correctly relating solubility to the intermolecular forces of hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces. Sample: 2C Score: 6 The first point was not earned in part (a)(i) because the response neglects to calculate the pressure of the water vapor, which is needed to determine the pressure of the dry gas. One point was earned for using the ideal gas law and an R value consistent with the units for pressure to calculate the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment (actual yield). One point was earned in part (a)(ii) for correctly calculating the number of moles of ethene that could be produced (theoretical yield). One point was earned in part (b) for calculating the percent yield using the number of moles of ethene produced in the experiment (actual yield) calculated in part (a)(i), and the theoretical yield calculated in part (a)(ii). One point was earned in part (c) for the correct calculation of G. A second point was earned for indicating that the student s claim is valid by using G to correctly calculate K p, which is less than One point was earned in part (d) for correctly completing the Lewis electron-dot diagram. The point was not earned in part (e) because the value given for the C O H bond angle in ethanol is incorrect. No points were earned in part (f) for an answer based on molar mass and phase changes that neglects to discuss water solubility based on the intermolecular forces between water and each of the two gases The College Board.

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### Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

### THE FOLLOWING TEXT ON BIO-OIL EXTRACTION IS AN EXCERPT FROM THE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT SUBMITTED BY HNEI TO OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH UNDER GRANT

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A comparison between Stanford Research Systems BGA244 Binary Gas Analyzer and Inficon s Composer Elite Gas Concentration Monitor. (Compiled by Stanford Research Systems) Overview The speed of sound can

### Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid