# PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE

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4 Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution for each of the three titrations. If the values of the molarities do not agree, try another titration. The neutralized solutions in the 125-mL flasks can be discarded. Save the solutions in the volumetric flasks and in the burets and the burets for Part II of the experiment. CALCULATIONS: Assuming the HCl solution is 0.1 M exactly, calculate the concentration of the NaOH solution using the formula: Show your calculations on the data page. M HCl x V HCl M NaOH = V NaOH where M NaOH = molarity of the NaOH solution V NaOH = volume of the NaOH solution M HCl = molarity of the HCL solution V HCl = volume of the HCl solution PART II: ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS OBJECTIVE: The object of this laboratory activity is to become familiar with making solutions and to titrate an acid with a base. One solution will be prepared from a solid and one solution will be prepared by dilution of a concentrated solution. MATERIALS NEEDED: stomach antacid tablets sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) hydrochloric acid, HCl, 0.1 M (previously prepared) sodium hydroxide, NaOH (previously prepared and standardized) bromphenol blue solution 100 ml graduated cylinder mL Erlenmeyer flasks mortar and pestle 2 burets, 25 or 50 ml (previously rinsed and filled with HCl and NaOH in Part I of this experiment) 2 small funnels to fit the burets SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Wear approved eye protection in the laboratory at all times. Hydrochloric acid is corrosive. In the event of skin contact, wash well with water. If the skin is blistered or broken, seek professional medical treatment. Sodium hydroxide is caustic. In the event of skin contact, wash well with water. If the skin is irritated or broken, seek professional medical treatment. 4

6 CALCULATIONS: The moles of 0.1 M HCl consumed by the antacid tablet (or by the sodium bicarbonate) is given by the formula: moles HCl = (V HCl x M HCl ) - (V NaOH x M NaOH ) where: M NaOH = concentration of your standardized NaOH V NaOH = volume of NaOH used in L M HCl = concentration of HCl V HCl = volume of HCl used in L The moles of HCl consumed by 1.0 gram of antacid tablet (or by the sodium carbonate) is given by the formula: Show your calculations on the data page. moles HCl moles HCl /g antacid = mass antacid used REFERENCES: 1. James M. Miller and Don V. Zahniser, Antacid Analysis, Chemistry, 44, (no. 7) July-August 1971, page The Editors of Consumer Reports, The Medicine Show, Revised Edition, Consumers Union, Mount Vernon, N.Y., 1963, pages

7 TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS DATA AND RESULTS Name Date PART I: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE Preparing Solutions: Calculate the quantity of 12 M HCl needed to prepare 1000 ml of a 0.10 M solution. Show your calculations below: Calculate the quantity of NaOH needed to prepare 500 ml of a 0.10 M solution. Show your calculations below: Standardization of NaOH: Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial reading, HCl buret ml ml ml Final reading, HCl buret ml ml ml Volume HCl used ml ml ml Initial reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Final reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Volume NaOH used ml ml ml Molarity of NaOH M M M 7

8 Show a sample calculation for the Molarity of NaOH below: Average Molarity of NaOH M PART II: ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS Antacid Tablet Analysis 1: Brand of antacid used Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Mass of crushed antacid tablet g g g Volume of HCl used ml ml ml Initial reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Final reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Volume NaOH used ml ml ml Moles of HCl consumed by antacid mol mol mol Moles of HCl consumed by 1.0 gram of antacid mol/g mol/g mol/g Show a sample calculation of the moles of HCl consumed by the antacid tablet and the moles of HCl per gram of antacid tablet below: Average moles of HCl consumed by 1.0 g of antacid tablet mol/g 8

9 Antacid Tablet Analysis 2: Brand of antacid used Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Mass of crushed antacid tablet g g g Volume of HCl used ml ml ml Initial reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Final reading, NaOH buret ml ml ml Volume NaOH used ml ml ml Moles of HCl consumed by antacid mol mol mol Moles of HCl consumed by 1.0 gram of antacid mol/g mol/g mol/g Show a sample calculation of the moles of HCl consumed by the antacid tablet and the moles of HCl per gram of antacid tablet below: Average moles of HCl consumed by 1.0 g of antacid tablet mol/g 9

10 QUESTIONS: 1. It was assumed that the concentration of the HCl solution was exactly 0.1 M in this experiment. How exact do you think the concentration of the HCl solution is when prepared by diluting concentrated HCl? Explain. 2. How exact do you think the concentration of the NaOH solution is? Explain. 3. Why is it okay to leave the flasks wet with rinse water for the titrations? 4. What is the chemical composition of the antacid tablet(s) that you used? (If the exact composition is not given on the label, list the active ingredients.) 5. If the antacid tablet did not dissolve completely in the 0.1 M HCl solution, how can you explain this? 10

11 6. If there were variations in the weight of acid consumed for the same brand of antacid tablet, how can you explain this? 7. Which one of the antacid that you tested appeared to be the most effective? Can you explain the difference between them? 8. Do you think that the antacids that you tested live up to the claims of their manufacturers? 11

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TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

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